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Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disease characterised with seizures. The aetiology of the most generalised epilepsies cannot be explicitly determined and the seizures are pronounced to be genetically determined by disturbances of receptors in central nervous system. Besides, neurotransmitter distributions or other metabolic problems are supposed to involve in epileptogenesis. Lack of adequate data about pharmacological agents that have antiepileptogenic effects point to need of research on this field. Thus, in this review, inflammatory aspects of epileptogenesis has been focussed via considering several concepts like role of immune system, blood–brain barrier and antibody involvement in epileptogenesis.
We conducted an evidence-based review of the literatures in order to evaluate the possible participation of inflammatory processes to epileptogenesis and also, promising agents which are effective to these processes. We searched PubMed database up to November 2015 with no date restrictions.
In the present review, 163 appropriate articles were included. Obtained data suggests that inflammatory processes participate to epileptogenesis in several ways like affecting fibroblast growth factor-2 and tropomyosin receptor kinase B signalling pathways, detrimental proinflammatory pathways [such as the interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β)–interleukin-1 receptor type 1 (IL-1R1) system], mammalian target of rapamycin pathway, microglial activities, release of glial inflammatory proteins (such as macrophage inflammatory protein, interleukin 6, C–C motif ligand 2 and IL-1β), adhesion molecules that are suggested to function in signalling pathways between neurons and microglia and also linkage between these molecules and proinflammatory cytokines.
The literature research indicated that inflammation is a part of epileptogenesis. For this reason, further studies are necessary for assessing agents that will be effective in clinical use for therapeutic treatment of epileptogenesis.
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is one of the most efficient treatments for severe major depression, but some patients suffer from retrograde memory loss after treatment. Electroconvulsive seizures (ECS), an animal model of ECT, have repeatedly been shown to increase hippocampal neurogenesis, and multiple ECS treatments cause retrograde amnesia in hippocampus-dependent memory tasks. Since recent studies propose that addition of newborn hippocampal neurons might degrade existing memories, we investigated whether the memory impairment after multiple ECS treatments is a cumulative effect of repeated treatments, or if it is the result of a delayed effect after a single ECS.
We used the hippocampus-dependent memory task Morris water maze (MWM) to evaluate spatial memory. Rats were exposed to an 8-day training paradigm before receiving either a single ECS or sham treatment and tested in the MWM 24 h, 72 h, or 7 days after this treatment, or multiple (four) ECS or sham treatments and tested 7 days after the first treatment.
A single ECS treatment was not sufficient to cause retrograde amnesia whereas multiple ECS treatments strongly disrupted spatial memory in the MWM.
The retrograde amnesia after multiple ECS is a cumulative effect of repeated treatments rather than a delayed effect after a single ECS.
Research findings made over the last few years have highlighted the important role of creatine (Cr) in health and disease. However, limited information is available regarding the effect of Cr supplementation on cognation. Present study was designed to determine the effect of variable doses of Cr (1% and 3%) on selected parameters of female albino mice behaviour.
Following weaning, on 20th postnatal day, female albino mice were divided into three groups on the basis of dietary supplementation. Control group were was fed with normal rodent diet, whereas treated groups received diet supplemented with 1% and 3% Creatine monohydrate (Ssniff, Germany) for 10 weeks. Morris water maze (MWM), Rota rod and open field (OF) tests were carried out at the end of diet supplementation for neurofunctional assessment in all the groups.
Data analysis showed that Cr supplementation did not affect the muscular activity and during rota rod test as well as locomotor and exploratory behaviour during OF test. Results of MWM probe trial indicated that mice supplemented with 3% Cr had significantly more entries in platform area than other two treatments (p=0.03) indicating improved spatial memory. Body weight remained unaffected (p>0.05) when compared between three experimental treatments.
Female mice supplemented with 3% Cr showed improved spatial memory than mice fed on 1% Cr-supplemented diet and mice on normal rodent diet.
Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is prevalent in traumatic brain injury (TBI), and is often associated with poor outcomes and cognitive impairment, including memory deficits. Few studies have explored visual memory after TBI and its relationship to executive functioning. Executive functioning is crucial for remembering an object’s location, operating devices, driving, and route finding. We compared visual memory performance via the Rey–Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF) test 6 and 12 months after DAI.
In total, 40 patients (mean age 28.7 years; 87.5% male) with moderate-to-severe DAI following a road traffic accident completed the 1-year follow-up. There was a three-phase prospective assessment. In phase 1 (1–3 months after trauma), patients completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). In phases 2 (6 months) and 3 (12 months), they completed the BDI, STAI, and a neuropsychological battery [ROCF copy and recall, digit span forward/backward, Grooved Pegboard test, intelligence quotient (IQ) by Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III)].
There was an improvement in ROCF recall over time (p=0.013), but not ROCF copy (p=0.657).There was no change in executive function (Savage scores) copy (p=0.230) or recall (p=0.155). Age, years of education, severity of the trauma, and IQ did not influence ROCF recall improvement.
There are time-dependent improvements in visual memory in patients with DAI. Neuroplasticity in the 1st months after trauma provides an opportunity for visuospatial memory learning. The present findings may be useful to formulate management plans for long-term TBI rehabilitation.
Infants exposed to selective antidepressants (SADs) in utero are at risk to develop poor neonatal adaptation (PNA) postpartum. As symptoms are non-specific and the aetiology of PNA is unknown, the diagnostic process is hampered. We hypothesised that the serotonin metabolism plays a role in the aetiology of PNA.
In this controlled study, infants admitted postpartum from February 2012 to August 2013 were included and followed for 3 days. Infants exposed to SADs during at least the last 2 weeks of fetal life were included in the patient group (n=63). Infants not exposed to psychotropic medication and admitted postpartum for another reason were included in the control group (n=126). The neonatal urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetid acid (5-HIAA) levels of SAD-exposed infants who developed PNA, SAD-exposed infants who did not develop PNA and control infants were compared.
The course of the 5-HIAA levels over the first 3 days postpartum differed between infants with and without PNA (p≤0.001) with higher 5-HIAA levels in infants with PNA on day 1 (2.42 mmol/mol, p=0.001). Presence of maternal psychological distress modified this relationship.
A transient disturbance of the neonatal serotonergic system may play a role in the aetiology of PNA. Other factors, including the presence of maternal psychological distress, also seem to play a role.
There is a growing interest in the role of kynurenine pathway and tryptophan metabolites in the pathophysiology of depression. In the present study, the metabolism of tryptophan along the kynurenine pathway was analysed in a rat model of depression.
Kynurenic acid (KYNA) and 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK) were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in prefrontal cortex (PFC) and frontal cortex (FC) in a rat model of depression, the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) and their controls, the Flinders Resistant Line (FRL) rats. In addition, KYNA was also measured in hippocampus, striatum and cerebellum.
KYNA levels were reduced in the PFC of FSL rats compared with FRL rats, but did not differ with regard to the FC, hippocampus, striatum or cerebellum. 3-HK levels in PFC and FC, representing the activity of the microglial branch of the kynurenine pathway, did not differ between the FSL and FRL strains.
Our results suggest an imbalanced metabolism of the kynurenine pathway in the PFC of FSL rats.
Dysregulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis has been reported in depression. The aim was to investigate the potential association between depression and seven genes regulating or interfering with the HPA axis, including the gene encoding angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE).
In total, 78 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and one insertion/deletion polymorphism were genotyped. The study included 408 individuals with depression and 289 controls. In a subset of cases, the interaction between genetic variants and stressful life events (SLEs) was investigated.
After quality control, 68 genetic variants were left for analyses. Four of nine variants within ACE were nominally associated with depression and a gene-wise association was likewise observed. However, none of the SNPs located within AVP, CRH, CRHR1, CRHR2, FKBP5 or NC3C1 were associated with depression. One nominally significant interaction, most likely due to chance, was identified.
The results indicate that ACE could be a potential candidate gene for depression.