Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Submicrosecond X-Ray Diffraction Studies*

  • A. C. Mitchell (a1), Quintin Johnson (a1) and L. Evans (a1)

Abstract

As a result of interest stemming from shock wave studies carried out at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, we have developed a capability to conduct x-ray diffraction studies in submicrosecond time intervals. This involves the use of a low impedance flash x-ray device. While there are many applications to which these techniques can be put, our first experiments deal with samples undergoing shock wave compression. These particular experiments are conducted by synchronizing a 40 to 50 nsec flash x-ray device to a shock front which is produced by the detonation of a high explosive placed in contact with a sample. Diffracted radiation is usually recorded on very sensitive film protected by a blast cassette. Thus far we have subjected lithium fluoride, aluminum, and carbon to pressures in the range of 100 to 300 kbar. Either powder or single crystal samples can be used. The principal difficulties of this experiment are the lack of sufficient intensity and the synchronization of the x-ray pulse to the shock front.

Copyright

Footnotes

Hide All
*

Work performed under the auspices of the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission.

Footnotes

References

Hide All
1. Charbonnier, F. M., “Proposed Flash X-Ray System for X-Ray Diffraction with Submicrosecond Exposure Time,” in Heinrich, K. F. J., Barrett, C. S., Newkirk, J. B., and Ruud, C. O., Editors, Advances in X'Ray Analysis, Vol. 15, p. 446 Plenum Press (1972).
2. Schall, R., “Microstructure Photography with Ultra-Short Exposures by Means of X-Ray Flash Tubes,Zeit, für Ang. Physik 11, 83 (1950).
3. Jamet, F., “Laue Diagrams by Instantaneous X-Ray Photography,C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 271, 714 (1970).
4. Krehl, P.,“Generation of X-Ray Flash Interferences,” to be published.
5. Johnson, Q., Keeler, R. N. and Lyle, J. W., “X-Ray Diffraction Experiments in Nanosecond Time Intervals,Nature 213, 1114 (1967).
6. Johnson, Q., Mitchell, A. Keeler, R. N., and Evans, L., “Nanosecond X-Ray Diffraction: Study of Solids Under Shock Compression,” Trans. Amer. Crystallog. Assn. 4, 133,(1969).
7. Johnson, Q., Mitchell, A. Keeler, R. N., and Evans, L.,” X-Ray Diffraction During Shock-Wave Compression,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 25, 1099 (1970).
8. Johnson, Q., Mitchell, A. and Evans, L., “X-Ray Diffraction Evidence for Crystalline Order and Isotropie Compression during the Shock-Wave Process,Nature 231, 310 (1971).
9. Johnson, Q., Mitchell, A. and Evans, L., “X-Ray Diffraction Study of Single Crystals Undergoing Shock-Wave Compression,Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 29 (1972).
10. Rice, M. H., McQueen, R. G., and Walsh, J. M., “Compression of Solids by Strong Shock Waves,” Solid State Physics. Vol. 6, p. 1, Academic Press (1958).
11. Duvall, G. E., “Some Properties and Applications of Shock Waves,” Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Washington, D. C. Rept. AFOSR TN 60-1185 (1960).
12. Al'tshuler, L. V., “Use of Shock Waves in High-Pressure Physics,Usp. Fiz. Nauk 85, 197 (1965).
13. Zeldovich, Ya. B. and Raizer, Yu. P., Physics of Shock Waves and High Temperature Hydrodynamic Phenomena, Vol 2, p. 685784 Acadtimic Press (1967).
14. Zharkov, V. N. and Kalinin, V. A., Equations of State for Solids at High Pressures and Temperatures, Consultants Bureau, New York (1971).
15. Blumlein, A. D., “Improvements in or Relating to Apparatus for Generating Electrical Impulses,” British Patent No. 589127, 12 June 1947.
16. Schaaffs, W., “X-Ray Flash Interferences,” German Patent No. 842974, 3 July 1952.
17. Ohlin, P and Händel, S., “Experiments with a Low Inductance High Vacuum X-Ray Flash Tube Set,Arkiv für Fysik 17, 157 (1960).
18. Zavada, N. I., Manokova, M. A., and Tsukerman, V. A., “Recording of Interferences of Monocrystals and Polycrystals with Microsecond Exposures,Prib. i Tekhn, Eksperim. No. 2, 434 (1966).
19. Jamet, F., “Recording of X-Ray Diffraction Patterns Using Flash X-Rays in Connection With an Image Intensifier,J. SMPTE 80, 900 (1971).
20. Martin, J. C., “Nanosecond Pulse Techniques,” United Kingdom Atomic Energy Association, Berkshire, Rept, SSWA/JCM/704/49 (1970).
21. Johnson, Q., Mitchell, A. and Evans, L., “X-Ray Detector for Dynamic Diffraction Studies,Rev. Sci. Inst. 42, 999 (1971).
22. Swan, William, private communication, 1971.
23. Mitchell, A., Johnson, Q. and Evans, L., “Film Cassette for Flash X-Ray Studies of Shock Wave Events,” to be published.
24. Seemann, H., “A Focusing X-Ray Spectroscopic Arrangement for Powders,Ann. Physik 59, 455 (1919).
25. Bohlin, H., “A New Arrangement for X-Ray Crystallographic Investigations of Powders,Ann. Physik, 61, 421 (1920).
26. Christian, R. A., “The Equation of State of the Alkali Halides at High Pressure,” Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Livermore, Rept. 4900 (1957).
27. Al'tshuler, L. V., Brazknik, M. I., German, V. N., and Mirkin, L. I., “Explosive Deformation of Single Crystals,Sov. Phys. Solid State 9, 2417 (1968).
28. Hauver, G. E. and Melani, A., “The Shock Hugoniot of Single-Crystal Lithium Fluoride,” Ballistic Research Laboratories, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Rept. 2058 (1970).
29. van Thiel, M., Kusubov, A. S., and Mitchell, A. C., “Shock Wave Data,” Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Rept. UCRL-50108 (1966).
30. Lynch, R. W. and Drickamer, H. G., “Effect of High Pressure on the Lattice Parameters of Diamond, Graphite, and Hexagonal Boron Nitride,J. Chem. Phys. 44, 181 (1966).
31. Coleburn, N. L., “Compressibility of Pyrolytic Graphite,Phys J. Chem., 40, 71 (1964).

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed