Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Key aerodynamic technologies for aircraft engine nacelles

  • S. Raghunathan (a1), E. Benard (a1), J. K. Watterson (a1), R. K. Cooper (a1), R. Curran (a1), M. Price (a1), H. Yao (a1), R. Devine (a1), B. Crawford (a1), D. Riordan (a2), A. Linton (a2), J. Richardson (a2) and J. Tweedie (a2)...

Abstract

Customer requirements and vision in aerospace dictate that the next generation of civil transport aircraft should have a strong emphasis on increased safety, reduced environmental impact and reduced cost without sacrificing performance. In this context, the School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at the Queen’s University of Belfast and Bombardier have, in recent years, been conducting research into some of the key aerodynamic technologies for the next generation of aircraft engine nacelles. Investigations have been performed into anti-icing technology, efficient thrust reversal, engine fire zone safety, life cycle cost and integration of the foregoing with other considerations in engine and aircraft design. A unique correlation for heat transfer in an anti-icing system has been developed. The effect of normal vibration on heat transfer in such systems has been found to be negligible. It has been shown that carefully designed natural blockage thrust reversers without a cascade can reduce aircraft weight with only a small sacrifice in the reversed thrust. A good understanding of the pressure relief doors and techniques to improve the performance of such doors have been developed. Trade off studies between aerodynamics, manufacturing and assembly of engine nacelles have shown the potential for a significant reduction in life cycle cost.

Copyright

References

Hide All
1. Federal Aviation Administration, Proceeding of the FAA International Conference on Aircraft In-Flight Icing, I and II, Springfield, Virginia, USA, 6-8 May 1996. Final Report.
2. United States Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration. FAA In-Flight Icing Plan, April 1997.
3. Thomas, S.K., Cassoni, R.P. and MacArthur, C.D. Aircraft anti-Icing and deicing techniques and modeling, AIAA J Aircr, 33, (5), September-October 1996, pp 841854.
4. Brown, J.M., Raghunathan, S., Watterson, J.K., Linton, A.J. and Riordon, D. Heat transfer correlation for anti-icing systems, AIAA J Aircr, 39, (1), January-February 2002, pp 6570.
5. Jambunathan, K., Lai, E., Moss, M.A. and Button, B.L. A review of heat transfer data for singular jet impingement, Int J Heat and Fluid Flow, 1992, 13, pp 106115.
6. Martin, H. Heat and mass Transfer between Impinging Gas Jets and Solid Surfaces, Advances in Heat Transfer, 13, Academic Press, 1977, pp 160.
7. Cornaro, C., Fleischer, A.S. and Goldstein, R.J. Flow visualisation of a round jet impinging on cylindrical surfaces, Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, 1999, 20, pp 6678.
8. Metzger, D.E., Yamashita, T. and Jenkins, C.W. Impingement cooling of concave surfaces with high velocity impinging air jets, J Eng for Power-Transactions of the ASME, 1969, 91, pp 149158.
9. Dyban, E.P. and MAZUR, A.I. Heat transfer for a planar jet striking a concave surface, translated from Inzhenerno-Fizicheskii Zhurnal, 17, (5), November 1969, pp 785790.
10. Yeoman, E.K. Efficiency of a bleed air powered inlet icing protective system, 32nd Aerospace Sciences Meeting & Exhibit, AIAA Paper 94-0717, Reno, NV, USA, January 1994.
11. Croce, G., Habashi, W.G., Guévremont, G. and Tezok, F. 3D thermal analysis of an anti-Icing device using FENSAP-ICE, 36th Aerospace Sciences Meeting & Exhibit, AIAA Paper 98-0198, Reno, NV, USA, January 1998.
12. De Mattos, B. and , S., Oliveira, G.L. Three-dimensional thermal coupled analysis of a wing slice slat with a piccolo tube, 18th AIAA Applied Aerodynamics Conference, AIAA Paper 2000-3921, Denver, CO, USA, 14-17 August 2000.
13. Morency, F., Tezok, F. and Paraschivoiu, I. Anti-icing system simulation using CANICE, AIAA J Aircr, 36, (6), November-December 1999, pp 9991006.
14. Morency, F., Tezok, F. and Paraschivoiu, I. Heat and mass transfer in the case of an anti-icing system modelisation, AIAA J Aircr, 37, (2), March-April 2000, pp 245252. Also AIAA Paper 99–0623, January 1999.
15. Morency, F., Tessier, P., Saeed, F. and Paraschivoiu, I. Anti-icing system simulation on multielement airfoil, CASI 46th Annual Conference/DNP-ASIP, Montréal, Canada, May 1999, pp 463470.
16. Tran, P., Brahimi, M.T., Sankar, L.N. and Paraschivoiu, I. Ice accretion prediction on single and multi-element airfoils and the resulting performance degradation, 35th Aerospace Sciences Meeting & Exhibit, AIAA Paper 97–0178, Reno, NV, USA 6-9 January 1997.
17. Tran, P., Brahimi, M.T., Paraschivoiu, I., Pueyo, A. and Tezok, F., ice accretion on aircraft wings with thermodynamic effects, AIAA J Aircr, 1995, 32, (2), pp 444446.
18. Paraschivoiu, I., Tran, P. and Brahimi, M.T. Prediction of the ice accretion with viscous effects on aircraft wings, AIAA J Aircr, 31, (4), July-August 1994, pp 855861.
19. Tran, P., Brahimi, M.T. and Paraschivoiu, I. Ice accretion on aircraft wings, Canadian Aeronautics and Space J, September 1994, 40, (3), pp 185192.
20. Ruff, G.A. and Berkowitz, B.M. User manual for the NASA Lewis ice accretion code prediction code LEWICE, NASA Contractor Report 185129, May 1990.
21. Wright, W.B. User manual for the improved NASA Lewis ice accretion code LEWICE 1.6, NASA Contractor Report 198355, June 1995.
22. Al-Khalil, K.M. Numerical simulation of an aircraft anti-icing system incorporating a rivulet model for the runback water, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Toledo, Ohio, USA, June 1991.
23. Al-Khalil, K.M. and Potapczuk, M.G. Numerical modeling of anti-icing systems and numerical comparison to test results on a NACA 0012 Airfoil, 31st Aerospace Sciences Meeting & Exhibit, AIAA Paper 93–0170, Reno, NV, January 1993.
24. Al-Khalil, K.M., Ferguson, T.W. and Phillips, D.M. A hybrid anti-icing ice protection system, 35th Aerospace Science Meeting & Exhibit, AIAA Paper 97–0302, Reno, NV, January 1997.
25. Meola, C., Carlomagno, G.M., Riegel, E. and Salvato, F. An experimental study of an anti-icing hot air spray-Tube System, 19th Congress ICAS, Anaheim, CA, September 1994.
26. Fregeau, Study and Simulation of the Ice accretion on aircraft and modeling of thermal anti-icing systems, M.S. Thesis, École Polytechnique de Montréal, Quebec, Canada, May 2004.
27. Saeed, F., Morency, F. and Paraschivoiu, I. Numerical simulation of a Hot-Air Anti-Icing Simulation, 38th Aerospace Sciences Meeting & Exhibit, AIAA Paper 2000–0630, Reno, NV, USA, January 2000.
28. Saeed, F. and Paraschivoiu, I. Numerical correlation for local Nusselt number distribution for hot-air jet impingement on concave surfaces, Proceedings of the 8th Annual Conference of the CFD Society of Canada, CFD2K, Montréal, Québec, Canada, 11-13 June 2000, 2, pp 897904.
29. Croce, G., Beaugendre, H. and Habashi, W.G. CHT3D: FENSAP-ICE Conjugate heat transfer computations with droplet impingement and runback water, 40th Aerospace Sciences Meeting & Exhibit, AIAA Paper 2002–0386, Reno, NV, USA, January 2002.
30. Pueyo, A., Chocron, D., Mokhtarian, F. and Kafyeke, F. CHT2D: A 2D hot air anti-icing analysis tool, Proceedings of the 50th Annual General Meeting and Conference of CASI, Montreal, Canada, 28-30 April 2003.
31. Mavriplis, D.J. and Pirzadeh, S. Large-scale parallel unstructured mesh computations for 3D high-lift analysis, ICASE Report No. 99-9, February 1999.
32. Mavriplis, D.J. NSU3D (Version 3.4) A CFD package for external aerodynamics using an unstructured navier-stokes multigrid solver, Users Manual, Revision 2, September 2000.
33. Mavriplis, D.J. and Levy, D.W. Transonic drag prediction using an unstructured multigrid solver, 40th Aerospace Sciences Meeting & Exhibit, AIAA Paper 2002–0838, Reno, NV, USA, January 2002.
34. Mavriplis, D.J. Aerodynamic drag prediction using unstructured solvers, VKI Lecture Notes for short course on CFD-Based Drag Prediction and Reduction, 3-7 February 2003, von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Rhode St Genese, Belgium.
35. IZZO, A.J. An experimental investigation of the turbulent characteristics of a boundary layer.
36. Flow over a vibrating plate – General Dynamics, Electric Boat Division – Contract NONR–2512 (00) May 1969.
37. Robinson, S.K. Coherent motions in the turbulent boundary layer – Ann Rev Fluid Mech, 1991, 23, pp 601639.
38. Jung, W.J., Mangiavacchi, N. and Akhavan, R. Suppression of turbulence in wall bounded flows by high-frequency spanwise oscillationsPhys. Fluids A, 1992, (4), pp 16051607.
39. Laadhar, F., Skandaji, L. and Morel, R. Turbulence reduction in a boundary layer by a local spanwise oscillating surfacePhys Fluids, October 1994, 6, (10).
40. Trujillo, S.M., BOGARD, D.G. and Ball, K.S. Turbulent boundary layer drag reduction using an oscillating wall – AIAA Paper, 971870, 1997.
41. Kendall, J.M. The turbulent boundary layer over a wall with progressive surface wavesJ. Fluid Mech, 1970, 41, (2), pp 259281.
42. Kramer, M.O. Boundary layer stabilisation by distributed dampingJ. A. Soc Naval Engrs, 1960, 72, pp 2533.
43. Gad-El-Hak, M. Introduction to flow control – in flow control – fundamentals and practices, Gad-El-Hak, M., Pollard, A., Bonnet and, J.P., (Eds), Springer Verlag, 1998, pp 1107, 1998.
44. Wilby, J.F. and Gloyna, F.L. Vibration measurements of an airplane fuselage structure – II. Jet Noise ExcitationJ Sound Vib, 1972, 23, (4), pp 467486.
45. Maestrello, L. Design criterion of panel structure excited by turbulent boundary layerJ Aircr, July 1968, 5, (4), pp 321328.
46. Hussain, A.K.M.F. and Reynolds, W.C. The mechanics of an organised wave in turbulent shear flowJ Fluid Mech., 41, (2), pp 241258.
47. Klebanoff, P.S. Characteristics of turbulence in a boundary layer with zero pressure gradient – NACA Report 1247.
48. Hama, R. Turbulent boundary layer along a flat plate I & II. – Rep Inst Science and Tech., Tokyo University, January 1947.
49. Schultz-Grunow, F. New frictional resistance law for smooth plates – NACA Report TM 986, 1941.
50. Regan, C., Benard, E., Raghunathan, S., Riordan, D. and Linton, A., The effect of a wall normal vibration on a turbulent boundary layer, AIAA Paper 2002–0946, 40th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, 14-17 January 2002, Reno, NV, USA.
51. Nevins, R.G. and Ball, H.D. Heat transfer between a flat plate and a pulsating impinging jet, National Heat Transfer Conference Boulder, 1961, CO, ASME.
52. Kataoka, K. and Suguro, M. The effect of surface renewal due to large scale eddies on jet impingement heat transfer, Int J Heat and Mass Transfer, 1987, 30, pp 559567.
53. Sailor, D.J., Daniel, J.R. and Qianli, F. Effect of variable duty cycle flow pulsations on heat transfer enhancement for an impinging air jet, Int J Heat and Fluid Flow, 1999, 20, pp 574580.
54. Mladin, E.C. and Zumbrunnen, D.A. dependence of heat transfer to a pulsating stagnation flow on pulse characteristics, J Thermophysics and Heat Transfer, 1995, 9, (1), pp 181192.
55. Zumbrunnen, D.A. and Aziz, M. Convective heat transfer enhancement Due to intermittency in an impinging jet, J Heat Transfer, 1993, 115, pp 9198.
56. Azevedo, L.F.A., Webb, B.W. and Queiroz, M., Pulsed air jet impingement Heat Transfer, Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, 1994, 8, pp 206213.
57. Farrington, R.B. and Claunch, S.D. Infrared imaging of large amplitude, low frequency disturbances on a planar jet, AIAA J, 1994, 32, pp 317323.
58. Liu, T. and Sullivan, J.P. Heat transfer and flow structures in an excited circular impinging jet, Int J of Heat and Mass Transfer, 39, (17), pp 36953706.
59. Zulkifili, R., Benard, E., Raghunathan, S. and Linton, A. Effect of pulse jet frequency on impingement heat transfer., AIAA 42th Aerospace Sceinces Meeting, Reno. NV, USA. Paper 2004–1343.
60. Lord, M.W.K., MacMartin, P.G. and Tillman, T.G. Flow control opportunities in gas turbine engines, AIAA, 2000–2234, 2000.
61. Poland, D.T. The aerodynamics of thrust reversers for high bypass Turbofans, AIAA, 67-418, July 1967.
62. Yao, H., Benard, E., Cooper, R.K., Raghunathan, S., Tweedie, J. and Riordan, D. Aerodynamics of natural blockage thrust reverser, proceedings of CASI 50th AGM and Conference, 28-30 April, Montreal, QC, Canada, Paper 329, 2003.
63. Kral, L.D. Recent experience with different turbulence models applied to the calculation of flow over aircraft components, Progress in Aerospace Sciences, 1998, 34, pp 481541.
64. Romine, B.M. Jr and Johnson, W.A. Performance investigation of a fan thrust reverser for a high bypass turbofan engine, AIAA-84–1178, AIAA/SAE/ASME 20th Joint Propulsion Conference, Cincinnati, USA, June 1984.
65. Yao, H., Butterfield, J., Raghunathan, S., Cooper, R. and Benard, E. Optimization design for thrust reverser cascade with a view to Reduce Noise, Accepted for publication in Int J Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures.
66. Yao, H., Butterfield, J. and Raghunathan, S. The aerodynamic performance of thrust reverser cascade, Proceeding of the 24th International Congress of Aeronautical Sciences (ICAS 2004), ICAS 2004-4.2.R, Yokohama, Japan, August 2004.
67. Yao, H., Benard, E., Curran, R., Price, M., Armstrong, C.G. and Raghunathan, S. Integration of aerodynamic, structural, cost and manufacturing considerations during the conceptual design of a thrust reverser cascade, AIAA Paper 2004–1239, 42nd AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nevada, USA, January 2004.
68. Hall, S., Yao, H., Cooper, R.K., Benard, E. and Raghuanthan, S. Experimental investigation of a cascade thrust reverser, 9th Aerodynamics Symposium, 239b, Montreal, Canada, 2003.
69. Hall, S., Benard, E. and Raghunathan, S. Progress in developing innovative flow control in a cascade thrust reverser, 24th International Congress of the Aeronautical Sciences, 2004.
70. Yao, H., Benard, E., Cooper, R. K., Raghunathan, S., Tweedie, J. and Riordan, D. Aerodynamics of natural blockage thrust reverser. 9th Aerodynamics Symposium, Montreal, Canada, 28-30 April 2003.
71. Butterfield, J., Yao, H., Price, M., Raghunathan, S. and Armstrong, C. Methodologies for structural optimisation of a thrust reverser cascade, AIAA Paper 2003–0107, 41st AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, 6-9 January 2003, Reno. NV, USA.
72. Butterfield, J., Yao, H., Benard, E., Price, M., Cooper, R., Monaghan, D., Armstrong, C.G. and Raghunathan, S. Optimisation of thrust reverser cascade performance using aerodynamic and structural integration. Proceedings of CEAS Aerospace Aerodynamics Research Conference, 10-12 June, 2003, Royal Aeronautical Society, London.
73. Butterfield, J., Yao, H., Benard, E., Price, M., Cooper, R., Monaghan, D., Armstrong and, C.G., Raghunathan, S. Investigation of weight reduction in a thrust reverser Cascade Using Aerodynamic and Structural Integration. AIAA Paper 2003–1576. 44th AIAA/ASME/AHS Structures, Structural Dynamics and Materials Conference, 710 April, 2003, Norfolk, Va, USA.
74. Butterfield, J., Yao, H., Benard, E., Price, M., Cooper, R., Monaghan, D., Armstrong, C.G. and Raghunathan, S. Optimisation of a thrust reverser cascade: An assessment of dynamic response with a view to reducing weight. AIAA Paper 2003–6748. 3rd Annual Aviation Technology, Integration and Operations (ATIO) Technical Forum, 1719 November 2003, Denver, Colorado, USA.
75. Butterfield, J., Yao, H., Curran, R., Price, M., Armstrong, C.G. and Raghunathan, S. Integration of aerodynamic, structural, cost and manufacturing considerations during the conceptual design of a thrust reverser cascade. AIAA Paper 2003. 42nd AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, 5-8 January 2004.
76. Yao, H., Raghunathan, Benard, E. and Cooper, R. Numerical simulation of natural blockage thrust reverser. AIAA 43rd Aerospace Sciences meeting. Reno Nevada, USA, January 2005. Paper 2005–0631.
77. Butterfield, J., Yao, H., Price, M., Benard, E., Cooper, R., Monaghan, D., Armstrong, C. and Raghunathan, S. Enhancement of thrust reverser cascade performance using aerodynamic and structural integration, Aeronaut J, 2004, 108, (1090), pp 621628.
78. Donaghy, K. Fire Propagation and Heat transfer Modelling Within The BR710 Nacelle for Certification Purposes, PhD thesis, Queens University Belfast, 2000.
79. Donaghy, K., Raghunathan, S. and Riordon, D. Fire zone modelling of aircraft engines, 37th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, 1999, Paper 99- 0236, Reno, NV, USA.
80. Devine, R.J. Watterson, J.K. and Cooper, R.K. Performance improvement of flush, parallel walled auxiliary intakes by means of vortex generators, 24th International Congress of the Aeronautical Sciences, Paper ICAS2004-4.2.3, August 2004, Japan.
81. Devine, R.D. The Performance of Nacelle Ventilation Intakes at Low Speed, PhD thesis, Queens University Belfast, 2003.
82. Pratt, P, Watterson, J.K. and Benard, E., Performance of a flapped duct exhausting into a compressible external flow, 24th International Congress of the Aeronautical Sciences, Paper ICAS2004-04.2.R, August 2004, Japan. Augustine, N. Autustine Laes, 6th Edition, AIAA, Reston, VA, 1997.
83. Federal Aviation Administration, General guidelines for measuring fire-extinguishing agent concentration in powerplant compartments, Advisory Circular, AC No 20-100, 1977.
84. United Nations, Report of the Halon Fire Extinguishing Agents Technical Options Committee, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), 1994.
85. Pitts, W., Nyden, M., Gann, R., Mallard, W. and Tsang, W. Construction of an exploratory list of chemicals to initiate the search for Halon alternatives, NIST TN–1279, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 1990.
86. Grosshandler, W., Gann, R. and Pitts, W. (Eds) Evaluations of alternative in-flight fire suppressants for full-scale simulated aircraft engine nacelles and dry bays, SP-861, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 1994.
87. Gann, R. (Ed), Fire suppression system performance of alternative agents in aircraft engine and dry bay laboratory simulations, SP-890, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 1995.
88. Hamins, A., Cleary, T., Borthwick, P., Gorchkov, N., McGrattan, K., Forney, G., Grosshandler, W., Presser, C. and Melton, L. Suppression of engine nacelle fires, fire suppression system performance of alternative agents in aircraft engine and dry bay laboratory simulations, edited by Gann, R., Vol 2 of SP-890, chap. 9, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 1995, pp 1199.
89. Lopez, A., Gritzo, L. and Hassan, B. Computational fluid dynamics simulation of the air/suppressant flow in an uncluttered F18 engine nacelle, Proc. Halon Options Tech. Working Conference, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA, 1997, pp 281297.
90. Nicolette, V., Lopez, A. and Gritzo, L. F18 Nacelle fire simulation, Sandia National Laboratories Technical Memorandum to Leo Budd, 1997.
91. Vick, A.R. An investigation of discharge and thrust characteristics of flapped outlets for stream Mach numbers from 0·4 to 1·3, NACA TN–4007, 1957.
92. Acare. European Aeronautics: A vision for 2020 – meeting societys needs and winning global leadership, Report of the group of personalities, January 2001.
93. Barry, B., Parke, S.J., Bown, N.W., Riedel, H. and Sitzmann, M. Flight testing of natural and hybrid laminar flow nacelles, ASME Proceedings of the International Gas Turbine and Aeroengine Congress and Exposition, 13-16 June 1994, Hague, Neth, ASME 94 -GT-408.
94. Brodersen, O. Drag prediction of engine-airframe interference effects using unstructured Navier-Stokes calculations, J Aircr, 2002, 39, (6), 2002, pp 927935.
95. Rossow, C.C., Godard, J.–L., Hoheisel, H. and Schmitt, V. Investigation of ropulsion integration interference effects on a transport aircraft configuration, J Aircr, 1994, 31, (5), pp 1022–1030.
96. Henderson, W.P., Airframe/Propulsion Integration at Transonic Speeds, J Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, Transactions of the ASME, v 113, n 1, January 1991, pp 5159.
97. Godard, J.L., Hoheisel, H., Rossow, C.C. and Schmitt, V. Investigation of Interference Effects for Different Engine Positions on a Transport Aircraft Configuration, Proceedings of DLR Workshop on Aspects of Engine Airframe Integration For Transport Aircraft, edited by Hoheisel, H., German Aerospace Research Centre, DLR, TR 96-01, Brunswick, Germany, 1996, pp 11.1-11.22.
98. Berry, D. The Boeing 777 engine/airframe integration aerodynamics design process, international council of the aeronautical sciences, 94-6.4.4, September 1994.
99. Rudnik, R. and Rossow, C.C. Numerical simulations of engine/airframe integration for high-bypass engines, ECCOMAS – 2000 Paper, 2000.
100. Ingraldi, A.M., Kariya, T.T., Re, R.J. and Pendergraft, O.C. Interference effects of very high bypass ratio nacelle installations on a low-wing transport, J Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, Transactions of the ASME, v 114, 4, October 1992, pp 809815.
101. Rossow, C.C. and Hoheisel, H. Numerical study of interference effects of wing-mounted advanced engine Concepts, International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences, 94-6.4.1, September 1994.
102. Jie, Li., Fengwei, Li. and Qin, E. Numerical simulation of transonic flow over wing-mounted twin-engine transport aircraft, J Aircraft, 2000, 37, (3), pp 469478.
103. Rudnik, R., Rossow, C.C. and V. Geyr, H.F. Numerical simulations of engine/airframe integration for high-bypass engines, Aerospace Science and Technology, 2002, 6, pp 3142.
104. Murman, E.M., Walton, M. and Rebentisch, E. Challenges in better, faster, cheaper era of aeronautical design, engineering and manufacturing, Aeronaut J, Oct 2001, pp 481489.
105. Kundu, A., Raghunathan, S. and Morris, W. Effect of manufacturing Tolerances on aircraft aerodynamics and cost world manufacturing congress. New Zealand, November 1997. Paper 711-003.
106. Kundu, A., Raghunathan, S. and Cooper, R.K. Effect of aircraft smoothness requirements on cost, Aeronaut J, December 2000, 104, (1039), Paper 2389, pp 415420.
107. Curran, R., Kundu, A., Raghunathan, S. and McSpadden, R. Impact of the aerodynamic surface tolerance on aircraft cost driver, J aerospace engineering, Proc of the IMechE, Part C, 215, 2001, pp 2939.
108. Curran, R., Kundu, A., Raghunathan, S. and Eakin, D. Costing tools for decision making within integrated aerospace design, concurrent engineering: research and applications, 2001, 9, (4), pp 327338.
109. Kundu, A., Watterson, J.K., Raghunathan, S. and McFadden, R. Parametric optimisation of manufacturing tolerances at the aircraft surface, J Aircr, AIAA, 2002, 39, (2), pp 271279.
110. Curran, R., Kundu, A., Raghunathan, S. and McFadden, R. Influence of manufacturing tolerance on aircraft direct operating cost (DOC), J Materials Processing Technology, Elsevier Science B.V., ISSN: 0924–0136, 138, 2002, pp 208213.
111. Sanchez, M., Kundu, A.K., Hinds, B.K. and Raghunathan, S. A methodology for assessing manufacturing cost due to tolerance on aerodynamic surface features on turbo fan nacelles, international J advanced manufacturing Technology, 1999, 14, pp 894900.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Key aerodynamic technologies for aircraft engine nacelles

  • S. Raghunathan (a1), E. Benard (a1), J. K. Watterson (a1), R. K. Cooper (a1), R. Curran (a1), M. Price (a1), H. Yao (a1), R. Devine (a1), B. Crawford (a1), D. Riordan (a2), A. Linton (a2), J. Richardson (a2) and J. Tweedie (a2)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.