To send this article to your account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Increasing evidence suggests that immunological and inflammatory dysfunctions may play an important role in predisposition, onset, and progression of schizophrenia and related psychosis. The activation of cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system, especially microglia and monocytes, has been reported in schizophrenia. We carried out this systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate if there are significant differences in monocyte count comparing healthy controls with people suffering from schizophrenia and related disorders.
We searched main electronic databases; nine records met all our criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. Meta-analyses based on random effects models have been carried out generating pooled standardised mean differences (SMDs) of monocyte count in peripheral blood between schizophrenia and related psychosis and healthy controls. Heterogeneity was estimated. Relevant sensitivity and subgroup analyses were conducted.
Patients showed higher monocyte count as compared with healthy control (SMD = 0.393; p = 0.001). Heterogeneity across studies was from moderate to high (I2 = 65.952%); sensitivity analysis leaving out two studies responsible for most of the heterogeneity showed a slightly higher SMD. Subgroup analyses confirmed this result, showing no significant differences in the effect size across different study characteristics.
Monocyte count can be considered an indirect marker of microglia activation in the central nervous system. Thus, the observed higher monocyte count in patients could be considered as a possible peripheral marker of microgliaʼs activation in schizophrenia disorder.
We evaluated processing-speed and shift-cost measures in adults with depression or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and monitored the effects of treatment. We hypothesised that cognitive-speed and shift-cost measures might differentiate diagnostic groups.
Colour, form, and colour–form stimuli were used to measure naming times. The shift costs were calculated as colour–form-naming time minus the sum of colour- and form-naming times. Measurements were done at baseline and end point for 42 adults with depression and 42 with ADHD without depression. Patients with depression were treated with transcranial pulsed electromagnetic fields and patients with ADHD with methylphenidate immediate release.
During depression treatment, reductions in naming times were recorded weekly. One-way analysis of variance indicated statistical between-group differences, with effect sizes in the medium range for form and colour–form. In both groups, naming times were longer before than after treatment. For the ADHD group, shift costs exceeded the average–normal range at baseline but were in the average–normal range after stabilisation with stimulant medication. For the depression group, shift costs were in the average–normal range at baseline and after treatment. Baseline colour–form-naming times predicted reductions in naming times for both groups, with the largest effect size and index of forecasting efficiency for the ADHD group.
The cognitive-processing-speed (colour–form) and shift-cost measures before treatment proved most sensitive in differentiating patients with depression and ADHD. Reductions in naming times for the depression group were suggested to reflect improved psychomotor skills rather than improved cognitive control.
Reward sensitivity is an increasingly used construct in psychiatry, yet its possible inner structure and relationship with other affective variables are not well known.
A reward sensitivity measurement scale was constructed on the basis of large item pool collected from birth cohort representative samples (the Estonian Children Personality Behaviour and Health Study; original n = 1238). Affective Neuroscience Personality Scale (ANPS) and the Adult Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Self-Report Scale (ASRS) were administered in young adulthood. A variant (rs4570625) of the gene encoding tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) that is responsible for the synthesis of central serotonin was genotyped.
Reward sensitivity consisted of two orthogonal components, operationally defined as Openness to Rewards and Insatiability by Reward, that respectively characterise the striving towards multiple rewards and the strong pursuit and fixation to a particular reward. While SEEKING and PLAY (and to lower extent CARE) of the ANPS co-varied with Openness to Rewards, FEAR, SADNESS, and ANGER were related to Insatiability by Reward. The total score of ASRS was moderately correlated with Insatiability by Reward, while the association with Openness to Rewards was negligible. However, ASRS Inattention had some negative relationship with the Social Experience facet of Openness to Rewards. The T/T homozygotes for the TPH2 promoter polymorphism had lower Insatiability by Reward but not Openness to Rewards.
Behaviours sensitive to rewards are separable to the components of variability and fixation, and these components are differentially related to affective aspects of personality, attention, and hyperactivity as well as to TPH2 genotype.
Growing evidence suggested that antiretroviral (ARV) drugs may promote amyloid beta (Aβ) accumulation in HIV-1-infected brain and the persistence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs). It has also been shown that lipid peroxidation upregulates β-site amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) expression and subsequently promotes Aβ peptide production. In the present study, we examined whether chronic exposure to the anti-HIV drugs tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and nevirapine induces lipid peroxidation thereby promoting BACE1 and Aβ generation and consequently impair cognitive function in mice.
TDF or nevirapine was orally administered to female BALB/c mice once a day for 8 weeks. On the 7th week of treatment, spatial learning and memory were assessed using the Morris water maze test. The levels of lipid peroxidation, BACE1, amyloid β 1-42 (Aβ1-42) and Aβ deposits were measured in the hippocampal tissue upon completion of treatment.
Chronic administration of nevirapine induced spatial learning and memory impairment in the Morris water maze test, whereas TDF did not have an effect. TDF and nevirapine administration increased hippocampal lipid peroxidation and Aβ1-42 concentration. Nevirapine further upregulated BACE1 expression and Aβ deposits.
Our results suggest that chronic exposure to TDF and nevirapine contributes to hippocampal lipid peroxidation and Aβ accumulation, respectively, as well as spatial learning and memory deficits in mice even in the absence of HIV infection. These findings further support a possible link between ARV drug toxicity, Aβ accumulation and the persistence of HANDs.
It has been hypothesised that neuropsychiatric symptoms, including psychosis, can be the result of a milder brain bioenergetic defect produced by mitochondrial dysfunction; however, mitochondrial dysfunction can be present in other organs or systems. The aim of the study was to investigate whether clinical conditions associated with mitochondrial disorders (CAMDs) were frequently present in schizophrenia.
A previously used questionnaire regarding the CAMDs was administered to patients and controls in a direct interview with a trained psychiatrist. The frequencies of CAMDs in 164 patients with schizophrenia were compared to those in 156 age- and sex-matched controls.
Severe fatigue, seizures, constipation and diabetes were significantly more frequent in patients with schizophrenia than in control subjects and apparently not related to pharmacological treatment.
The results of the present study suggest that multi-systemic mitochondrial dysfunction may be an underlying mechanism involved in schizophrenia.