Coal mine dust is produced from complex materials which consist of organic sedimentary phases, inorganic minerals, and trace elements. The dust varies in its chemical compositions and is capable of causing lung injury when inhaled. The purpose of this study was to perform scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive spectrometry, wavelength dispersive spectrometry and X-ray diffraction analyses of three coal dusts and examine their effects on rat lung alveolar macrophages (AM) in cell culture. The coal dusts were obtained from coal surfaces of anthracite, meager and fat coal mines. AM were harvested by bronchoalveolar lavage from adult male Wistar rats and were cultured in Eagle's medium at 37°C.