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Residual Stresses in Railroad Car Wheels*

  • J. Jo (a1), R.W. Hendricks (a1), R.E. Swanson (a1) and R.V. Foutz (a2)

Abstract

A new failure criterion for discriminating good and bad (overheated) railroad car wheels is proposed using X-ray residual stress data. The procedure for the new discrimination criterion is based on the fluctuations of the azimuthal residual stress in the tread of the wheel. This criterion is based on a maximum likelihood statistical analysis of stress data obtained from six different wheels as determined by x-ray diffraction. Of these locations, the analysis showed the tread, and perhaps a critical point on the top of the flange, to be the most sensitive to residual stress. The variance analysis showed that fluctuations in stress a.l the most sensitive location in the tread to be related to the service history. The residual stresses showed an oscillatory pattern in the hoop direction around the wheels. Extension of the measurement technology to the use of faster residual stress measurements is proposed. To validate our x-ray residual stress data, residual stresses were also measured by hole drilling. Excellent agreement between two techniques was found.

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This research was supported both financially and technically by the CSX Transportation Co. and by the Institute for Materials Science and Engineering of Virginia's Center for Innovative Technology.

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References

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[l] Stone, D. H., “Wheel Failure Due to Brake Heating”, Eighth International Wheelset Conference. Spain (1985).
[2] Barton, J. R.. Perry, W. D., and Swanson, R. K., “Heat-Discolored: Safe To Reuse?”, Progressive Railroading, pp. 41-48 (March 1985).
[3] Stone, D. H., (personal communication), AAR, Chicago (1985).
[4] Wentenkamp, H. R. and Eck, B. J., “Wheel Damage Caused by Overheating”, Car Department Officers Association Annual Meeting, Chicago (Sept. 20, 1982).
[5] Eck, B. J., “Development of the Curved Plate Wheel Designs for More Severe Railroad Service”, ASME 85-WA/RT-5 (1985).
[6] Wentenkamp, H. R. and Kipp, R. M., “Safe Thermal Load”, Proc. Sixth International Wheelset Congress, Colorado Springs (Oct. 1978).
[7] Carter, C. S., Caton, R. G., and Guthrie, J. L., “Fracture Resistance and Fatigue Crack Growth Characteristics of Railroad Wheels and Axles”, Department of Transportation Contract DOT-TSC 7, Final Report (April 1976).
[8] Opinsky, A. J., “Railroad Wheel Back Rim Pace Failures II. Fracture Mechanics Calculations Ba.sed on Measured Crack Sizes”, Association of American Railroads Report R-507, AAR Technical Center, Chicago, Illinois (1982).
[9] Pasley, R. H., “Barkhauscn Effect - An Indicator of Stress”, Materials Evaluation, 20(7), pp. 157161 (1970).
[10] Johnson, M. R., Robinson, R. R., Opinsky, A. J., Joerms, M. W..and Stone, D. H., “Calculation of Residual Stresses in Wheels from a Saw Cut Displacement Data”, The Winter Annual Meeting (ASME). Miami Beach, Florida, (Nov.1985).
[11] Jones, H. J., “The Characterization of the Residual Stress State of a Railroad Wheels by the Saw Cut Method”, ASME Rail Transp. Spring Conf. Proc, pp. 15-19 (April 1985).
[12] Rajkumar, B. R. and Stone, D. H., “Measurement Approaches for Determining Thermally-Induced Residual Stresses in Railroad Wheels”, The Winter Annual Mccting(ASME), Miami Beach, Florida, (Nov.1985).
[13] Namkung, M., Ultra, D., Allison, S. C., and Heyman, J. S., “Low-field Magnetoacoustic Residual Stress Measurements in Steel”, Solid Mechanics Research for QNDE, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL (Sep. 1985).
[14] Ranganathan, B. N., Wert, J. J., and Clotfelter, W. N., J. of Test. Eval., 4, pp. 218219 (1976).
[15] Jo, J., “Residual Stress Measurement in Railroad Car Wheels”, Ph.D. Dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia, (1989).
[16] Flaman, M. T., “Brief Investigation of Induced Drilling Stress in the Center Hole Method of Residual Stress Measurements”, Experimental Mechanics, 25 pp. 205207 (1985).
[17] “Measurement of Residual Stresses by the Hole Drilling Strain Gage Method”, Measurement Group Tech Note TN503-3, Measurement Group Inc. Raleigh, NC (1988).
[18] Bickcl, P. J. and Doksurn, K. A., “Mathematical Statistics: Basic Ideas and Selected Topics”, Oakland: Holden-Day (1977).
[19] Clark, C. T. and Schkade, L. L., “Statistical Analysis for Administrative Decisions”, 3rd Ed., Cincinnati, South Publ. (1979).

Residual Stresses in Railroad Car Wheels*

  • J. Jo (a1), R.W. Hendricks (a1), R.E. Swanson (a1) and R.V. Foutz (a2)

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