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X-Ray Measurement of the Static Lattice Distortion in the Solid Solution of Oxygen in Titanium*

  • F. R. L. Schoening (a1) and F. Witt (a1)

Abstract

Oxygen was introduced into a single crystal of titanium in successive stages. The intensities of the h00 and 00l reflections were measured with a single-crystal diffractometer. The observed variation of the intensities with oxygen concentration was attributed to three factors: (1) the additional scattering from the oxygen atoms, (2) a change in the Debye-Waller factor, and (3) an exponential factor originating from the distortion around the oxygen atom. The theory of X-ray scattering from crystals containing centers of distortion was applied to the hexagonal titanium containing interstitial oxygen atoms. Using the variation of the lattice constant with oxygen concentration, it was possible to predict the intensity reduction due to lattice strains. It was concluded that it would have been possible to obtain an estimate of the defect concentration from the X-ray measurements of lattice expansion and intensity reduction.

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This research was supported by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission under Contract No. AT(30-l)-2585.

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References

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1. Huang, K., “X-ray Renections from Dilute Solid Solutions,” Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A190: 102, 1947.
2.Report for U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Contract No. AT(30-1)-2585 (to be published).
3. Elliott, H. A., “Three-Dimensional Stress Distributions iu Hexagonal Aeolotropic Crystals,” Proc. Cambridge Phil. Soc. 44: 522, 1948.
4. van Bueren, H. G., Imperfections in Crystals, North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1960, p. 92.
5. Cochran, W. and Kartha, G., “Scattering of X-rays by Defect Structures. III. The Effect of Interstitial Atoms and Vacancies,” Acta Cryst. 9: 944, 1956.
6. Eshelby, J. D., “Distortion of a Crystal by Point Imperfections,” J. Appl. Phys. 25: 255, 1954.
7. Anderson, S., Collen, M., Kuylenstiema, U., and Magneli, A., “Phase Analysis Studies on the Titanium-Oxygen System,” Acta. Chem. Scand. 11 : 1641, 1957.
8. Qurashi, M. M., “On the Completion and Extension of the Table of Atomic Scattering Factors Published by Vietvoll and Ogrim,” Acta Cryst. 7: 310, 1954.
9. Freeman, A. J., “Atomic Scattering Factors of Spherical and Aspherical Charge Distributions,” Acta Cryst. 12: 261, 1959.
10. McQuillan, A. D. and McQuillan, M. K., Titanium, Academic Press, Inc., New York, 1956.

X-Ray Measurement of the Static Lattice Distortion in the Solid Solution of Oxygen in Titanium*

  • F. R. L. Schoening (a1) and F. Witt (a1)

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