Skip to main content Accessibility help
Ritual and Region
  • Cited by 8

Ritual and Region

  • The Invention of ASEAN
  • Mathew Davies, Australian National University, Canberra

Why has ASEAN endured and why do members, many of whom remain comparatively weak and poor, continue to invest in the regional project? Existing answers, either that ASEAN is meaningless or that it has transformed regional affairs through the creation of shared values are both misplaced. Neither argument is empirically plausible. Instead, this Element argues that ASEAN has and continues to serve state interest through the creation of a shared ritual and symbolic framework. This framework has mitigated regional tension through the performance of regionalism, but has not fundamentally addressed the sources of that tension.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Buy the Element
  • Copyright

  • COPYRIGHT: © Mathew Davies 2018


Hide all
ASEAN. (1968). Joint Communiqué of the Second ASEAN Ministerial Meeting, Jakarta, 6–7 August.–7-august-1968. Google Scholar
ASEAN Secretariat. (2014). ASEAN Regional Forum at Twenty: Promoting Peace and Security in the Asia-Pacific. Google Scholar
ASEAN. (2017b). Overview of ASEAN Plus Three Cooperation, June. Google Scholar
ASEAN. (1976b). Joint Communiqué of the First ASEAN Heads of Government Meeting, Bali, 23–24 February.–24-february-1976. Google Scholar
ASEAN. (2000). Report of the ASEAN Eminent Persons Group (EPG) on Vision 2020: The People’s ASEAN. Google Scholar
Davies, Mathew . (2014b). Realising Rights: How Regional Organisations Socialise Human Rights, Abingdon: Routledge. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Hurd, Ian . (2005). The strategic use of liberal internationalism: Libya and the UN sanctions, 1992–2003. International Organization, 59(3), 495–526. doi:10.1017/S0020818305050186. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Kahler, Miles . (2000). Legalization as strategy: The Asia-Pacific case. International Organization, 54(3), 549–71. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Cheesman, Nick . (2017). How in Myanmar ‘national races’ came to surpass citizenship and exclude Rohingya. Journal of Contemporary Asia, 47(3), 461–83. doi:10.1080/00472336.2017.1297476. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Jones, David Martin & Smith, Michael L. R . (2006). ASEAN and East Asian International Relations: Regional Delusion, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Jones, Lee . (2012). ASEAN, Sovereignty and Intervention in Southeast Asia, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Walzer, Michael . (1967). On the role of symbolism in political thought. Political Science Quarterly, 82(2), 191–204. doi:10.2307/2147214. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Singapore Government. (1986). Joint statement by five ASEAN countries on the Philippines. Press Release, 23 February.–1986-02–23.pdf. Google Scholar
Ba, Alice . (2009). (Re)Negotiating East and Southeast Asia: Region, Regionalism, and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. Google Scholar
Ahmad, Zakaria Haji & Ghoshal, Baladas . (1999). The political future of ASEAN after the Asian crisis. International Affairs, 75(4), 759–78. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Bell, Daniel A. (2000). East Meets West: Human Rights and Democracy in East Asia, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Google Scholar
ASEAN. (1991). Joint Communiqué of the Twenty-Fourth ASEAN Ministerial Meeting, Kuala Lumpur, 19–20 July.–20-july-1991. Google Scholar
ASEAN. (2009b). ASEAN Intergovernmental Commission on Human Rights (Terms of Reference), Jakarta: ASEAN Secretariat, October. Google Scholar
Frost, Frank . (1990). Introduction: ASEAN since 1967 – Origins, evolutions and recent developments. In Alison Broinowski , ed., ASEAN into the 1990s, Basingstoke: Macmillan Press, pp. 1–31. Google Scholar
Leifer, Michael . (1989). ASEAN and the Security of South-East Asia. Abingdon: Routledge. Google Scholar
Larking, Emma . (2017). Human rights rituals: Masking neoliberalism and inequality, and marginalizing alternative world views. Canadian Journal of Law and Society, 32(1), 1–18. doi:10.1017/cls.2017.3. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Malik, Mohan . (2006). The East Asia Summit. Australian Journal of International Affairs, 60(2), 207–11. doi:10.1080/10357710600696134. CrossRef | Google Scholar
White III, George O. (2000). From snowplows to Siopao – Trying to compete in a global marketplace: The ASEAN free trade area. Tulsa Journal of Comparative and International Law, 8(1), 177–99. Google Scholar
Leviter, Lee . (2010). The ASEAN Charter: ASEAN failure or member failure. New York University Journal of International Law and Politics, 43(1), 159–210. Google Scholar
Mansfield, Edward D. & Pevehouse, Jon C. (2006). Democratization and international organizations. International Organization, 60 (1),137–67. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Sukma, Rizal . (2011). Indonesia finds a new voice. Journal of Democracy, 22(4), 110–23. doi:10.1353/jod.2011.0057. CrossRef | Google Scholar
MacIntyre, Andrew J. (2003). The Power of Institutions: Political Architecture and Governance, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. Google Scholar
ASEAN. (2005). Terms of Reference of the Eminent Persons Group (EPG) on the ASEAN Charter. Google Scholar
ASEAN. (2015). Guide to ASEAN Practices and Protocol, Jakarta: ASEAN Secretariat, November. Google Scholar
ASEAN Secretariat. (1996). Summary Report of the ARF Inter-Sessional Meeting on Confidence Building Measures, Tokyo, 18–19 January, and Jakarta, 15–16 April.’s%20Statements%20and%20Reports/The%20Third%20ASEAN%20Regional%20Forum,%201995–1996/ISG%20CBMs.doc. Google Scholar
74 Geertz, Clifford . (1980). Negara: The Theatre State in Ninteenth-Century Bali, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Google Scholar
75 Johnston, Alastair I. (1999). The myth of the ASEAN way? Explaining the evolution of the ASEAN Regional Forum. In Helga Haftendom , Robert O. Keohane and Celeste A. Wallander , eds, Imperfect Unions: Security Institutions over Time and Space, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 287–324. Google Scholar
Collins, Alan . (2008). A people-oriented ASEAN: A door ajar or closed for civil society organizations? Contemporary Southeast Asia, 30(2), 313–31. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Goh, Evelyn . (2018). ASEAN-led multilateralism and regional order: The great power bargain deficit. In Gilbert Rozman and Joseph Chinyong Liow , eds, International Relations and Asia’s Southern Tier: ASEAN, Australia, and India, Singapore: ASAN Institute for Policy Studies and Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 45–61. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Emmers, Ralf & See Seng Tan . (2012). The ASEAN Regional Forum and preventive diplomacy: A review essay. In Ralf Emmers , ed., ASEAN and the Institutionalization of East Asia, Abingdon: Routledge, pp. 89–102. Google Scholar
Irvine, Roger . (1982). The formative years of ASEAN, 1967–1975. In Alison Broinowski , ed., Understanding ASEAN, New York: St. Martin’s Press, pp. 8–36. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Katsumata, Hiro . (2004). Why is ASEAN diplomacy changing? From ‘non-interference’ to ‘open and frank discussions’. Asian Survey, 44(2), 237–54. doi:10.1525/as.2004.44.2.237. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Kausikan, Bilahari . (2017). ASEAN’s greatest challenges lie within grouping. Today Online, 3 October. Google Scholar
Keesing, Roger M. (2012). On not understanding symbols: Toward an anthropology of incomprehension. HAU: Journal of Ethnographic Theory, 2(2), 406–30. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Rüland, Jürgen . (2009). Deepening ASEAN cooperation through democratization? The Indonesian legislature and foreign policymaking. International Relations of the Asia-Pacific, 9(3), 373–402. doi:10.1093/irap/lcp010. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Price, Richard & Reus-Smit, Christian . (1998). Dangerous liaisons? Critical international theory and constructivism. European Journal of International Relations, 4(3), 259–94. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Acharya, Amitav . (2017). The myth of ASEAN centrality? Contemporary Southeast Asia, 39(2), 273–79. Google Scholar
ASEAN. (1995a). Bangkok Summit Declaration, 14–15 December. Google Scholar
ASEAN. (no date c). ASEAN Flag. Google Scholar
ASEAN. (no date a). ASEAN Anthem. Google Scholar
Acharya, Amitav . (2011). Dialogue and discovery: In search of international relations theories beyond the West. Millennium: Journal of International Studies, 39(3), 619–37. doi:10.1177/0305829811406574. Google Scholar
Eaton, Sarah & Stubbs, Richard . (2006). Is ASEAN powerful? Neo-realist versus constructivist approaches to power in Southeast Asia. Pacific Review, 19(2), 135–55. doi:10.1080/09512740500473148. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Parameswaran, Prashanth . (2016). Assessing ASEAN’s South China Sea position in its post-ruling statement. The Diplomat, 25 July. Google Scholar
Civil–Military Relations in Southeast Asia Aurel Croissant CrossRef | Google Scholar
Caballero-Anthony, Mely . (1998). Mechanisms of dispute settlement: The ASEAN experience. Contemporary Southeast Asia, 20(1), 38–66. CrossRef | Google Scholar
ASEAN. (1992a). Joint Communiqué 25th ASEAN Ministerial Meeting, Manila, Philippines, 21–22 July.–22-july-1992. Google Scholar
Acharya, Amitav . (2004). How ideas spread: Whose norms matter? Norm localization and institutional change in Asian regionalism. International Organization, 58(2), 239–75. doi:10.1017/S0020818304582024. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Alagappa, Muthiah . (1993). Regionalism and the quest for security: ASEAN and the Cambodian conflict. Journal of International Affairs, 46(2), 439–67. Google Scholar
Associated Press. (2016). Malaysia PM urges world to act against ‘genocide’ of Myanmar’s Rohingya. The Guardian, 4 December. Google Scholar
Hadi, Umar . (2006). Human rights promotion in the ASEAN Security Community: An overview. Paper presented at the AICOHR–ASEAN–ISIS Colloquium on Human Rights, Manila, 15–16 May. Google Scholar
Kratochwil, Friedrich V. (1989). Rules, Norms, and Decisions: On the Conditions of Practical and Legal Reasoning in International Relations and Domestic Affairs, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Colbert, Evelyn . (1986). ASEAN as a regional organization: Economics, politics, and security. In Karl D. Jackson , Sukhumbhand Paribatra and J. 72Soedjati Djiwandono , eds., ASEAN in Regional and Global Context, Berkeley, CA: Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California, pp. 194–210. Google Scholar
Faizullaev, Alisher . (2013). Diplomacy and symbolism. The Hague Journal of Diplomacy, 8(2), 91–114. doi:10.1163/1871191X-12341254. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Rubinstein, Robert A. (2005). Intervention and culture: An anthropological approach to peace operations. Security Dialogue, 36(4), 527–44. doi:10.1177/0967010605060454. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Onuf, Nicholas Greenwood . (1989). World of Our Making: Rules and Rule in Social Theory and International Relations, Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press. Google Scholar
Acharya, Amitav . (2001). Constructing a Security Community in Southeast Asia: ASEAN and the Problem of Regional Order, Abingdon: Routledge. Google Scholar
ASEAN. (1967). The ASEAN Declaration (Bangkok Declaration) Bangkok, 8 August. Google Scholar
ASEAN. (1992b). Singapore Declaration of 1992, Singapore, 28 January. Google Scholar
ASEAN. (2007b). The ASEAN Charter, ASEAN Secretariat: Jakarta, 20 November. Google Scholar
ASEAN. (2009c). ASEAN Political-Security Community Blueprint. In Roadmap for an ASEAN Community: 2009–2015, Jakarta: ASEAN Secretariat, pp. 5–19. Google Scholar
Nischalke, Tobias Ingo . (2000). Insights from ASEAN’s foreign policy co-operation: The ‘ASEAN way’, a real spirit or a phantom? Contemporary Southeast Asia, 22(1), 89–112. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Phillips, Andrew . (2017). Contesting the Confucian peace: Civilization, barbarism and international hierarchy in East Asia. European Journal of International Relations, online, 1–25. doi:1354066117716265. Google Scholar
Oren, Ido & Solomon, Ty . (2015). WMD, WMD, WMD: Securitisation through ritualised incantation of ambiguous phrases. Review of International Studies, 41 (2),313–36. doi:10.1017/S0260210514000205. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Ritual and Region: The Invention of ASEAN Mathew Davies CrossRef | Google Scholar
Morada, Noel M. (2008). ASEAN at 40: Prospects for community building in Southeast Asia. Asia-Pacific Review, 15(1), 36–55. doi:10.1080/13439000802134043. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Charlesworth, Hilary & Larking, Emma . (2014). Introduction: The regulatory power of the Universal Periodic Review. In Hilary Charlesworth and Emma Larking , eds., Human Rights and the Universal Periodic Review: Rituals and Ritualism, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 1–21. CrossRef | Google Scholar
ASEAN. (2007a). Chairperson’s Statement of the 12th ASEAN Summit H. E. the President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo: One Caring and Sharing Community, 13 January. Google Scholar
ASEAN. (1971b). Zone of Peace, Freedom and Neutrality Declaration, 27 November. Google Scholar
ASEAN. (1997). ASEAN Vision 2020, 15 December. Google Scholar
ASEAN. (1994). Joint Communiqué of the Twenty-Seventh ASEAN Ministerial Meeting, Bangkok, 22–23 July.–23-july-1994. Google Scholar
Florini, Ann . (1996). The evolution of international norms. International Studies Quarterly, 40(3), 363–89. doi:10.2307/2600716. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Gonzalez-Manalo, Rosario . (2009). Drafting ASEAN’s tomorrow: The Eminent Persons Group and the ASEAN Charter. In Tommy Koh, Rosario G. Manalo and Walter Woon , eds., The Making of the ASEAN Charter, Singapore: World Scientific Publishing, pp. 37–46. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Emmerson, Donald K. (2006). Shocks of recognition: Leifer, realism, and regionalism in Southeast Asia. In Joseph Chinyong Liow and Ralf Emmers , eds., Order and Security in Southeast Asia: Essays in Memory of Michael Leifer, Abingdon: Routledge, pp. 10–28. Google Scholar
Möller, Kay . (1998). Cambodia and Burma: The ASEAN way ends here. Asian Survey, 38(12), 1087–104. doi:10.2307/2645823. CrossRef | Google Scholar
77 Muntarbhorn, Vitit . (1986). The Challenge of Law: Legal Cooperation among ASEAN Countries, Bangkok: Institute of Security and International Studies. Google Scholar
Pereira, Derwin . (2007). Straits Times’ interview with Singapore Foreign Minister George Yeo, 2–3 October. Google Scholar
ASEAN. (no date b). ASEAN Emblem. Google Scholar
ASEAN. (1971a). Joint Communiqué of the Fourth ASEAN Ministerial Meeting, Manila, 12–13 March.–13-march-1971. Google Scholar
ASEAN. (1995b). Joint Communiqué of the Twenty-Eighth ASEAN Ministerial Meeting, Bandar Seri Begawan, 29–30 July. 69–30-july-1995. Google Scholar
71 Bandung Conference. (1955). Final communiqué of the Asian-African conference of Bandung (24 April). In Indonesian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, ed., Asia-Africa Speak from Bandung, Jakarta: Indonesian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, pp. 161–9. Google Scholar
Deutsch, Karl W. (1957). Political Community and the North Atlantic Area: International Organization in the Light of Historical Experience, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Google Scholar
Emmerson, Donald K . (2008). ASEAN’s ‘black swans’. Journal of Democracy, 19(3), 70–84. doi:10.1353/jod.0.0014. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Kaufmann, Chaim D. & Pape, Robert A. (1999). Explaining costly international moral action: Britain’s sixty-year campaign against the Atlantic slave trade. International Organization, 53 (4),631–68. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Morlino, Leonardo . (2004). What is a ‘good’ democracy? Democratization, 11(5), 10–32. doi:10.1080/13510340412331304589. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Thayer, Carlyle A. (1990). ASEAN and Indochina: The dialogue. In Alison Broinowski , ed., ASEAN into the 1990s, Basingstoke: Macmillan Press, pp. 138–61. Google Scholar
Bauer, Joanne R. & Bell, Daniel A. eds. (1999). The East Asian Challenge for Human Rights, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar
Chapman, Terrence L. (2009). Audience beliefs and international organization legitimacy. International Organization, 63(4), 733–64. doi:10.1017/S0020818309990154. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Caballero-Anthony, Mely . (2008). The ASEAN Charter: An opportunity missed or one that cannot be missed? Southeast Asian Affairs 2008, 71–85. Google Scholar
Castro, Amado . (1982). ASEAN economic co-operation. In Alison Broinowski , ed., Understanding ASEAN, New York: St. Martin’s Press, pp. 70–91. CrossRef | Google Scholar
ASEAN Secretariat. (no date d). The ASEAN Regional Forum: A concept paper. Google Scholar
ASEAN. (2004). Vientiane Action Programme. Google Scholar
Charlesworth, Hilary . (2010). Swimming to Cambodia: Justice and ritual in human rights after conflict. Australian Yearbook of International Law, 29, 1–16. Google Scholar
Jones, David Martin & Smith, Michael L. R. (2002). ASEAN’s imitation community. Orbis, 46(1), 93–109. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Jones, Lee . (2008). ASEAN’s albatross: ASEAN’s Burma policy, from constructive engagement to critical disengagement. Asian Security, 4(3), 271–93. doi:10.1080/14799850802306484. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Davies, Mathew . (2017). Important but de-centred: ASEAN’s role in the Southeast Asian human rights space. TRaNS: Trans-Regional and -National Studies of Southeast Asia, 5(1), 99–119. doi:10.1017/trn.2016.27. CrossRef | Google Scholar
76 Kim, Min-hyung . (2018). East Asian international relations and international relations theory: Where does a poor fit exist, and what to do about it? Journal of Asian and African Studies doi:10.1177/0021909618777269. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Jones, Lee . (2016). Explaining the failure of the ASEAN economic community: The primacy of domestic political economy. Pacific Review, 29(5), 647–70. doi:10.1080/09512748.2015.1022593. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Radelet, Steven & Sachs, Jeffrey . (1998). The onset of the East Asian financial crisis . NBER Working Paper 6680, Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Ness, Gayl D. (1962). Letter to Mr. Richard H. Nolte, 1 May. Google Scholar
Yukawa, Taku . (2017). The ASEAN way as a symbol: An analysis of discourses on the ASEAN norms. Pacific Review, 4 September, online, 1–17. doi:10.1080/09512748.2017.1371211. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Indonesia: Twenty Years after Democracy Jamie Davidson CrossRef | Google Scholar
Sennett, Richard . (2013). Together: The Rituals, Pleasures and Politics of Cooperation, London: Penguin. Google Scholar
Acharya, Amitav & Tan, See Seng . (2008). Introduction: The normative relevance of the Bandung conference for contemporary Asian and international order. In See Seng Tan and Amitav Acharya , eds., Bandung Revisited: The Legacy of the 1955 Asian-African Conference for International Order, Singapore: NUS Press, pp. 1–16. Google Scholar
Leifer, Michael . (1974). Regional order in South-East Asia: An uncertain prospect. The Round Table, 64(255), 309–17. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Davies, Mathew . (2013a). ASEAN and human rights norms: Constructivism, rational choice, and the action-identity gap. International Relations of the Asia-Pacific, 13(2), 207–31. doi:10.1093/irap/lct002. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Davies, Mathew . (2012).The perils of incoherence: ASEAN, Myanmar and the avoidable failures of human rights socialization? Contemporary Southeast Asia, 34(1), 1–22. Google Scholar
Risse, Thomas , Ropp, Stephen C. & Sikkink, Kathryn eds. (1999). The Power of Human Rights: International Norms and Domestic Change, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Pitsuwan, Surin . (2013). Speech by outgoing Secretary-General (2008–2012). Ceremony for the transfer of office of the Secretary–General of ASEAN, Jakarta, 9 January.–2012-he-surin-pitsuwan-ceremony-for-the-transfer-of-office-of-the-secretary-general-of-asean-3. Google Scholar
Cerulo, Karen A. (1995). Identity Designs: The Sights and Sounds of a Nation, New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. Google Scholar
ASEAN. (2009a). ASEAN Economic Community Blueprint. In Roadmap for an ASEAN Community: 2009–2015, Jakarta: ASEAN Secretariat, pp. 21–40. Google Scholar
Acharya, Amitav . (2005). Do norms and identity matter? Community and power in Southeast Asia’s regional order. Pacific Review, 18(1), 95–118. doi:10.1080/09512740500047199. CrossRef | Google Scholar
ASEAN. (2012b). ASEAN Summits Photos, 24 July. Google Scholar
Chase, Oscar G. (2005). Law, Culture, and Ritual: Disputing Systems in Cross-Cultural Context, New York: New York University Press. Google Scholar
Dosch, Jörn . (2017). The ASEAN economic community: Deep integration or just political window dressing? TRaNS: Trans-Regional and -National Studies of Southeast Asia, 5(1), 25–47. doi:10.1017/trn.2016.28. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Jones, David Martin . (2008). Security and democracy: The ASEAN Charter and the dilemmas of regionalism in South-East Asia. International Affairs, 84(4), 735–56. doi:10.1111/j.1468–2346.2008.00735.x. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Cook, Malcolm & Bisley, Nick . (2016). Contested Asia and the East Asia Summit. Perspective, 18 August. Singapore: ISEAS–Yusof Ishak Institute. Google Scholar
Croissant, Aurel . (2004). From transition to defective democracy: Mapping Asian democratization. Democratization, 11(5), 156–78. doi:10.1080/13510340412331304633. CrossRef | Google Scholar
78 Pisanò, Attilio . (2014). Human rights and sovereignty in the ASEAN path towards a human rights declaration. Human Rights Review, 15(4), 399–411. doi:10.1007/s12142-014–0313-7. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Pollard, Vincent K. (1970). ASA and ASEAN, 1961–1967: Southeast Asian regionalism. Asian Survey, 10(3), 244–55. Google Scholar
United Nations. (2010). Secretary-General says Myanmar authorities need to demonstrate credibility of elections, urges immediate release of remaining political prisoners, SG/SM/13238, New York, 8 November. Google Scholar
Pitsuwan, Surin . (1998). Currency turmoil in Asia: The strategic impact. Remarks at the 12th Asia-Pacific Roundtable, Kuala Lumpur, 1 June. Google Scholar
Acharya, Amitav . (1997). Ideas, identity, and institution-building: From the ‘ASEAN way’ to the ‘Asia-Pacific way’? Pacific Review, 10(3), 319–46. doi:10.1080/09512749708719226. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Buszynski, Leszek . (1998). Thailand and Myanmar: The perils of ‘constructive engagement’. Pacific Review, 11(2), 290–305. doi:10.1080/09512749808719258. CrossRef | Google Scholar
ASEAN. (2006b). Report of the Eminent Persons Group on the ASEAN Charter, December. Google Scholar
Davies, Mathew . (2013b). Explaining the Vientiane Action Programme: ASEAN and the institutionalisation of human rights. Pacific Review, 26(3), 385–406. doi:10.1080/09512748.2013.788066. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Kraft, Herman Joseph S . (2001). Human rights, ASEAN and constructivism: Revisiting the ‘Asian values’ discourse. Philippine Political Science Journal, 22(45), 33–54. doi:10.1080/01154451.2001.9754224. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Pevehouse, Jon C. (2002). Democracy from the outside-in? International organizations and democratization. International Organization, 56(3), 515–49. CrossRef | Google Scholar
79 Schirch, Lisa . (2005). Ritual and Symbol in Peacebuilding, West Hartford, CT: Kumarian Press. Google Scholar
United Nations. (1963). Manila Accord between the Philippines, the Federation of Malaya and Indonesia, 31 July. Google Scholar
ASEAN. (2006a). Joint Communiqué of the 39th ASEAN Ministerial Meeting (AMM), Kuala Lumpur, 25 July.–3. Google Scholar
ASEAN. (2017a). Indicative ASEAN Notional Calendar 2017, 10 May. Google Scholar
ASEAN. (1976c). Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia, Indonesia, February. Google Scholar
Collins, Alan . (2007). Forming a security community: Lessons from ASEAN. International Relations of the Asia-Pacific, 7(2), 203–25. doi:10.1093/irap/lcl007. Google Scholar
Finnemore, Martha & Sikkink, Kathryn . (1998). International norm dynamics and political change. International Organization, 52(4), 887–917. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Larkins, Jeremy . (1994). Representations, symbols, and social facts: Durkheim and IR theory. Millennium: Journal of International Studies, 23(2), 239–64. Google Scholar
73Davies, Mathew . (2016). A community of practice: Explaining change and continuity in ASEAN’s diplomatic environment. Pacific Review, 29(2), 211–33. doi:10.1080/09512748.2015.1013495. Google Scholar
Davies, Mathew . (2018). Regional organisations and enduring defective democratic members. Review of International Studies, 44(1), 174–91. doi:10.1017/S0260210517000365. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Creak, Simon . (2017). Eternal friends and erstwhile enemies: The regional sporting community of the Southeast Asian games. TRaNS: Trans-Regional and -National Studies of Southeast Asia, 5(1), 147–72. doi:10.1017/trn.2016.29. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Ong Keng Yong . (2004). Civil society and regional cooperation. Speech delivered at the 31st International Council on Social Welfare, Kuala Lumpur, 18 August. Google Scholar
80 Wendt, Alexander . (1999). Social Theory of International Politics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Rüland, Jürgen . (2000). ASEAN and the Asian crisis: Theoretical implications and practical consequences for Southeast Asian regionalism. Pacific Review, 13(3), 421–51. doi:10.1080/09512740050147942. CrossRef | Google Scholar
ASEAN Secretariat. (1994). Chairman’s Statement of the 1st Meeting of the ASEAN Regional Forum, Bangkok, 25 July. Google Scholar
ASEAN. (2003). Declaration of ASEAN Concord II (Bali Concord II), 7 October. Google Scholar
ASEAN. (1996). Joint Communiqué of the Twenty-Ninth ASEAN Ministerial Meeting (AMM), Jakarta, 20–21 July.–21-july-1996. Google Scholar
Davies, Mathew . (2014a). An agreement to disagree: The ASEAN Human Rights Declaration and the absence of regional identity in Southeast Asia. Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs, 33(3), 107–29. Google Scholar
Haacke, Jürgen . (2005). ASEAN’s Diplomatic and Security Culture: Origins, Development and Prospects, Abingdon: Routledge. Google Scholar
Gerard, Kelly . (2014). ASEAN and civil society activities in ‘created spaces’: The limits of liberty. Pacific Review, 27(2), 265–87. doi:10.1080/09512748.2014.882395. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Human Rights Watch. (2012). Civil society denounces adoption of flawed ASEAN Human Rights Declaration. 19 November. Google Scholar
Creak, Simon . (2010). Sport and the theatrics of power in a postcolonial state: The National Games of 1960s Laos. Asian Studies Review, 34(2), 191–210. doi:10.1080/10357821003802011. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Cribb, Robert . (2018). Southeast Asia: Historical context. In Alice Ba and Mark Beeson , eds, Contemporary Southeast Asia: The Politics of Change, Contestation, and Adaptation, London: Palgrave, pp. 17–33. Google Scholar
Chatterjee, Srikanta . (1990). ASEAN economic cooperation in the 1980s and 1990s. In Alison Broinowski , ed., ASEAN into the 1990s, Basingstoke: Macmillan Press, pp. 58–82. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Hurd, Ian . (2002). Legitimacy, power, and the symbolic life of the UN Security Council. Global Governance, 8(1), 35–51. Google Scholar
Narine, Shaun . (1997). ASEAN and the ARF: The limits of the ‘ASEAN way’. Asian Survey, 37(10), 961–78. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Severino, Rodolfo C. (2000). Sovereignty, intervention and the ASEAN way. Address to the ASEAN Scholars’ Roundtable, Singapore Institute of International Affairs, 3 July. Google Scholar
TalkVietnam. (2010). ASEAN welcomes Myanmar’s general elections, 9 November. Google Scholar
ASEAN. (1976a). Declaration of ASEAN Concord Adopted by the Heads of State/Government at the 1st ASEAN Summit in Bali, Indonesia on 24 February.–163444-272383.pdf. Google Scholar
70ASEAN. (2012a). ASEAN Human Rights Declaration and the Phnom Penh Statement on the Adoption of the ASEAN Human Rights Declaration (AHRD), Jakarta: ASEAN Secretariat. Google Scholar
ASEAN. (1969). Joint Communiqué of the Third ASEAN Ministerial Meeting, Cameron Highlands, 16–17 December. 68–17-december-1969. Google Scholar
Haacke, Jürgen . (1999). The concept of flexible engagement and the practice of enhanced interaction: Intramural challenges to the ‘ASEAN way’. Pacific Review, 12(4), 581–611. doi:10.1080/09512749908719307. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Katsumata, Hiro . (2006). Establishment of the ASEAN Regional Forum: Constructing a ‘talking shop’ or a ‘norm brewery’? Pacific Review 19(2), 181–98. doi:10.1080/09512740500473197. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Kertzer, David I. (1988). Rituals, Politics and Power, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Google Scholar
Goldstein, Morris . (1998). The Asian financial crisis: Causes, cures, and systemic implications , Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics. Google Scholar
Moore, Sally Falk & Myerhoff, Barbara G. (1977). Introduction: Secular ritual: Forms and meanings. In Sally Falk Moore and Barbara G. Myerhoff , eds., Secular Ritual, Assen: Uitgeverij Van Gorcum, pp. 3–24. Google Scholar
Risse, Thomas , Ropp, Stephen C. & Sikkink, Kathryn . (2013). The Persistent Power of Human Rights: From Commitment to Compliance, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Neumann, Iver B. (2011). Euro-centric diplomacy: Challenging but manageable. European Journal of International Relations, 18(2), 299–321. doi:10.1177/1354066110389831. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Merkel, Wolfgang . (2004). Embedded and defective democracies. Democratization, 11(5), 33–58. doi:10.1080/13510340412331304598. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Renshaw, Catherine Shanahan . (2013). The ASEAN Human Rights Declaration 2012. Human Rights Law Review, 13(3), 557–79. doi:10.1093/hrlr/ngt016. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Roberts, Christopher B. (2012). ASEAN Regionalism: Cooperation, Values and Institutionalisation, Abingdon: Routledge. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Stubbs, Richard . (2008). The ASEAN alternative? Ideas, institutions and the challenge to ‘global’ governance. Pacific Review, 21(4), 451–68. doi:10.1080/09512740802294713. Google Scholar
ASEAN. (1993). Joint Communiqué of the Twenty-Sixth ASEAN Ministerial Meeting Singapore, 23–24 July.–24-july-1993. Google Scholar
ASEAN Secretariat. (2016). Opening Ceremony, 28th and 29th ASEAN Summits and Related Summits, 6 September, Vientiane, Laos. Google Scholar
Adler, Emanuel . (1997). Seizing the middle ground: Constructivism in world politics. European Journal of International Relations, 3(3), 319–63. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Finnemore, Martha & Sikkink, Kathryn . (2001). Taking stock: The constructivist research program in international relations and comparative politics. Annual Review of Political Science, 4, 391–416. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Gerard, Kelly . (2015). Explaining ASEAN’s engagement of civil society in policy-making: Smoke and mirrors. Globalizations, 12(3), 365–82. doi:10.1080/14747731.2015.1016304. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Ravenhill, John . (2009). East Asian regionalism: Much ado about nothing? Review of International Studies, 35(S1), 215–35. doi:10.1017/S0260210509008493. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Tan, Hsien-Li . (2011). The ASEAN Intergovernmental Commission on Human Rights: Institutionalising Human Rights in Southeast Asia, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar
Tay, Simon S. C. (2008). The ASEAN Charter: Between national sovereignty and the region’s constitutional moment. Singapore Year Book of International Law, 12, 151–70. Google Scholar
Narine, Shaun . (2009). ASEAN in the twenty-first century: A sceptical review. Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 22(3), 369–86. doi:10.1080/09557570903104065. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Sending, Ole Jacob , Pouliot, Vincent & Neumann, Iver B. , eds. (2015). Diplomacy and the Making of World Politics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Singapore: Identity, Brand, Power Kenneth Paul Tan Google Scholar


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between #date#. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.