Skip to main content Accessibility help

How to increase the role of social workers in suicide preventive interventions

  • Joshua Levine (a1) (a2) and Leo Sher (a1) (a3)



Suicide is a serious public health issue that affects individuals, families and societies all over the world. International studies provide consistent evidence that the presence of psychiatrists in a region is associated with lesser suicide rates. However, many psychiatric patients including suicidal patients do not have access to psychiatrists. This indicates that mental health and non-mental health social workers need to be involved in suicide prevention efforts. This paper is the first comprehensive work that discusses how to increase the role of social workers in the area of suicide prevention.


A review of the relevant literature.


Increasing the role of social workers in suicide prevention efforts may reduce suicide risk in groups and people at elevated risk for suicide, as well as the general population.


Recommendations are provided for how the social work profession can improve upon suicide prevention while incorporating universal, selective and indicated suicide preventive interventions. Social work research efforts should focus on how to increase the role of social workers in suicide prevention and the management of suicidal patients. Social work education programmes should modify their curricula and increase their attention on suicide prevention. Mental health social workers need to educate the patient and their family on suicide risk factors. Furthermore, mental health and non-mental health social workers need to educate the general public on suicide risk factors.


Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: Joshua Levine, Email:


Hide All
Ahmedani, BK, Peterson, EL, Hu, Y, Rossom, RC, Lynch, F, Lu, CY, Waitzfelder, BE, Owen-Smith, AA, Hubley, S, Prabhakar, D, Williams, LK, Zeld, N, Mutter, E, Beck, A, Tolsma, D and Simon, GE (2017) Major physical health conditions and risk of suicide. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 53, 308315.
Amaresha, AC and Venkatasubramanian, G (2012) Expressed emotion in schizophrenia: an overview. Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine 34, 1220.
Andriessen, K (2014) Suicide bereavement and postvention in major suicidology journals: lessons learned for the future of postvention. Crisis 35, 338348.
Andriessen, K and Krysinska, K (2012) Essential questions on suicide bereavement and postvention. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 9, 2432.
Arsenault-Lapierre, G, Kim, C and Turecki, G (2004) Psychiatric diagnoses in 3275 suicides: a meta-analysis. BMC Psychiatry 4, 111.
Baca-Garcia, E, Parra, CP, Perez-Rodriguez, MM, Diaz Sastre, C, Reyes Torres, R, Saiz-Ruiz, J and de Leon, J (2007) Psychosocial stressors may be strongly associated with suicide attempts. Stress and Health 23, 191198.
Bagley, C and Young, L (1998) Long-term evaluation of group counselling for women with a history of child sexual abuse: focus on depression, self-esteem, suicidal behaviors and social support. Social Work With Groups 21, 6373.
Beautrais, AL, Joyce, PR and Mulder, RT (1997) Precipitating factors and life events in serious suicide attempts among youths aged 13 through 24 years. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 36, 15431551.
Black, SA, Gallaway, MS, Bell, MR and Ritche, EC (2011) Prevalence and risk factors associated with suicides of army soldiers 2001-2009. Military Psychology 23, 433451.
Blakely, TA, Collings, SCD and Atkinson, J (2003) Unemployment and suicide. Evidence for a causal association? Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 57, 594600.
Boardman, AP, Grimbaldeston, AH, Handley, C, Jones, PW and Willmott, S (1999) The North Staffordshire suicide study: a case-control study of suicide in one health district. Psychological Medicine 29, 2733.
Bonner, A and Luscombe, C (2009) Suicide and homelessness. Journal of Public Mental Health 8, 719.
Brådvik, L (2018) Suicide risk and mental disorders. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 15, 14.
Brent, DA, Perper, JA, Moritz, G, Baugher, M, Roth, C, Balach, L and Schweers, J (1993) Stressful life events, psychopathology, and adolescent suicide: a case control study. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior 23, 179187.
Brooks Holliday, S (2018) The Relationship between Mental Health Care Access and Suicide. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corp. Available at Accessed 16 August 2019.
Brown, GK and Jager-Hyman, S (2014) Evidence-based psychotherapies for suicide prevention: future directions. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 47, S186S194.
Calati, R and Courtet, P (2016) Is psychotherapy effective for reducing suicide attempt and non-suicidal self-injury rates? Meta-analysis and meta-regression of literature data. Journal of Psychiatric Research 79, 820.
Classen, TJ and Dunn, RA (2012) The effect of job loss and unemployment duration on suicide risk in the United States: a new look using mass-layoffs and unemployment duration. Health Economics 21, 338350.
Colucci, E, Too, LS and Minas, H (2017) A suicide research agenda for people from immigrant and refugee background. Death Studies 41, 502511.
Cook, SC, Schwartz, AC and Kaslow, NJ (2017) Evidence-based psychotherapy: advantages and challenges. Neurotherapeutics 14, 537545.
Cook, TB (2013) Recent criminal offending and suicide attempts: a national sample. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 48, 767774.
Cook, TB and Davis, MS (2012) Assessing legal strains and risk of suicide using archived court data. Suicide & Life-Threatening Behavior 42, 495506.
Cuijpers, P, van Straten, A, Andersson, G and van Oppen, P (2008) Psychotherapy for depression in adults: a meta-analysis of comparative outcome studies. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 76, 909922.
Demir, S (2018) The relationship between expressed emotion and the probability of suicide among Turkish psychiatric outpatients: a descriptive cross-sectional survey. Family and Community Health 41, 111116.
Desai, RA, Liu-Mares, W, Dausey, DJ and Rosenheck, RA (2003) Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in a sample of homeless people with mental illness. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 191, 365371.
Dunne, EJ (2009) Family psychoeducation with suicide attempters. In Wasserman, D and Wasserman, C (eds) Oxford Textbook of Suicidology and Suicide Prevention. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, pp. 111.
Feldman, BN and Freedenthal, S (2006) Social work education in suicide intervention and prevention: an unmet need? Suicide & Life-Threatening Behavior 36, 467480.
Forte, A, Trobia, F, Gualtieri, F, Lamis, DA, Cardamone, G, Giallonardo, V, Fiorillo, A, Girardi, P and Pompili, M (2018) Suicide risk among immigrants and ethnic minorities: a literature overview. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 15, 1438.
Gøtzsche, PC and Gøtzsche, PK (2017) Cognitive behavioural therapy halves the risk of repeated suicide attempts: systematic review. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 110, 404410.
Harenski, CL, Brook, M, Kosson, DS, Bustillo, JR, Harenski, KA, Caldwell, MF, Van Rybroek, GJ, Koenigs, M, Decety, J, Thornton, DM, Calhoun, VD and Kiehl, KA (2017) Socio-neuro risk factors for suicidal behavior in criminal offenders with psychotic disorders. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience 12, 7080.
Harkness, D (2011) The diagnosis of mental disorders in clinical social work: a review of standards of care. Clinical Social Work Journal 39, 223231.
Harris, EC and Barraclough, B (1997) Suicide as an outcome for mental disorders: a meta-analysis. The British Journal of Psychiatry 170, 205228.
Hawton, K and van Heeringen, K (2009) Suicide. The Lancet 373, 13721381.
Hedegaard, H, Curtin, SC and Warner, M (2018) Suicide mortality in the United States, 1999-2017. NCHS Data Brief 330, 18.
Herman, J (1997) Trauma And Recovery. New York, NY: Basic Books.
HHS Health Resources and Services Administration (2016) National Projections of Supply and Demand for Selected Behavioral Health Practitioners: 2013-2025. Available at Accessed 16 August 2019.
Höjer, S and Dellgran, P (2013) Academization of social work in Sweden and China. China Journal of Social Work 6, 344352.
Ilceto, P, Pompili, M, Candilera, G, Borges, G, Lamis, DA, Serafini, G and Girardi, P (2013) Suicide risk and psychopathology in immigrants: a multi-group confirmatory factor analysis. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 48, 11051114.
Isaac, M, Elias, B, Katz, LY, Belik, S-L, Deane, FP, Enns, MW and Sareen, J (2009) Gatekeeper training as a preventative intervention for suicide: a systematic review. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 54, 260268.
Jacobson, JM, Osteen, PJ, Sharpe, TL and Pastoor, JB (2012) Randomized trial of suicide gatekeeper training for social work students. Research on Social Work Practice 22, 270281.
Jacobson, JM, Ting, L, Sanders, S and Harrington, D (2004) Prevalence of and reactions to fatal and nonfatal client suicidal behavior: a national study of mental health social workers. OMEGA – Journal of Death and Dying 49, 237248.
Joe, S and Niedermeier, D (2008) Preventing suicide: a neglected social work research agenda. The British Journal of Social Work 38, 507530.
Jordan, JR (2017) Postvention is prevention – The case for suicide postvention. Death Studies 41, 614621.
Kodaka, M, Inagaki, M, Poštuvan, V and Yamada, M (2012) Exploration of factors associated with social worker attitudes toward suicide. International Journal of Social Psychiatry 59, 452459.
Kposowa, AJ (2001) Unemployment and suicide: a cohort analysis of social factors predicting suicide in the US national longitudinal mortality study. Psychological Medicine 31, 127138.
Kushner, HI (1984) Immigrant suicide in the United States: toward a psycho-social history. Journal of Social History 18, 324.
Lai, DWL, Li, L and Daoust, GD (2017) Factors influencing suicide behaviours in immigrant and ethno-cultural minority groups: a systematic review. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health 19, 755768.
Lazar, SG (2014) The cost-effectiveness of psychotherapy for the major psychiatric diagnoses. Psychodynamic Psychiatry 42, 423457.
Lee, KH, Jun, JS, Kim, YJ, Roh, S, Moon, SS, Bukonda, N and Hines, L (2017) Mental health, substance abuse, and suicide among homeless adults. Journal of Evidence-Informed Social Work 14, 229242.
Lenz, AS, Rosenbaum, L and Sheperis, D (2016) Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of motivational enhancement therapy for reducing substance use. Journal of Addictions & Offender Counseling 37, 6686.
Lewis, S, Tarrier, N, Haddock, G, Bentall, R, Kinderman, P, Kingdon, D, Siddle, R, Drake, R, Everitt, J, Leadley, K, Benn, A, Grazebrook, K, Haley, C, Akhtar, S, Davies, L, Palmer, S, Faragher, B and Dunn, G (2002) Randomised controlled trial of cognitive-behavioural therapy in early schizophrenia: acute-phase outcomes. The British Journal of Psychiatry 181, s91s97.
Lieberman, F (1987) Psychotherapy and the clinical social worker. American Journal of Psychotherapy 41, 369383.
Linehan, MM, Korslund, KE, Harned, MS, Gallop, RJ, Lungu, A, Neacsiu, AD, McDavid, J, Comtois, KA and Murray-Gregory, AM (2015) Dialectical behavior therapy for high suicide risk in individuals with borderline personality disorder: a randomized clinical trial and component analysis. JAMA Psychiatry 72, 475482.
Lundin, A, Lundberg, I, Allebeck, P and Hemmingsson, T (2012) Unemployment and suicide in the Stockholm population: a register-based study on 771,068 men and women. Public Health 126, 371377.
Luxton, DD, June, JD and Fairall, JM (2012) Social media and suicide: a public health perspective. American Journal of Public Health 102, S195S200.
Magill, M and Ray, LA (2009) Cognitive-behavioral treatment with adult alcohol and illicit drug users: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs 70, 516527.
Mann, CC, Golden, JH, Cronk, NJ, Gale, JK, Hogan, T and Washington, KT (2016) Social workers as behavioral health consultants in the primary care clinic. Health & Social Work 41, 196200.
Mann, JJ (2002) A current perspective of suicide and attempted suicide. Annals of Internal Medicine 136, 302311.
Mann, JJ, Apter, AA, Bertolote, J, Beautrais, A, Currier, D, Haas, A, Hegerl, U, Lonnqvist, J, Malone, K, Marusic, A, Mehlum, L, Patton, G, Phillips, M, Rutz, W, Rihmer, Z, Schmidtke, A, Shaffer, D, Silverman, M, Takahashi, Y, Varnik, A, Wasserman, D, Yip, P and Hendin, H (2005) Suicide prevention strategies: a systematic review. JAMA 294, 20642074.
Manthorpe, J and Iliffe, S (2011) Social work with older people – Reducing suicide risk: a critical review of practice and prevention. British Journal of Social Work 41, 131147.
Maple, M, Pearce, T, Sanford, RL and Cerel, J (2017) The role of social work in suicide prevention, intervention, and postvention: a scoping review. Australian Social Work 70, 289301.
Maple, M, Pearce, T, Sanford, RL and Cerel, J (2018) A systematic mapping of suicide bereavement and postvention research and a proposed strategic research agenda. Crisis: The Journal of Crisis Intervention and Suicide Prevention 39, 275282.
Maris, RW (2002) Suicide. The Lancet 360, 319326.
Méndez-Bustos, P, Calati, R, Rubio-Ramírez, R, Olié, E, Courtet, P and Lopez-Castroman, J (2019) Effectiveness of psychotherapy on suicidal risk: a systematic review of observational studies. Frontiers in Psychology 10, 110.
Milner, A, Page, A and La Montagne, AD (2013) Long-term unemployment and suicide: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One 8, e51333.
Milner, A, Page, A, Morrell, S, Hobbs, C, Carter, G, Dudley, M, Duflou, J and Taylor, R (2014) The effects of involuntary job loss on suicide and suicide attempts among young adults: evidence from a matched case-control study. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 48, 333340.
Mishna, F, Antle, BJ and Regehr, C (2002) Social work with clients contemplating suicide: complexity and ambiguity in the clinical, ethical, and legal considerations. Clinical Social Work Journal 30, 265280.
Muñoz, RF, Mrazek, PJ and Haggerty, RJ (1996) Institute of Medicine report on prevention of mental disorders: summary and commentary. American Psychologist 51, 11161122.
Napa, W, Tungpunkom, P and Pothimas, N (2017) Effectiveness of family interventions on psychological distress and expressed emotion in family members of individuals diagnosed with first-episode psychosis: a systematic review. JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports 15, 10571079.
National Association of Social Workers (n.d.) About Social Workers. Available at (accessed 21 July 2019).
National Association of Social Workers (2013) NASW Standards for Social Work Case Management. Available at (accessed 16 August 2019).
Nelson, A (2013) Social work and social work education in Sweden. University of Gothenburg. Available at Accessed 16 August 2019.
New American Economy (2017) New Study Shows 60 Percent of U.S. Counties Without a Single Psychiatrist. New Study Shows 60 Percent of U.S. Counties Without a Single Psychiatrist. Available at Accessed 16 August 2019.
Office for National Statistics (2019) Suicides in the UK: 2018 registrations. Available at Accessed 16 August 2019.
Öksüz, E, Karaca, S, Özaltin, G and AlpayAteş, M (2017) The effects of psychoeducation on the expressed emotion and family functioning of the family members in first-episode schizophrenia. Community Mental Health Journal 53, 464473.
Osborn, D, Levy, G, Nazareth, I and King, M (2008) Suicide and severe mental illnesses. Cohort study within the UK general practice research database. Schizophrenia Research 99, 134138.
Osteen, PJ (2018) Suicide intervention gatekeeper training: modeling mediated effects on development and use of gatekeeper behaviors. Research on Social Work Practice 28, 848856.
Osteen, PJ, Jacobson, JM and Sharpe, TL (2014) Suicide prevention in social work education: how prepared are social work students? Journal of Social Work Education 50, 349364.
Ougrin, D, Tranah, T, Stahl, D, Moran, P and Rosenbaum Asarnow, J (2015) Therapeutic interventions for suicide attempts and self-harm in adolescents: systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 54, 97107.
Panos, PT, Jackson, JW, Hasan, O and Panos, A (2014) Meta-analysis and systematic review assessing the efficacy of Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT). Research on Social Work Practice 24, 213223.
Pascal de Raykeer, R, Hoertel, N, Blanco, C, Olfson, M, Wall, M, Seigneurie, A-S, Schuster, J-P, Lemogne, C, von Gunten, A and Limosin, F (2018) Effects of psychiatric disorders on suicide attempt: similarities and differences between older and younger adults in a national cohort study. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 79, e1e8.
Petrakis, M and Joubert, L (2013) A social work contribution to suicide prevention through assertive brief psychotherapy and community linkage: use of the Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life (MANSA). Social Work in Health Care 52, 239257.
Pritchard, C, Cox, M and Dawson, A (1997) Suicide and ‘violent’ death in a six-year cohort of male probationers compared with pattern of mortality in the general population: evidence of accumulative socio-psychiatric vulnerability. Journal of the Royal Society of Health 117, 180185.
Qin, P (2011) The impact of psychiatric illness on suicide: differences by diagnosis of disorders and by sex and age of subjects. Journal of Psychiatric Research 45, 14451452.
Quinnett, P (1995) QPR: Ask a Question, Save a Life. Spokane, WA: The QPR Institute.
Robinson, J, Cox, G, Bailey, E, Hetrick, S, Rodrigues, M, Fisher, S and Herrman, H (2016) Social media and suicide prevention: a systematic review. Early Intervention in Psychiatry 10, 103121.
Robinson, J, Rodrigues, M, Fisher, S, Bailey, E and Herrman, H (2015) Social media and suicide prevention: findings from a stakeholder survey. Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry 27, 2735.
Rogers, ML and Joiner, TE (2019) Interactive effects of acute suicidal affective disturbance and pain persistence on suicide attempt frequency and lethality. Crisis: The Journal of Crisis Intervention and Suicide Prevention. Available at Accessed 16 August 2019.
Rose, R and Molina, N (2017) Interventions. In Galynker, I (ed), The Suicidal Crisis: Clinical Guide to the Assessment of Imminent Suicide Risk. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, pp. 18.
Rosen, A, Proctor, EK and Staudt, MM (1999) Social work research and the quest for effective practice. Social Work Research 23, 414.
Rubenowitz, E, Waern, M, Wilhelmson, K and Allebeck, P (2001) Life events and psychosocial factors in elderly suicides – a case-control study. Psychological Medicine 31, 11931202.
Rubin, A, Weiss, EL and Coll, JE (2013) Handbook of Military Social Work. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley & Sons.
Ruth, BJ, Gianino, M, Muroff, J, McLaughlin, D and Feldman, BN (2012) You can’t recover from suicide: perspectives on suicide education in MSW programs. Journal of Social Work Education 48, 501516.
Salsberg, E, Quigley, L, Mehfoud, N, Acquaviva, K, Wyche, K and Sliwa, S (2017) Profile of the Social Work Workforce. Washington, DC: The George Washington University Health Workforce Institute. Available at Accessed 16 August 2019.
Sanders, S, Jacobson, JM and Ting, L (2008) Preparing for the inevitable: training social workers to cope with client suicide. Journal of Teaching in Social Work 28, 118.
Sandström, G (2007) Higher education for social work in Sweden. Australian Social Work 60, 5667.
Saxe Zerden, L, Lombardi, BM and Jones, A (2019) Social workers in integrated health care: improving care throughout the life course. Social Work in Health Care 58, 142149.
Schneider, B, Grebner, K, Schnabel, A, Hampel, H, Georgi, K and Seidler, A (2011) Impact of employment status and work-related factors on risk of completed suicide: a case-control psychological autopsy study. Psychiatry Research 190, 265270.
Scott, M (2015) Teaching note – Understanding of suicide prevention, intervention, and postvention: curriculum for MSW students. Journal of Social Work Education 51, 177185.
Shah, A, Anderson, KG, Li, X, Meadows, JT and Breitsprecher, TB (2018) Clinical social work scope of practice related to diagnosis. Clinical Social Work Journal, 111.
Sharpe, TL, Jacobson Frey, J, Osteen, PJ and Bernes, S (2014) Perspectives and appropriateness of suicide prevention gatekeeper training for MSW students. Social Work in Mental Health 12, 117131.
Sher, L (2004) Preventing suicide. QJM: An International Journal of Medicine 97, 677680.
Sher, L (2010) A model of suicidal behavior among depressed immigrants. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics 10, 57.
Sher, L (2018) Suicide in men: the time is ripe for active scientific investigations. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 137, 275276.
Sher, L (2019) Resilience as a focus of suicide research and prevention. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 140, 169180.
Sher, L and Kahn, RS (2019) Suicide in schizophrenia: an educational overview. Medicina 55, 111.
Sher, L, Oquendo, MA and Mann, JJ (2001) Risk of suicide in mood disorders. Clinical Neuroscience Research 1, 337344.
Škodlar, B and Henriksen, MG (2019) Toward a phenomenological psychotherapy for schizophrenia. Psychopathology 52, 117125.
Slater, T, Scourfield, J and Greenland, K (2013) Suicide attempts and social worker contact: secondary analysis of a general population study. British Journal of Social Work 45, 378394.
Smedslund, G, Berg, RC, Hammerstrøm, KT, Steiro, A, Leiknes, KA, Dahl, HM and Karlsen, K (2011) Motivational interviewing for substance abuse. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 5, 1126.
Stanley, B and Brown, GK (2012) Safety planning intervention: a brief intervention to mitigate suicide risk. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice 19, 256264.
Stratford, HJ, Cooper, MJ, Di Simplicio, M, Blackwell, SE and Holmes, EA (2015) Psychological therapy for anxiety in bipolar spectrum disorders: a systematic review. Clinical Psychology Review 35, 1934.
Sudak, DM (2012) Cognitive behavioral therapy for depression. Psychiatric Clinics of North America 35, 99110.
Sun, F-K, Chiang, C-Y, Lin, Y-H and Chen, T-B (2013) Short-term effects of a suicide education intervention for family caregivers of people who are suicidal. Journal of Clinical Nursing 23, 91102.
Taylor, DJ and Pruiksma, KE (2014) Cognitive and behavioural therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) in psychiatric populations: a systematic review. International Review of Psychiatry 26, 205213.
Taylor, LD, Coffey, DS and Kashner, TM (2016) Interprofessional education of health professionals: Social workers should lead the way. Health & Social Work 41, 58.
Terpstra, S, Beekman, A, Abbing, J, Jaken, S, Steendam, M and Gilissen, R (2018) Suicide prevention gatekeeper training in the Netherlands improves gatekeepers’ knowledge of suicide prevention and their confidence to discuss suicidality, an observational study. BMC Public Health 18, 18.
US Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics (2019) Social Workers. Occupational Outlook Handbook. Available at Accessed 16 August 2019.
Wainberg, ML, Scorza, P, Shultz, JM, Helpman, L, Mootz, JJ, Johnson, KA, Neria, Y, Bradford, J-ME, Oquendo, MA and Arbuckle, MR (2017) Challenges and opportunities in global mental health: a research-to-practice perspective. Current Psychiatry Reports 19, 116.
World Health Organization (2014) Preventing suicide. A global imperative. Available at Accessed 16 August 2019.
Yonemoto, N, Kawashima, Y, Endo, K and Yamada, M (2019) Gatekeeper training for suicidal behaviors: a systematic review. Journal of Affective Disorders 246, 506514.
Zhang, A, Franklin, C, Jing, S, Bornheimer, LA, Hai, AH, Himle, JA, Kong, D and Ji, Q (2019) The effectiveness of four empirically supported psychotherapies for primary care depression and anxiety: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Affective Disorders 245, 11681186.


How to increase the role of social workers in suicide preventive interventions

  • Joshua Levine (a1) (a2) and Leo Sher (a1) (a3)


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.