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A Focusing System for X-ray Diffraction Studies of Materials Under High Pressure in the Diamond Cell

  • Y. Wu (a1), A. C. Thompson (a1), J. H. Underwood (a1), H. K. Mao (a2), Y. W. Fei (a2), J. Z. Hu (a2), J. V. Badding (a2) and J. F. Shu (a2)...

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Recent advances in techniques to generate static ultra-high pressure (>100 GPa) in the diamond anvil cell have significantly enhanced our understanding of the properties of solids under these extreme conditions. In order to characterize the structure of solids at these pressures, X-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation has become an invaluable tool. Since the highest pressures are attained at the expense of sample volume (~ 100 μm3) , it is best to use the intense radiation available from a synchrotron to study the very small samples used in ultra-high pressure studies. Even with the intense x-ray beams currently available, it is still often desirable to focus the x-ray beam to increase the available flux. We have developed a focusing system which uses multilayer coated spherical mirrors. With this system, intense x-ray beams with sizes smaller than 10 μm by 10 μm can be achieved at a synchrotron radiation beamline. Previously, we used the focusing system for x-ray microprobe experiments.

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1. Thompson, A. C., Underwood, J. H., Wu, Y., Giauque, R. D., Jones, K. W. and Rivers, M. L., Elemental Measurements With an X-Ray Microprobe of Biological and Geological Samples With Femtogram Sensitivity, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A226: 318 (1987).
2. Underwood, J. H., Thompson, A. C., Wu, Y. and Giauque, R. D., X-Ray Microprobe Using Multilayer Mirrors, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 226: 296 (1987).
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4. Xu, J. A., Mao, H. K. and Bell, P. M., High-Pressure Ruby and Diamond Fluorescence: Observations at 0.21 to 0.55 Terapascal, Science. 232:1404, (1986); William G. Moss, John O. Hallquist, Robin Reichlin, Kenneth A. Goettel and Sue Martin, Finite element analysis of the diamond anvil cell: Achieving 4,6 Mbar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48:1258. (1986).
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7. Mao, H. K., Wu, Y., Shu, J. F., Chen, L. C., and Jephcoat, A. P., Static compression of iron to 300 GPa and Fe0.8Ni0.2 to 260 GPa: implications for the composition of the core, J. Geophys. Res., submitted for publication.
8. Mao, H. K., Wu, Y., Hemley, R. J., Chen, L. C., Su, J. F., and Finger, L. W., X-ray diffraction to 302 GPa: the crystal structure of CsI at high pressure, Science, 246: 649 (1989); H. K. Mao, Y. Wu, R. J. Hemley, L. C. Chen, J. F. Shu, L. W. Finger, and D. E. Cox, High-pressure phase transition and equation of state of CsI, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64: 1749 (1990).
9. Aleksandrov, I. V., Goncharov, A. F., Makarenko, I. W. and Stishov, S. M., New data on the equation of state and the phase transitions in cesium iodide, preprint.
10. Wu, Y. et al., to be published.

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