American Psychiatric Association (1994) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edn) (DSM–IV). APA.
Binneman, B, Feltner, D, Kolluri, S et al (2008) A 6-week randomized, placebo-controlled trial of CP-316,311 (a selective CRH1 antagonist) in the treatment of major depression. American Journal of Psychiatry; 165: 617–20.
DeBattista, C, Belanoff, J, Glass, S et al (2006) Mifepristone versus placebo in the treatment of psychosis in patients with psychotic major depression. Biological Psychiatry; 60: 1343–9.
Carvalho, LA, Juruena, MF, Papadopoulos, AS et al (2008) Clomipramine in vitro reduces glucocorticoid receptor function in healthy subjects but not in patients with major depression. Neuropsychopharmacology; 33: 3182–9.
Flores, BH, Kenna, H, Keller, J et al (2006) Clinical and biological effects of mifepristone treatment for psychotic depression. Neuropsychopharmacology; 31: 628–36.
Gallagher, P, Malik, N, Newham, J et al (2008) Antiglucocorticoid treatments for mood disorders. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews; issue 1: CD005168.
Jahn, H, Schick, M, Kiefer, F et al (2004) Metyrapone as additive treatment in major depression: a double-blind and placebo-controlled trial. Archives of General Psychiatry; 61: 1235–44.
Kirsch, I, Deacon, BJ, Huedo-Medina, TB et al (2008) Initial severity and antidepressant benefits: a meta-analysis of data submitted to the Food and Drug Administration. PLoS Medicine; 5: e45.
Lanquillon, S, Drieg, JC, Bening-Abu-Shach, U et al (2000) Cytokine production and treatment response in major depressive disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology; 22: 370–9.
Mason, BL, Pariante, CM (2006) The effects of antidepressants on the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. Drug News and Perspectives; 19: 603–8.
McIsaac, SA, Westrin, A, Young, AH (2009) Antiglucocorticoids in psychiatry. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment; 15: 242–249.
Pérez-Neri, I, Montes, S, Ojeda-López, C et al (2008) Modulation of neurotransmitter systems by dehydroepiandrosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate: mechanism of action and relevance to psychiatric disorders. Progress in Neuropsychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry; 32: 1118–30.
Rabkin, JG, McElhiney, MC, Rabkin, R et al (2006) Placebo-controlled trial of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) for treatment of nonmajor depression in patients with HIV/AIDS. American Journal of Psychiatry; 163: 59–66.
Saponaro, S, Guarnieri, V, Pescarmona, GP et al (2007) Long-term exposure to dehydroepiandrosterone affects the transcriptional activity of the glucocorticoid receptor. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; 103: 129–36.
Schmidt, PJ, Daly, RC, Bloch, M et al (2005) Dehydroepiandrosterone monotherapy in midlife-onset major and minor depression. Archives of General Psychiatry; 62: 154–62.
Turner, EH, Matthews, AM, Linardatos, E et al (2008) Selective publication of antidepressant trials and its influence on apparent efficacy. New England Journal of Medicine; 358: 252–60.
Wolkowitz, OM, Reus, VI, Keebler, A et al (1999) Double-blind treatment of major depression with dehydroepiandrosterone. American Journal of Psychiatry; 156: 646–9.
Young, AH, Gallagher, P, Watson, S et al (2004) Improvements in neurocognitive function and mood following adjunctive treatment with mifepristone (RU-486) in bipolar disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology; 29: 1538–45.
Zobel, AW, Nickel, T, Künzel, HE et al (2000) Effects of the high-affinity corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 antagonist R121919 in major depression: the first 20 patients treated. Journal of Psychiatric Research; 34: 171–81.