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X-Ray Analytical Methods for Evaluating Levels of Environmental Particulates

  • J. Leroux (a1), A.B.C. Davey (a1), W.W. Reid (a1) and Chantal Chalifoux (a1)

Abstract

An exact knowledge of environmental particulate levels at their sources of production, geographic sites of dissemination and/or anatomic sites of deposition after they have been inhaled or ingested by the body is considered a main priority in the environmental health field. One must therefore recognize the need for rapid, accurate and sensitive means of sampling and analyzing these materials, often found in trace amounts, with little alteration from their original physical and chemical structure. A summary of the various theoretical approaches and methodologies investigated in our laboratory towards that goal are discussed with emphasis on X-ray techniques used, correction factors involved, and areas requiring further research.

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1. Leroux, J., “Preparation of thin dust layers for X-ray emission anddiffraction analysis”, Staub, Reinhaltung der Luft, Vol. 29, No. 4 (1969).
2. Leroux, J. and Powers, C. A., “Direct X-ray diffraction quantitative analysis of quartz in industrial dust films deposited on silver membrane”, Staub, Reinhaltung der Luft, Vol. 29, No. 5 (1969).
3. Leroux, J., Davey, A.B.C. and Paillard, A., “Sampling and Analytical Conditions for the Health Hazard Assessment of Siliceous-Type Dusts”, Staub, Reinhaltung der Luft, Vol. 32, No. 12 (1972).
4. Leroux, J., Perrault, G. and Davey, A. B. C.: “Taille des Particules et son Effetsur la Prècisiond'analyse par Diffraction X de Couches Fines de Quartz”, Can. J. Applied Spec., Vol. 18, pp. 4649 (1973).
5. Leroux, J. and Davey, A.B.C., “Quartz in Airborne Dust— Methodology including Sampling and X-ray Analytical Procedures, for the Assessment of Health Hazards of Siliceous Dusts”, Proceedings of the IHF Symposium on Silica, March 12-13, 1975, Pittsburgh, Pa.
6. Leroux, J., Davey, A.B.C. and Paillard, A., “Proposed Standard Methodology for the Evaluation of Silicosis Hazards”, AIHA Journal Vol. 34, pp. 409417 (1973).
7. Leroux, J., “Method for Finding Mass-Absorption Coefficients by Empirical Equations and Graphs”, Advances in X-ray Analysis, Vol.5, pp. 153160, Plenum Press (1961).
8. British Occupational Hygiene Society, “Hygiene Standards for Chrysotile Asbestos Dust”, Ann. Occup. Hyg., Vol. 11, pp.47-69 (1968).
9. Leroux, J. and Mahmud, M., “Miniature X-ray Spectroscopy Chamber for the Microanalysis of Elements above Neon in Thin Samples of Organic and Inorganic Materials”. Presented at the 21st Canadian Spectroscopy Symposium, October 7-9, 1974, Ottawa, Canada.
10. Langer, A.M. et al., “Identification of Asbestos in Human Tissues”. Journal of Occupational Medicine Vol. 15, pp. 287295 (1973).

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