Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Red, Green, and Blue

Red, Green, and Blue

  • The Partisan Divide on Environmental Issues
  • David Karol, University of Maryland, College Park

This Element explores the growing party divisions on the environment in the United States. It draws upon quantitative and qualitative data from several decades of national and state politics. The study contributes theory to the party position change literature, showing that interest groups change parties, but in turn are changed by them. In the 1970s the characteristics that predicted voters' attitudes on the environment also predicted legislators' votes. Yet as environmentalists and their opponents aligned with parties, officials had incentives to set their own views aside to represent new party constituencies. Influence flowed in both directions, however. Environmentalists were drawn to the Democrats as they confronted GOP-linked business lobbies. Environmentalists' resulting need to cooperate with other groups close to Democrats led them to change their positions. Although environmentalists were long unwelcoming to minorities, they embraced immigration reform, allied with unions on trade, and worked with civil rights lobbies and labor in battles over judicial nominations. The Element concludes with discussion of how the current party alignment on the environment might change.

  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Buy the print element
  • Copyright

  • COPYRIGHT: © David Karol 2019

References

Hide all
Karol, David Karol, David . 2009. Party Position Change in American Politics: Coalition Management. New York: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Adams, Greg D. Adams, Greg D. 1997. “Abortion: Evidence of an Issue Evolution.” American Journal of Political Science. Vol. 41 No. 3: 718–737. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Binder, Sarah A. Maltzman, Forrest Binder, Sarah A. and Forrest Maltzman . 2002. “Senatorial Delay in Confirming Federal Judges, 1947–1998.” American Journal of Political Science. Vol. 46 No. 1: 190–199. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Derthick, Martha Derthick, Martha . 2012. “From Litigation to Legislation: The Surrender of Phillip Morris.” Political Science Quarterly. Vol. 127 No. 3: 401–415. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Lockwood, Matthew Lockwood, Matthew . 2018. “Right-Wing Populism and the Climate Change Agenda: Exploring the Linkages.” Environmental Politics. Vol. 27 No.4: 712–732. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Karol, David Thurber, James A. Yoshinaka, Antoine Karol, David . 2015. “Party Activists, Interest Groups and Polarization in American Politics.” In James A. Thurber and Antoine Yoshinaka , eds., American Gridlock: The Sources, Character and Impact of Political Polarization. New York: Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar
Bawn, Kathleen Cohen, Martin Karol, David Masket, Seth Noel, Hans Zaller, John Bawn, Kathleen , Martin Cohen , David Karol , Seth Masket , Hans Noel , and John Zaller . 2012. “A Theory of Political Parties: Groups, Policy Demands and Nominations in American Politics.” Perspectives on Politics. Vol. 10 No. 3: 571–597. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Clarke, Alice Clarke, Alice . 2001. “The Sierra Club and Immigration Policy: A Critique.” Politics and the Life Sciences. 19–28. Google Scholar
Fisher, Dana R. Fisher, Dana R. 2004. National Governance and the Global Climate Change Regime. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. Google Scholar
Karol, David Thurston, Chloe Karol, David and Chloe Thurston . 2014. “From Personal to Partisan: Abortion, Party and Religion in the California State Assembly, 1967–2000.” Paper presented at the 2014 Annual Meeting of the European Political Science Association. June 19, 2014 – 21 June, 2014, Edinburgh, Scotland. Google Scholar
Layman, Geoffrey C. Carsey, Thomas M. Green, John C. Herrera, Richard Cooperman, Rosalyn Layman, Geoffrey C. , Thomas M. Carsey , John C. Green , Richard Herrera , Rosalyn Cooperman . 2010. “Activists and Conflict Extension in American Politics.” American Political Science Review. Vol. 104 No. 2: 324–347. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Dunlap, Riley McCright, Aaron Dunlap, Riley and Aaron McCright , 2011. “Organized Climate Change Denial.” In John S. Dryzek, Richard Norgaard and David Schosberg, eds., Oxford Handbook of Climate Change and Society. New York: Oxford University Press. Google Scholar
Flippen, J. Brooks Flippen, J. Brooks . 2000. Nixon and the Environment. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. Google Scholar
Achen, Christopher H. Bartels, Larry Achen, Christopher H. and Larry Bartels . 2016. Democracy for Realists: Why Elections Don’t Produce Responsive Government. Princeton: Princeton University Press. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Baylor, Christopher Baylor, Christopher . 2018. First to the Party: The Group Origins of Political Transformation. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. Google Scholar
Carter, Neil 78 Carter, Neil . 2013. “Greening the Mainstream: Party Politics and the Environment.” Environmental Politics. Vol. 22 No. 1: 73–94. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Dunlap, Riley E. Allen, Michael Patrick Dunlap, Riley E. and Michael Patrick Allen . 1976. “Partisan Differences on Environmental Issues: A Congressional Roll-Call Analysis.” Western Political Quarterly. Vol. 29 No. 3: 384–397. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Burnham, Walter Dean Burnham, Walter Dean . 1970. Critical Elections and the Mainsprings of American Politics. New York: Norton. Google Scholar
Dalton, Russell J. Dalton, Russell J. 2009. “Economics, Environmentalism and Party Alignments: A Note on Partisan Change in Advanced Industrial Democracies.” European Journal of Political Research. Vol. 48 No. 2: 161–175. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Frymer, Paul Frymer, Paul . 1999. Uneasy Alliances: Race and Party Competition in America. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Google Scholar
Jackson, David J. Engel, Steven T. 80 Jackson, David J. and Steven T. Engel . 2003. “Friends Don’t Let Friends Vote for Free Trade: The Dynamics of the Labor PAC Punishment Strategy over PNTR.” Political Research Quarterly. Vol. 56 No. 4: 441–448. Google Scholar
Mayhew, David R. Mayhew, David R. 1974. Congress: The Electoral Connection. New Haven: Yale University Press. Google Scholar
Cohen, Marty Karol, David Noel, Hans Zaller, John Cohen, Marty , David Karol , Hans Noel , and John Zaller . 2008. The Party Decides: Parties before and after Reform. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Gelpi, Christopher Feaver, Peter Gelpi, Christopher and Peter Feaver . 2002. “Speak Softly and Carry a Big Stick? Veterans in the Political Elite and the American Use of Force.” American Political Science Review. Vol. 96 No. 4: 779–793. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Hinchcliffe, Kelsey L. Lee, Frances E. Hinchcliffe, Kelsey L. and Frances E. Lee . 2016. “Party Competition and Conflict in State Legislatures.” State Politics and Policy Quarterly. Vol. 16 No. 2: 172–197. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Kousser, Thad Kousser, Thad . 2009. “How Geopolitics Cleaved California’s Republicans and United its Democrats.” California Journal of Politics and Policy. Vol. 1 No. 1: 2–15. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Billings, Dwight B. Samson, Will Billings, Dwight B. and Will Samson . 2012 “Evangelical Christians and the Environment: “Christians for the Mountains” and the Appalachian Movement against Mountaintop Removal Coal Mining.” Worldviews. Vol. 16 No. 1: 1–29. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Brooks, Karl Brooks, Karl . 2009. Public Power, Private Dams: The Hells Canyon High Dam Controversy. Seattle: University of Washington Press. Google Scholar
Fenno, Richard F. 79 Fenno, Richard F. Jr. 1978. Home Style: House Members in their Districts. Boston: Little, Brown. Google Scholar
Hopkins, David A. Hopkins, David A. 2017. Red Fighting Blue: How Geography and Electoral Rules Polarize American Politics. New York: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Mayhew, David R. Mayhew, David R. 2004. Electoral Realignments: A Critique of an American Genre. New Haven: Yale University Press. Google Scholar
King, Leslie King, Leslie . 2008. “Ideology, Strategy and Conflict in a Social Movement Organization: The Sierra Club Immigration Wars.” Mobilization: The International Quarterly. Vol. 13 No.1: 45–61. Google Scholar
Layzer, Judith A. Layzer, Judith A. 2012. Open for Business: Conservatives’ Opposition to Environmental Regulation. Cambridge: MIT Press. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Bishop, Bill G. Cushing, Robert Bishop, Bill G. and Robert Cushing . 2008. The Big Sort: Why the Clustering of Like-Minded America is Tearing Us Apart. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Google Scholar
Gamson, William A. Modigliani, Andre Gamson, William A. and Andre Modigliani . 1989. “Media Discourse and Public Opinion on Nuclear Power: A Constructivist Approach.” American Journal of Sociology. Vol. 95 No. 1: 1–37. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Egan, Patrick J. Mullin, Megan Egan, Patrick J. and Megan Mullin . 2017. “Climate Change: US Public Opinion” Annual Review of Political Science. Vol. 20: 209–227. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Klyza, Christopher McGrory Sousa, David J. Klyza, Christopher McGrory and David J. Sousa . 2013. American Environmental Policy: Beyond Gridlock. Cambridge: MIT Press. Google Scholar
Lenz, Gabriel Lenz, Gabriel . 2012. Follow the Leader? How Voters Respond to Politicians’ Policies and Performance. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Grose Christian, R. Grose , Christian, R. 2011. Congress in Black and White: Race and Representation in Washington and at Home. New York: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Hadden, Jennifer Hadden, Jennifer . 2015. Networks in Contention: The Divisive Politics of Climate Change. New York: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Hays, Samuel Hays, Samuel . 1959. Conservation and the Gospel of Efficiency: The Progressive Conservation Movement: 1890–1920. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Google Scholar
Mayhew, David R. Mayhew, David R. 1986. Placing Parties in American Politics: Organization, Electoral Settings and Government Activity in the Twentieth Century. Princeton: Princeton University Press. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Carnes, Nicholas Carnes, Nicholas . 2013. White-Collar Government. The Hidden Role of Class in Economic Policy Making. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Greenstone, J. David Greenstone, J. David . 1969. Labor in American Politics. New York: Knopf. Google Scholar
Inglehart, Ronald Inglehart, Ronald . 1995. “Public Support for Environmental Protection: Objective Problems and Subjective Values in 43 Societies” PS- Political Science & Politics. Vol. 28 No. 1: 57–72. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Karol, David Karol, David . 2014. “Parties Revised and Revived: Democrats and Republicans in the Age of Reagan.” In Marjorie Hershey, ed., CQ Press Guide to U.S. Political Parties. Thousand Oaks: CQ Press. Google Scholar
Bernstein, Jonathan Dominguez, Casey B. K. Bernstein, Jonathan and Casey B. K. Dominguez . 2003. ”Candidates and Candidacies in the Expanded Party.” P.S. Political Science & Politics. Vol. 36 No. 2: 165–169 CrossRef | Google Scholar
Carmines, Edward Stimson, James Carmines, Edward and James Stimson . 1989. Issue Evolution: Race and the Transformation of American Politics. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Google Scholar
Harris, Robert J. Harris, Robert J. 1953. “States’ Rights and Vested Interests.” Journal of Politics. Vol. 15 No. 4: 457–471. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Kalman, Laura Kalman, Laura . 2017. The Long Reach of the Sixties: LBJ, Nixon and the Making of the Contemporary Supreme Court. New York: Oxford University Press. Google Scholar
Kamienicki, Sheldon Lester, James P. Kamienicki, Sheldon . 1995. “Political Parties and Environmental Policy.” In James P. Lester , ed., Environmental Politics and Policy: Theories and Evidence. Durham: Duke University Press. Google Scholar
Bean, Lydia Teles, Steven M. Bean, Lydia and Steven M. Teles . 2015. Spreading the Gospel of Climate Change: An Evangelical Battleground. Washington DC: New America Foundation. Google Scholar
Engel, Steven T. Jackson, David J. Engel, Steven T. and David J. Jackson . 1998. “Wielding the Stick instead of the Carrot: Labor PAC Punishment of Pro-NAFTA Democrats.” Political Research Quarterly. Vol. 51 No. 3: 813–828. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Dark, Taylor E. Dark, Taylor E. 2001. The Unions and Democrats: An Enduring Alliance. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. Google Scholar
Feinstein, Brian D. Schickler, Eric Feinstein, Brian D. and Eric Schickler . 2008. Platforms and Partners: The Civil Rights Realignment Reconsidered. Studies in American Political Development. Vol. 22 No. 1: 1–31. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Fox, Steven R. Fox, Steven R. 1981. The American Conservation Movement: John Muir and his Legacy. Boston: Little, Brown. Google Scholar
Marshall, Thomas 81 Marshall, Thomas . 2016. Public Opinion, Public Policy, and Smoking: The Transformation of American Attitudes and Cigarette Use, 1890–2016. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books. Google Scholar
Bishin, Benjamin G. Bishin, Benjamin G. 2009. Tyranny of the Minority: The Subconstituency Theory of Representation. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. Google Scholar
Chen, Anthony S. Chen, Anthony S. 2009. The Fifth Freedom: Jobs, Politics and Civil Rights in the United States, 1941–1972. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Google Scholar
Curry, James M. Lee, Frances E. Curry, James M. and Frances E. Lee . 2019. “Non-Party Government: Bipartisan Lawmaking and Party Power in Congress.” Perspectives on Politics. Vol. 17 No. 1:47-65. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Danielsen, Sabrina Danielsen, Sabrina . 2013. “Fracturing Over Creation Care? Shifting Environmental Beliefs among Evangelicals, 1984–2010.” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion. Vol. 52 No. 1: 198–215. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Dominguez, Casey Skinner, Richard Dominguez, Casey and Richard Skinner . 2014. “Friends and Family: A Sketch of Group-Party Alliance Over Time.” Paper Presented at the 2014 Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, August 27, 2014 – August 31, 2014, Washington DC. Google Scholar
Grumbach, Jacob M. Grumbach, Jacob M. 2018. “From Backwaters to Major Policymakers: Policy Polarization in the States, 1970–2014.” Perspectives on Politics. Vol. 6: 416–435. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Hofstadter, Richard Hofstadter, Richard . 1955. The Age of Reform. New York: Vintage. Google Scholar
Watson, Richard L. Watson, Richard L. Jr., 1963. “The Defeat of Judge Parker: A Study in Pressure Groups and Politics.” The Mississippi Valley Historical Review. Vol. 50 No. 2: 213–224. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Sundquist, James L. Sundquist, James L. 1983. Dynamics of the Party System: Alignment and Realignment of Political Parties in the United States. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution. Google Scholar
Rothenberg, Lawrence S. Policy Success in an Age of Gridlock: How the Toxic Substances Control Act was Finally Reformed Lawrence S. Rothenberg 9781108628044 CrossRef | Google Scholar
Hawkins, Kirk Littvay, Levente Contemporary US Populism in Comparative Perspective Kirk Hawkins , Levente Littvay 9781108456821 Google Scholar
Wolbrecht, Christina Wolbrecht, Christina . 2000. The Politics of Women’s Rights: Parties, Position and Change. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Google Scholar
Obach, Brian K. Obach, Brian K. 2004. Labor and the Environmental Movement: The Quest for Common Ground. Cambridge: MIT Press. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Mitchell, Robert Cameron Mertig, Angela G. Dunlap, Riley E. Mitchell, Robert Cameron , Angela G. Mertig , and Riley E. Dunlap . 1991. “Twenty Years of Environmental Mobilization: Trends among National Environmental Organizations.” Society and Natural Resources. Vol. 4: 219–234. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Wellock, Thomas Raymond Wellock, Thomas Raymond . 1996. Critical Masses: Opposition to Nuclear Power in California: 1958–1978. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. Google Scholar
Wellock, Thomas Wellock, Thomas . 1992. “The Battle for Bodega Bay: The Sierra Club and Nuclear Power, 1958–1964.” California History. Vol. 71. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Schrepfer, Susan R. Schrepfer, Susan R. 1992. “The Nuclear Crucible: Diablo Canyon and the Transformation of the Sierra Club.” California History. Vol. 71 No. 2: 212–237. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Moe, Terry Moe, Terry . 1987. “Interests, Institutions and Positive Theory: The Politics of the NLRB.” Studies in American Political Development. Vol. 2: Spring 236–299. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Shoch, James Shoch, James . 2001. Trading Blows: Party Competition and U.S. Trade Policy in a Globalizing Era. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. Google Scholar
Skocpol, Theda Skocpol, Theda . 2013. “Naming The Problem: What It Will Take to Counter Extremism and Engage Americans in the Fight against Global Warming.” Prepared for the Symposium on The Politics of America’s Fight Against Global Warming Co-sponsored by the Columbia School of Journalism and the Scholars Strategy Network. February 14, 2013. Tsai Auditorium, Harvard University. Google Scholar
Green, Matthew Legislative Hardball: The House Freedom Caucus and the Power of Threat-Making in Congress Matthew Green 9781108735810 CrossRef | Google Scholar
Scherer, Nancy Scherer, Nancy . 2005. Scoring Points: Politicians, Activists and the Lower Federal Court Appointment Process. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press. Google Scholar
Stokes, Leah C. Warshaw, Christopher Stokes, Leah C. and Christopher Warshaw . 2017. “Renewable Energy Policy Design and Framing Influence Public Support in the United States.” Nature Energy 2 No. 8: 17107. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Kirkland, Justin H. Slapin, Jonathan B. Roll Call Rebels: Strategic Dissent in the United States and United Kingdom Justin H. Kirkland , Jonathan B. Slapin 9781108701556 CrossRef | Google Scholar
Karol, David Red, Green, and Blue: The Partisan Divide on Environmental Issues David Karol 9781108716499 Google Scholar
Scott, James Scott, James . 1999. Seeing Like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed. New Haven: Yale University Press. Google Scholar
Turner, James Morton Turner, James Morton . 2009. “‘The Specter of Environmentalism’: Wilderness, Environmental Politics, and the Evolution of the New Right.” Journal of American History . Vol. 96 No. 1: 123–148. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Skocpol, Theda Hertel-Fernandez, Alexander Skocpol, Theda and Alexander Hertel-Fernandez . 2016. “The Koch Network and Republican Party Extremism.” Perspectives on Politics. Vol. 14 No.3: 681–700. CrossRef | Google Scholar
McTague, John Pearson-Merkowitz, Shana McTague, John and Shana Pearson-Merkowitz . 2013. “Voting from the Pew; The Effect of Senators’ Religious Identities on Partisan Polarization in the U.S. Senate.” Legislative Studies Quarterly. Vol. 38: 405–430. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Thomsen, Danielle M. Thomsen, Danielle M. 2017. Opting Out of Congress: Partisan Polarization and the Decline of Moderate Candidates. New York: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Turner, Tom Turner, Tom . 2015. David Brower: The Making of the Environmental Movement. Berkeley: University of California Press. Google Scholar
Zaller, John R. Zaller, John R. 1992. The Nature and Origins of Mass Opinion. New York: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Miler, Kristina C. Miler, Kristina C. 2010. Constituency Representation in Congress: The View from the Hill. New York: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Richardson, Elmo R. Richardson, Elmo R. 1958. “Conservation as a Political Issue: The Western Progressives’ Political Dilemma, 1909–1912.” The Pacific Northwest Quarterly. Vol. 49 No.2: 49–54. Google Scholar
Schickler, Eric Schickler, Eric . 2016. Racial Realignment: The Transformation of American Liberalism, 1932–1965. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Google Scholar
Wildavsky, Aaron Wildavsky, Aaron . 1962. Dixon-Yates: A Study in Power Politics. New Haven: Yale University Press. Google Scholar
McGirr, Lisa McGirr, Lisa . 2015. The War on Alcohol: Prohibition and the Rise of the American State. New York: W. W. Norton. Google Scholar
Meyer, John M. Meyer, John M. 1997. “Gifford Pinchot, John Muir and the Boundaries of Politics in American Thought.” Polity. Vol. 30. No. 2: 267–284. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Miller, Warren E. Stokes, Donald W. Miller, Warren E. and Donald W. Stokes . 1963. “Constituency Influence in Congress.” American Political Science Review. Vol. 57: 45–46. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Turner, James Morton Isenberg, Andrew Turner, James Morton and Andrew Isenberg . 2018. Republican Reversal: Conservatives and the Environment from Nixon to Trump. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Shor, Boris Thurber, James Yoshinaka, Antoine Shor, Boris . 2015. “Polarization in American State Legislatures.” In James Thurber and Antoine Yoshinaka , eds., American Gridlock: The Sources, Character and Impact of Political Polarization. Google Scholar
McCright, Aaron M. Dunlap, Riley. E. McCright, Aaron M. and Riley. E. Dunlap . 2011. “The Politicization of Climate Change and Polarization of the American Public’s Views of Global Warming, 2001–2010.” Sociological Quarterly. Vol. 52 No. 2: 155–194. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Wohlforth, Charles Wohlforth, Charles . 2010. The Fate of Nature: Rediscovering our Ability to Save the Earth. New York: St. Martin’s Press. Google Scholar
Spiro, Jonathan Peter Spiro, Jonathan Peter . 2008. Defending the Master Race: Conservation, Eugenics and the Legacy of Madison Grant. Lebanon, NH: University of Vermont Press. Google Scholar
83Swers, Michele 83Swers, Michele . 2005. “Connecting Descriptive and Substantive Representation: An Analysis of Sex Differences in Cosponsorship Activity.” Legislative Studies Quarterly. Vol. 30 No. 3: 407–433. Google Scholar
Obach, Brian K. Obach, Brian K. 2002. “Labor-Environmental Relations: An Analysis of the Relationship between Labor Unions and Environmentalists.” Social Science Quarterly. Vol. 83 No. 1: 82–100. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Ogarzalek, Thomas Ogarzalek, Thomas . 2018. Cities on the Hill: How Urban Institutions Transform National Politics. New York: Oxford University Press. Google Scholar
Skinner, Richard Skinner, Richard . 2007. More Than Money: Interest Group Action in Congressional Elections. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. Google Scholar
Poole, Keith Poole, Keith . 1988. “Recent Developments in Analytical Models of Voting in the U.S. Congress.” Legislative Studies Quarterly. Vol. 13 No.1: 117–133. CrossRef | Google Scholar
Poole, Keith Rosenthal, Howard 82 Poole, Keith and Howard Rosenthal . 2007. Ideology and Congress: A Political-Economic History of Roll Call Voting. Transaction Publishers: Piscataway. Google Scholar
Schlozman, Daniel Schlozman, Daniel . 2015. When Movements Anchor Parties: Electoral Alignments in American History. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Google Scholar

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between #date#. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed