Recently on-stream analysis by various methods and instruments has been greatly and rightfully emphasized. This is particularly true in such research as air and stream pollutions, desalting of ocean water and ore processing.
Among the various methods, instruments, and procedures adopted, the X-ray fluorescence method is perhaps the best among them. This is because the x-ray fluorescence method neither consumes nor destroys the samples taken for analysis. It also has the merits of simplicity and specificity. However, on-stream analysis of liquid samples containing elements having an atomic number below 20 by the X-ray fluorescence method is not an easy task particularly when vacuum spectrograph is being used.
In this study liquid cells of different dimensions for the on-stream analysis operated in air, helium and in vacuum have been successfully constructed. The cells have been tested for several months.