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Kinetic theory of weakly turbulent nonlinear processes in plasma helped form the foundation of modern plasma physics. This book provides a systematic overview of the kinetic theory of weak plasma turbulence from a modern perspective. It covers the fundamentals of weak turbulence theory, including the foundational concepts and the mathematical and technical details. Some key obstacles to space plasma applications are also covered, including the origin of non-thermal charged particle population, and radio burst phenomena from the sun. Treating both collective and discrete particle effects, the book provides a valuable reference for researchers looking to familiarize themselves with plasma weak turbulence theory.
An up-to-date comprehensive text useful for graduate students and academic researchers in the field of energy transfers in fluid flows. The initial part of the text covers discussion on energy transfer formalism in hydrodynamics and the latter part covers applications including passive scalar, buoyancy driven flows, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD), dynamo, rotating flows and compressible flows. Energy transfers among large-scale modes play a critical role in nonlinear instabilities and pattern formation and is discussed comprehensively in the chapter on buoyancy-driven flows. It derives formulae to compute Kolmogorov's energy flux, shell-to-shell energy transfers and locality. The book discusses the concept of energy transfer formalism which helps in calculating anisotropic turbulence.
The field of high-power laser-plasma interaction has grown in the last few decades, with applications ranging from laser-driven fusion and laser acceleration of charged particles to laser ablation of materials. This comprehensive text covers fundamental concepts including electromagnetics and electrostatic waves, parameter instabilities, laser driven fusion,charged particle acceleration and gamma rays. Two important techniques of laser proton interactions including target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) and radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) are discussed in detail, along with their applications in the field of medicine. An analytical framework is developed for laser beat-wave and wakefield excitation of plasma waves and subsequent acceleration of electrons. The book covers parametric oscillator model and studies the coupling of laser light with collective modes.
With ninety per cent of visible matter in the universe existing in the plasma state, an understanding of magnetohydrodynamics is essential for anyone looking to understand solar and astrophysical processes, from stars to accretion discs and galaxies; as well as laboratory applications focused on harnessing controlled fusion energy. This introduction to magnetohydrodynamics brings together the theory of plasma behavior with advanced topics including the applications of plasma physics to thermonuclear fusion and plasma- astrophysics. Topics covered include streaming and toroidal plasmas, nonlinear dynamics, modern computational techniques, incompressible plasma turbulence and extreme transonic and relativistic plasma flows. The numerical techniques needed to apply magnetohydrodynamics are explained, allowing the reader to move from theory to application and exploit the latest algorithmic advances. Bringing together two previous volumes: Principles of Magnetohydrodynamics and Advanced Magnetohydrodynamics, and completely updated with new examples, insights and applications, this volume constitutes a comprehensive reference for students and researchers interested in plasma physics, astrophysics and thermonuclear fusion.
This valuable resource summarizes the past fifty years' basic research accomplishments in plasma dynamics for aerospace engineering, presenting these results in a comprehensive volume that will be an asset to any professional in the field. It offers a comprehensive review of the foundation of plasma dynamics while integrating the most recently developed modeling and simulation techniques with the theoretic physics, including the state-of-the-art numerical algorithms. Several first-ever demonstrations for innovations and incisive explanations for previously unexplained observations are included. All the necessary formulations for technical evaluation to engineering applications are derived from the first principle by statistic and quantum mechanics, and led to physics-based computational simulations for practical applications. The computer-aided procedures directly engage the reader to duplicate findings that are nearly impossible by using ground-based experimental facilities. Plasma Dynamics for Aerospace Engineering will allow readers to reach an incisive understanding of plasma physics.
Plasmas comprise more than 99% of the observable universe. They are important in many technologies and are key potential sources for fusion power. Atomic and radiation physics is critical for the diagnosis, observation and simulation of astrophysical and laboratory plasmas, and plasma physicists working in a range of areas from astrophysics, magnetic fusion, and inertial fusion utilise atomic and radiation physics to interpret measurements. This text develops the physics of emission, absorption and interaction of light in astrophysics and in laboratory plasmas from first principles using the physics of various fields of study including quantum mechanics, electricity and magnetism, and statistical physics. Linking undergraduate level atomic and radiation physics with the advanced material required for postgraduate study and research, this text adopts a highly pedagogical approach and includes numerous exercises within each chapter for students to reinforce their understanding of the key concepts.
High-energy-density physics explores the dynamics of matter at extreme conditions. This encompasses temperatures and densities far greater than we experience on Earth. It applies to normal stars, exploding stars, active galaxies, and planetary interiors. High-energy-density matter is found on Earth in the explosion of nuclear weapons and in laboratories with high-powered lasers or pulsed-power machines. The physics explored in this book is the basis for large-scale simulation codes needed to interpret experimental results whether from astrophysical observations or laboratory-scale experiments. The key elements of high-energy-density physics covered are gas dynamics, ionization, thermal energy transport, and radiation transfer, intense electromagnetic waves, and their dynamical coupling. Implicit in this is a fundamental understanding of hydrodynamics, plasma physics, atomic physics, quantum mechanics, and electromagnetic theory. Beginning with a summary of the topics and exploring the major ones in depth, this book is a valuable resource for research scientists and graduate students in physics and astrophysics.
Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) plays a crucial role in astrophysics, planetary magnetism, engineering and controlled nuclear fusion. This comprehensive textbook emphasizes physical ideas, rather than mathematical detail, making it accessible to a broad audience. Starting from elementary chapters on fluid mechanics and electromagnetism, it takes the reader all the way through to the latest ideas in more advanced topics, including planetary dynamos, stellar magnetism, fusion plasmas and engineering applications. With the new edition, readers will benefit from additional material on MHD instabilities, planetary dynamos and applications in astrophysics, as well as a whole new chapter on fusion plasma MHD. The development of the material from first principles and its pedagogical style makes this an ideal companion for both undergraduate students and postgraduate students in physics, applied mathematics and engineering. Elementary knowledge of vector calculus is the only prerequisite.
An Introduction to Space Plasma Complexity considers select examples of complexity phenomena related to observed plasma processes in the space environment, such as those pertaining to the solar corona, the interplanetary medium, and Earth's magnetosphere and ionosphere. This book provides a guided tour of the ideas behind forced and/or self-organized criticality, intermittency, multifractals, and the theory of the dynamic renormalization group, with applications to space plasma complexity. There is much to be explored and studied in this relatively new and developing field. Readers will be able to apply the concepts and methodologies espoused in this introduction to their own research interests and activities.
Comprehensive, self-contained, and clearly written, this successor to Ideal Magnetohydrodynamics (1987) describes the macroscopic equilibrium and stability of high temperature plasmas - the basic fuel for the development of fusion power. Now fully updated, this book discusses the underlying physical assumptions for three basic MHD models: ideal, kinetic, and double-adiabatic MHD. Included are detailed analyses of MHD equilibrium and stability, with a particular focus on three key configurations at the cutting-edge of fusion research: the tokamak, stellarator, and reversed field pinch. Other new topics include continuum damping, MHD stability comparison theorems, neoclassical transport in stellarators, and how quasi-omnigeneity, quasi-symmetry, and quasi-isodynamic constraints impact the design of optimized stellarators. Including full derivations of almost every important result, in-depth physical explanations throughout, and a large number of problem sets to help master the material, this is an exceptional resource for graduate students and researchers in plasma and fusion physics.
This complete introduction to the use of modern ray tracing techniques in plasma physics describes the powerful mathematical methods generally applicable to vector wave equations in non-uniform media, and clearly demonstrates the application of these methods to simplify and solve important problems in plasma wave theory. Key analytical concepts are carefully introduced as needed, encouraging the development of a visual intuition for the underlying methodology, with more advanced mathematical concepts succinctly explained in the appendices, and supporting Matlab and Raycon code available online. Covering variational principles, covariant formulations, caustics, tunnelling, mode conversion, weak dissipation, wave emission from coherent sources, incoherent wave fields, and collective wave absorption and emission, all within an accessible framework using standard plasma physics notation, this is an invaluable resource for graduate students and researchers in plasma physics.
Most matter in the Universe, from the deep interior of planets to the core of stars, is at high temperature or high pressure compared to the matter of our ordinary experience. This book offers a comprehensive introduction to the basic physical theory on matter at such extreme conditions and the mathematical modeling techniques involved in numerical simulations of its properties and behavior. Focusing on computational modeling, the book discusses topics such as the basic properties of dense plasmas; ionization physics; the physical mechanisms by which laser light is absorbed in matter; radiation transport in matter; the basics of hydrodynamics and shock-wave formation and propagation; and numerical simulation of radiation-hydrodynamics phenomenology. End-of-chapter exercises allow the reader to test their understanding of the material and introduce additional physics, making this an invaluable resource for researchers and graduate students in this broad and interdisciplinary area of physics.
The introduction of low temperature plasma technology to medical research and to the healthcare arena in general is set to revolutionise the way we cure diseases. This innovative medium offers a valid and advantageous replacement of traditional chemical-based medications. Its application in the inactivation of pathogens in particular, avoids the recurrent problem of drug resistant microorganisms. This is the first book dedicated exclusively to the emerging interdisciplinary field of plasma medicine. The opening chapters discuss plasmas and plasma chemistry, the fundamentals of non-equilibrium plasmas and cell biology. The rest of the book is dedicated to current applications, illustrating a plasma-based approach to wound healing, electrosurgery, cancer treatment and even dentistry. The text provides a clear and integrated introduction to plasma technology and has been devised to answer the needs of researchers from different communities. It will appeal to graduate students and physicists, engineers, biologists, medical doctors and biochemists.
Low-temperature radio frequency plasmas are essential in various sectors of advanced technology, from micro-engineering to spacecraft propulsion systems and efficient sources of light. The subject lies at the complex interfaces between physics, chemistry and engineering. Focusing mostly on physics, this book will interest graduate students and researchers in applied physics and electrical engineering. The book incorporates a cutting-edge perspective on RF plasmas. It also covers basic plasma physics including transport in bounded plasmas and electrical diagnostics. Its pedagogic style engages readers, helping them to develop physical arguments and mathematical analyses. Worked examples apply the theories covered to realistic scenarios, and over 100 in-text questions let readers put their newly acquired knowledge to use and gain confidence in applying physics to real laboratory situations.
This unified introduction provides the tools and techniques needed to analyze plasmas and connects plasma phenomena to other fields of study. Combining mathematical rigor with qualitative explanations, and linking theory to practice with example problems, this is a perfect textbook for senior undergraduate and graduate students taking one-semester introductory plasma physics courses. For the first time, material is presented in the context of unifying principles, illustrated using organizational charts, and structured in a successive progression from single particle motion, to kinetic theory and average values, through to collective phenomena of waves in plasma. This provides students with a stronger understanding of the topics covered, their interconnections, and when different types of plasma models are applicable. Furthermore, mathematical derivations are rigorous, yet concise, so physical understanding is not lost in lengthy mathematical treatments. Worked examples illustrate practical applications of theory and students can test their new knowledge with 90 end-of-chapter problems.
Nuclear fusion research is entering a new phase, in which power exhaust will play a vital role. This book presents a complete and up-to-date summary of this emerging field of research in fusion plasmas, focusing on the leading tokamak concept. Emphasis is placed on rigorous theoretical development, supplemented by numerical simulations, which are used to explain and quantify a range of experimental observations. The text offers a self-contained introduction to power exhaust, and deals in detail with both edge plasma turbulence and edge localized modes, providing the necessary background to understand these important, yet complicated phenomena. Combining an in-depth overview with an instructive development of concepts, this is an invaluable resource for academic researchers and graduate students in plasma physics.
Plasma physics is the fascinating science behind lightning bolts, fluorescent lights, solar flares, ultra-bright TV screens, fusion reactors, cosmic jets and black hole radiation, to name but a few examples. Research into this could lead to a source of unlimited, non-polluting energy. Yet plasmas obey their own, often very surprising, rules, and repeatedly defy our best efforts to anticipate and control them. This richly illustrated, full color book reveals for the first time the exciting world of plasma physics to a non-technical audience. It describes the phenomena, and follows the worldwide research effort to comprehend them, taking the reader on a journey from neighborhood neon lights to the remotest galaxies and beyond. The lively writing is interspersed with fascinating photographs and explanatory diagrams, giving the readers a deeper understanding of the world around them.
This combination of text and reference book describes the physical, plasma and chemical processes controlling the behaviour of ionospheres, upper atmospheres and exospheres. It summarises the structure, chemistry, dynamics and energetics of the terrestrial ionosphere and other solar system bodies, and discusses the processes, mechanisms and transport equations for solving fundamental research problems. This second edition incorporates new results, model developments and interpretations from the last ten years. It includes the latest material on neutral atmospheres; the terrestrial ionosphere at low, middle and high latitudes; and planetary atmospheres and ionospheres, where results from recent space missions have yielded fresh data. Appendices outline physical constants, mathematical formulas, transport coefficients, and other important parameters for ionospheric calculations. This is an essential resource for researchers studying ionospheres, upper atmospheres, aeronomy and plasma physics. It is also an ideal textbook for graduate-level courses, with supplementary problem sets, and solutions for instructors at www.cambridge.org/9780521877060.
Providing a fundamental introduction to all aspects of modern plasma chemistry, this book describes mechanisms and kinetics of chemical processes in plasma, plasma statistics, thermodynamics, fluid mechanics and electrodynamics, as well as all major electric discharges applied in plasma chemistry. Fridman considers most of the major applications of plasma chemistry, from electronics to thermal coatings, from treatment of polymers to fuel conversion and hydrogen production and from plasma metallurgy to plasma medicine. It is helpful to engineers, scientists and students interested in plasma physics, plasma chemistry, plasma engineering and combustion, as well as chemical physics, lasers, energy systems and environmental control. The book contains an extensive database on plasma kinetics and thermodynamics and numerical formulas for practical calculations related to specific plasma-chemical processes and applications. Problems and concept questions are provided, helpful in courses related to plasma, lasers, combustion, chemical kinetics, statistics and thermodynamics, and high-temperature and high-energy fluid mechanics.
There has been an increase in interest worldwide in fusion research over the last decade and a half due to the recognition that a large number of new, environmentally attractive, sustainable energy sources will be needed to meet ever increasing demand for electrical energy. Based on a series of course notes from graduate courses in plasma physics and fusion energy at MIT, the text begins with an overview of world energy needs, current methods of energy generation, and the potential role that fusion may play in the future. It covers energy issues such as the production of fusion power, power balance, the design of a simple fusion reactor and the basic plasma physics issues faced by the developers of fusion power. This book is suitable for graduate students and researchers working in applied physics and nuclear engineering. A large number of problems accumulated over two decades of teaching are included to aid understanding.