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Stress Evaluation on Materials Having Non-Linear Lattice Strain Distributions

  • Viktor M. Hauk (a1)


The state of the art of stress evaluation on materials having non-linear lattice strain distributions is presented.

New results on heterogeneous materials with measurements conducted on both phases of the material show compensation of the shear stress components σ13 in ground surface layers of (α+β) brass. There is only the compensation of normal components σ11 of (α+γ) steel after plastic straining.

The fundamental aspects and the evaluation of macro- and microresidual stresses on materials having preferred orientation are broadened. The use of Mo-Ka-radiation shows linear lattice strain distributions, as a result of minimizing the influence of micro residual stresses causing oscillations. The interplanar distance- or strain-polefigure shows similarities with the intensity polefigure.

The knowledge of the theoretical influence of stress distribution with depth from the surface of the material is extended. The experimental procedure should use either different radiations having different penetration depths or a low-penetrating radiation in combination with removal of surface layers.



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1. Dolle, H. and Hauk, V., System of possible lattice strain distributions on mechanically loaded metallic materials (in German), I. Metallkde. 68:725 (1977).
2. Hauk, V. and Vaessen, G., Evaluation of non-linear lattice strain distribution (in German), in:“Eigenspannungen und Lastspannungen, Moderne Ermittlung-Ergebnisse-Bewertung”, Edited by Hauk, V. and Macherauch, E., HTM-Beiheft Carl Hanser Verlag Munchen Wien:38 (1982).
3. Evenschor, P. D. and Hauk, V., On non-1inear distributions of lattice interplanar spacing at X-ray strain measurements (in German), Z. Metallkde. 66:167 (1975),
4. Dolle, H. and Hauk, V., Evaluation of residual stress systems arbitrarily oriented by X-rays (in German), HIM 31:165(1976).
5. Hauk, V., Krug, W. K., G. Vaessen and Weisshaupt, H., The residual strain-/stress-condition after grinding (in German), HTM 35:144 (1980).
6. Hauk, V. and Kockelmann, H., X-ray elastic constants of ferritic, austenitic and hardened steels (in German), Arch. Eisenhuttenwes. 50:347 (1979).
7. Hauk, V., X-ray elastic constants (XEC) (in German), same as 2:49 (1982).
8. Hauk, V., Stuitje, P. J. T. and Vaessen, G., Presentation and compensation of residual stresses in machined surface layers of heterogeneous materials (in German), same as 2:129 (1982).
9. Broszeit, E., Hauk, V. Kloos, K. H. and Stuitje, P. J. T., to be Published.
10. Dolle, H. and Cohen, J. B., Residual stresses in ground steels, Metallurgical Transaction 11 A:159 (1980).
11. Krause, H. and Juhe, H., Contribution to X-ray evaluation and assessment of systems of residual stresses of friction loaded surfaces (in German), in:“Eigenspannungen, Entstehung-Berechnung-Messung-Bewertung”, Deutsche Ges. Fur Metallkunde, Oberursel:121 (1980).
12. Hauk, V. and Stuitje, P. J. T., Residual stresses in the phases of heterogeneous materials after machining (in German), Symposium Karlsruhe (1983), in press.
13. Hauk, V., Oudelhoven, R. and Vaessen, G., On the state of residual stresses after grinding (in German), HTM 36:258 (1981).
14. Hanabusa, T. and Fujiwara, H., On the relation betweentp-spiitting and microscopic residual shear stresses in unidirectionally deformed surfaces, same as 2:209 (1982).
15. Krause, H. and Mathias, M., Strain measurement on the cementite and ferrite-phase after different machining of surfaces (in German), to be published.
16. Hauk, V., Schneider, E. Stuitje, P. and Theiner, W., Comparison of different methods to determine residual stresses nondestructively, in “New Procedures in Nondestructive Testing”, Edited by Holler, P., Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York:561 (1983).
17. Hauk, V., Residual stresses by deformation (in German), same as 2:92 (1982).
18. Hauk, V. and Krug, W. K., Superposition of load-and residual stresses, fundamental tests (in German) same as 2:133 (1982)
19. Hauk, V., Residual stresses, their importance for science and technique (in German), Symposium Karlsruhe (1983), in the press.
20. Hauk, V., Krug, W. K. and Pintschovius, L., to be published.
21. Hauk, V. and Sesemann, H., Deviations from linear distributions of lattice interplanar spacings in cubic metals and their relation to stress measurement by X-rays (in German), Z. Metallkde. 67:646 (1976).
22. Dcjlle, H. and Hauk, V., Influence of mechanical anisotropy of polycrystalls (texture) upon the X-ray stress determination (in German), Z. Metallkde. 69:410 (1978).
23. Dcjlle, H., tf. Hauk and Zegers, H., Calculated and measured XEC and lattice strain distributions in textured steels (in German), Z. Metallkde. 69:766 (1978).
24. Dcjlle, H. and Hauk, V., Evaluation of residual stresses in textured materials by X-rays (in German), Z. Metallkde. 70:682 (1979).
25. Hauk, V. and Kockelmann, H., Calculation of the distribution of the intensity and the lattice strain out of inverse polefigures, Z. Metallkde. 69:16 (1978). Hauk, V. and Kockelmann, H., Lattice strain distribution of plastically deformed specimens of pure and silver alloyed copper (in German), Z. Metallkde. 71:303 (1980).
26. Brakman, C. M., Residual stresses in cubic materials with orthorhombic or monoclinic specimen symmetry; Influence of texture on ij)-spl itting and non-linear behaviour, J. Appl. Cryst. 16:325 (1983).
27. Bollenrath, F., Hauk, V. and Weidemann, U., To the interpretation of lattice residual stresses in plastically deformed ferrite (in German), Arch. Eisenhlittenwes. 38:793 (1967).
28. Shiraiwa, T. and Sakamoto, Y., The X-ray stress measurement of the deformed steel having preferred orientation, The 13th Oap. Congr. on Mater. Res.-Metal. Mater.:25 (1970).
29. Hauk, V., D. Herlach and Sesemann, H., Non linear distributions of lattice interplanar spacings in steels, their origin, calculation and their relation to stress measurement (in German), Z. Metallkde. 66:734 (1975).
30. Marion, R. H. and Cohen, O. B., Anomalies in measurement of residual stress by X-ray diffractions, Adv. X-Ray Anal. 18:466 (1975).
31. Willemse, P. F., Naughton, B. P. and Verbraak, C. A., X-ray residual stress measurements on cold-drawn steel wire, Mat. Science Engg. 56:25 (1982).
32. Evenschor, P. D. and Hauk, V., X-ray elastic constants and distributions of interplanar spacings of materials with preferred orientation (in German), Z. Metallkde. 66:164 (1975).
33. Hauk, V. and Vaessen, G., to be published.
34. Hauk, V. and Vaessen, G., X-ray stress evaluation on steels having preferred orientation (in German), Symposium Karlsruhe (1983), in press.
35. Hauk, V., X-ray methods for measuring residual stress, in “Residual stress and stress relaxation”, Edited by Kula, E. and Weiss, V., Plenum Press New York and London:117 (1982).
36. Dolle, H. and Hauk, V., The theoretical influence of multiaxial depth-dependent residual stresses upon the stress measurement by X-rays (in German), HTM 34:272 (1979).
37. Noyan, I. C., Effect of gradients in multiaxial stress states on residual stress measurements with X-rays, Metallurgical Transactions 14 A:249 (1983),
38. Sprauel, J. M., M. Barral and Torbaty, S., Measurement of stress gradients by X-ray diffraction, Adv. X-Ray Anal., in press.
39. Hauk, V. and Krug, W. K., to be published.
40. Shiraiwa, T. and Sakamoto, Y., X-ray stress measurement and its application to steel, Sumitomo Search 7:109 (1972).
41. Melker, A. I. and Pavlova, V. G., Determination of residual stresses with a gradient by means of X-ray diffraction (Translation from Russian), Ind. Lab. 42:376 (1976).
42. Hauk, V., Oudelhoven, R. and Vaessen, G., The state of residual stress in the near surface region of homogeneous and heterogeneous materials after grinding, Metallurgical Transactions 13 A:1239 (1982).
43. In meantime the paper, Equilibrium conditions for the average stresses measured by X-rays by I. C. Noyan was published in Metallurgical Transactions 14 A September:1907 (1983).


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