Many materials, both fissionable and non-fissionable, become very radioactive when subjected to nuclear radiations. This radioactivity results in a high background level in X-ray diffraction studies and becomes a limiting factor in an analysis of radiation damage. A description is given of special techniques that are used to minimize this background and produce optimum diffraction conditions. The radioactive intensity of irradiated X-ray specimens varies from levels that are only mildly troublesome to levels that are extremely hazardous to personnel. The diffraction methods employed at the various levels are explained. An example of the radioactive energy spectrum of a specimen is given to show the method of selecting the best operating conditions and techniques.