To send this article to your account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
To review the literature comparing electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) for major depression.
Data from the six randomised, prospective studies were agglutinated into one data set. Special attention was given to the methods of both TMS and ECT as well as data pertaining to differential outcomes in subgroups such as psychotic depressives and the elderly.
There is a highly significant advantage for ECT in the prospective, randomised trials. The two non-randomised, retrospective comparative trials found the treatments to be equal in one study and superior for ECT in another. However, sample sizes are small in these studies, and both TMS and ECT may have been used suboptimally. Furthermore, the possibilities of differential efficacy of ECT or TMS for psychotic depressives or as a function of age have yet to be fully explored.
The data to date do not support the contention that TMS is equivalent in efficacy to ECT. It is recommended that a large-scale trial be undertaken using aggressive forms of both TMS and ECT with sample sizes sufficiently large to detect effects of moderating variables such as age and psychosis status.
The aims of this study were to determine the dominant affective temperament changes in stroke survivors and whether temperament affects the disability.
A total of 63 stroke patients were included in this study. Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego Autoquestionnaire was used to determine the dominant affective temperament (depressive, hyperthymic, cyclothymic, irritable or anxious). The disability level was measured with the Barthel index (BI).
Depressive temperament (17.5%) and anxious temperament (12.7%) were the most common dominant affective temperaments. The frequencies of irritable, cyclothymic and hyperthymic temperaments were 4.8, 3.2 and 0%, respectively. The mean BI score was 78.1 ± 18.3 in patients with depressive temperament and 67.4 ± 28.4 in patients without depressive temperament (p = 0.403). The mean BI score was 78.1 ± 15.3 in patients with anxious temperament and 68.0 ± 28.3 in patients without anxious temperament (p = 0.541). Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that BI score was not associated with affective temperament changes.
The results of the current study suggest that depressive and anxious temperaments are the most common affective temperaments and that there appears to be no association between disability level and dominant affective temperament in stroke survivors.
The aim of the present study was to assess the association between previous suicide attempts and functional impairment among euthymic patients with bipolar disorder (BD).
Seventy-one Diagnostic Statistical Manual IV (DSM-IV) patients with BD and 61 healthy volunteers were recruited from the Bipolar Disorder Program at the Clinic Hospital of Barcelona. Patients with (n = 36, 50.7%) and without (n = 35, 49.3%) previous suicide attempts were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR (SCID-P). Previous suicide attempts were carefully investigated by means of patient and caregiver interview and by a standard structured interview from the protocol of our BD Program. The Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST) was employed to assess functional impairment.
Euthymic patients with previous suicide attempts showed functional impairment, particularly in occupational (F = 30.39; p = 0.001) and cognitive functioning (F = 18.43; p = 0.001). In addition, family history of psychiatric illness (χ2: 6.49; degrees of freedom (df) = 2;132; p = 0.010), family history of affective disorders (χ2 = 5.57; p = 0.017), psychotic symptoms (χ2 = 5.88; p = 0.014) and axis II comorbidity were associated with previous suicide attempts (χ2 = 5.16; p = 0.021).
Bipolar patients with previous suicide attempts had lower overall functioning than patients who did not attempt suicide. Previous suicide attempts were particularly associated with the occupational and cognitive domains of functioning.
The mechanism of action of antidepressant drugs is not fully understood. Application of genomic methods enables the identification of biochemical pathways that are regulated by antidepressants, and this may provide novel clues to the molecular and cellular actions of these drugs. The present study examined gene expression profiles in the hippocampus of rats exposed to chronic antidepressant treatment.
Animals were treated for 12 days with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor paroxetine; then, hippocampal ribonucleic acid was recovered, and changes in gene expression were assessed by microarray analysis.
A total of 160 genes that showed differential expression after paroxetine exposure were identified. Using functional relevance and observed fold change as selection criteria, the expression changes in a subset of these genes were confirmed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction.
Of this subset, only two genes, cyclin D1 (Ccnd1) and hairy and enhancer of split 6 (Hes6), showed robust and consistent changes in expression. Both genes were downregulated by paroxetine, and both have been previously implicated in neurogenesis. Further investigation of these two genes may provide new insight into the mechanism of action of antidepressants.