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Instrumental Developments for Electron Microprobe Readout

  • Kurt F. J. Heinrich (a1)


While conventional X-ray signal readout systems can be used in connection with the electron probe analyzer, new readout techniques can be applied with advantage, particularly for scanning procedures. Several novel techniques involving photographic recordings of oscilloscope tracings will be described. These techniques are applicable to area scanning (enhanced concentration method, concentration mapping with use of X-ray signals, and target current concentration mapping procedures) as well as line scanning. Combinations of area-scanning images with line-scan registration ate used for representing line-scan results.

By using operational amplifiers as signal adders, wavelength scans can be efficiently registered on a Polaroid photogram, with baseline indication and wavelength markers, in a single exposure. Another wavelength scanning technique registers the pulse height of the lines observed during the scanning operation, so that the order of reflection of the lines can be established. The use of an x-y recorder also offers advantages in the registration of line scans. Techniques for registration of multiple scans and for concentration mapping with the x-y recorder will be described.



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1. Heinrich, K. F. J., “Oscilloscope Readout of Electron Microprobe Data,” Advances in X-Ray Analysis, Vol. 6, University of Denver, Plenum Press, New York, 1962, p. 291.
2. Heinrich, K. F. J., “Count Distribution and Precision in X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis,” Advances in X-Ray Analysis, Vol. 3, University of Denver, Plenum Press, New York, 1959, p. 95.
3. Birks, L. S. and Brown, D. M., “Precision in X-Ray Spectrochemical Analysis: Fixed-Time Versus Fixed-Count,” Anal. Chem. 34: 240, 1962.
4. Wittry, D. B. and Fitzgerald, R., “Equipment for Beam Scanning and Step Scanning in Electron Probe Analysis,” Advances in X-Ray Analysis, Vol. 5, University of Denver, Plenum Press, New York, 1961, p. 538.
5. Davidson, E., Fowler, W. E., and Neuhaus, H., “Performance Evaluation of the Electron MicrOprobe X-Ray Analyzer,” Spectrographer's News Letter 15 (2), 1962, Applied Research Labs., Inc., Glendale, California.
6. Heinrich, K. F. J., “Pulse Height Selection in X-Ray Fluorescence,” Advances in X-Ray Analysis, Vol. 4, University of Denver, Plenum Press, New York, 1960, p. 370.
7. Riggs, F. B. Jr., “Simple Aid to Pulse-Height Selection with Scanning X-Ray Spectrometers,” Rev. Sti. Instr. 34: 312, 1963.
8. Wittry, D. B., “An Electron Probe for Local Analysis by Means of X-Rays,” California Institute of Technology (1957) Thesis 188. Report No. 5, Contract DA-04-95, Ord. 463, Dept. of the Army, p. 149.
9. Dolby, R. M. and Cosslett, V. E., “A Spectrometer System for Long Wavelength X-Ray Emission Microanalysis,” X-Ray Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis, Elsevier Publishing Co., Amsterdam, 1960, p. 351.
10. Birks, L. S. and Batt, A. P., “Use of a Multichannel Analyzer for Electron Probe Microanalysis,” Anal. Chem, 35: 778, 1963.
11. Melford, D. A., “The Use of Electron Probe Microanalysis in Physical Metallurgy,” J. Inst. Metals 90: 217, 1962.
12. Heinrich, K. F. J., “Concentration Mapping Device for the Scanning Electron Probe Microanalyzer,” Rev. Sci. Instr. 33: 884, 1962.
13. Wittry, D. B., “Methods of Quantitative Electron Probe Analysis,” this volume, p. 395.
14. Long, J. V. P., MIT summer course, 1960, unpublished.
15. Wittry, D. B., private communication.


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