Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Minimization of Preferred Orientation in Powders by Spray Drying

  • Steven T. Smith (a1), Robert L. Snyder (a1) and W. E. Brownell (a1)

Abstract

The spray drying of powders is a method of forming spherical or torroidal shaped agglomerates. A relatively simple method is given for preparing spray dried samples of the quantities used in x-ray diffraction analysis. This technique is shown to minimize preferred orientation effects on diffraction intensities from materials of widely differing symmetry and crystallite habit.

Copyright

References

Hide All
1. Visser, J. W. and De Wolff, P. M., “Absolute Intensities,” Report No. 641.109 Technisch Physische Dienst, Delft, Netherlands (1964).
2. Chung, F. H., “Quantitative Interpretation of X-ray Diffraction Patterns. III. Simultaneous Determination of a Set of Reference Intensities,” J. Appl. Cryst. 8 , 17 (1975).
3. Hubbard, C. R., Evans, E. H. and Smith, D. K., “The Reference Intensity Ratio, I/Ic, for Computer Simulated Powder Patterns,” J . Appl. Cryst. 9 169174 (1976).
4. Hubbard, C. R. and Smith, D. K., “Experimental and Calculated Standards for Quantitative Analysis by Powder Diffraction”, Adv. in X-ray Anal. 20, 2739 (1976).
5. Snyder, R. L. and Carr, W., “A Method for Determining the Preferred Orientation of Crystallites Normal to a Surface,” in Surfaces and Interfaces of Glass and Ceramics, Frechette, V. D., et. al., ed., Plenum Press, New York, 1974, p. 85.
6.. W. R. Marshall, Jr., “Atomization and Spray Drying,” Chemical Engineering Progress Monograph Series #2, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, Pub., Vol 50 (1954).
7. Florke, O. W. and Saalfeld, H., “Bin Verfahren Zur HersteHung Texturfreier Rontgen-Pulverpraparate,” Krist., Z. 106, 460 (1955).
8.. Jonas, E. J. and Kuykendall, J. R., “Preparation of Montmorillonites for Random Powder Diffraction,” Clay Miner. Bull. 6 , 232-5 (1966).
9. Hughes, R. and Bohor, B., “Random Clay Powders Prepared by Spray Drying“ Amer. Miner. 55, 1780-1786 (1970).
10. Clark, C. N., Smith, D. K. and Johnson, G. G. Jr., “A Fortran IV Program for Calculating X-ray Powder Diffraction Patterns-Version 5,” Department of Geosciences, Pennsylvania State Univ., University Parks, PA, 16802.
11. JCPDS, International Centre for Diffraction Data, 1601 Park Lake, Swarthmore, PA.
12. Mackenzie, R. C. and Milne, A. A., “The Effect of Grinding on Micas: I. Mus covite,” Min. Mag. 30 222 , 178185 (1953).
13. Gatineau, L., “Localisation des Remplacements Isomophiques dans la Muscovite,” Coiapt. Rend. 256 22, 4648-9 (1963).
14. Buerger, M. J. and Prewitt, C. T., “The Crystal Structures of Wollastonite and Pectolite,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., U.S. 47, 1884-8 (1961).
15. Parker, H. M. and Whitehouse, W. J., “X-ray Analysis of Iron Pyrites by the Method of Fourier Series,” Phil. Mag. 14, 939961 (1932).
16. Graf, D. L., “Crystallographic Tables for the Rhombohedral Carbonates,” Am. Miner. 46, 1283-1316 (1961).
17. Newnham, R. E. and DeHaan, Y. M., “Refinement of the αAf2O3, Ti203, V2O3 , Cr2O3 Structures,” Krist., Z. 117, 235 (1962).
18. Parrish, W., Advances in X-ray Diffractometry of Clay Minerals, Proc. 7th Natl. Conf. on Clays and Clay Minerals, Swineford, A. ed., Pergamon Press, New York, 1960.

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed