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It is now forty years since the discovery of AIDS, but its origins continue to puzzle doctors, scientists and patients. Inspired by his own experiences working as a physician in a bush hospital of Zaire, Jacques Pépin looks back to the early twentieth-century events in central Africa that triggered the emergence of HIV/AIDS and traces its subsequent development into the most dramatic and destructive epidemic of modern times. He shows how the disease was first transmitted from chimpanzees to man and then how military interventions, urbanisation, prostitution and large-scale colonial medical campaigns intended to eradicate tropical diseases combined to disastrous effect to fuel the spread of the virus from its origins in Léopoldville to the rest of Africa, the Caribbean and ultimately worldwide. This is an essential perspective on HIV/AIDS and on the lessons that must be learned as the world faces another pandemic.
Addressing global health is one of the largest challenges facing humanity in the 21st century, however, this task is becoming even more formidable with the accelerated destruction of the planet. Building on the success of the previous edition, the book outlines how progress towards improving global health relies on understanding its core social, economic, political, environmental and ideological aspects. A multi-disciplinary group of authors suggest not only theoretically compelling arguments for what we must do, but also provide practical recommendations as to how we can promote global health despite contemporary constraints. The importance of cross-cultural dialogue and utilisation of ethical tools in tackling global health problems is emphasised. Thoroughly updated, new or expanded topics include: mass displacement of people; novel threats, including new infectious diseases; global justice; and ecological ethics and planetary sustainability. Offering a diverse range of perspectives, this volume is essential for bioethicists, public health practitioners and philosophers.
Can private health insurance fill gaps in publicly financed coverage? Does it enhance access to health care or improve efficiency in health service delivery? Will it provide fiscal relief for governments struggling to raise public revenue for health? This book examines the successes, failures and challenges of private health insurance globally through country case studies written by leading national experts. Each case study considers the role of history and politics in shaping private health insurance and determining its impact on health system performance. Despite great diversity in the size and functioning of markets for private health insurance, the book identifies clear patterns across countries, drawing out valuable lessons for policymakers while showing how history and politics have proved a persistent barrier to effective public policy. This title is also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core.
The field of refugee family research and intervention forms a growing field of scientific study, focussing on the refugee family as the central niche of coping with, and giving meaning to, trauma, cultural uprooting, and exile. This important new book develops an understanding of the role of refugee family relationships in post-trauma healing and provides an in-depth analysis of central clinical-therapeutic themes in refugee family psychosocial interventions. Expert contributions from across transcultural psychiatry, psychology, psychotherapy and social work have provided chapters on post-trauma reconstruction in refugee family relationships, trauma care for refugee families, and intersectorial psychosocial interventions with refugee families. This exploration of refugee family systems in both research and clinical practice aims to promote a systemic perspective in health and social services working with families in refugee mental health care.
The idea of person-centred health systems is widely advocated in political and policy declarations to better address health system challenges. A person-centred approach is advocated on political, ethical and instrumental grounds and believed to benefit service users, health professionals and the health system more broadly. However, there is continuing debate about the strategies that are available and effective to promote and implement 'person-centred' approaches. This book brings together the world's leading experts in the field to present the evidence base and analyse current challenges and issues. It examines 'person-centredness' from the different roles people take in health systems, as individual service users, care managers, taxpayers or active citizens. The evidence presented will not only provide invaluable policy advice to practitioners and policymakers working on the design and implementation of person-centred health systems but will also be an excellent resource for academics and graduate students researching health systems in Europe.
Hospitals today face a huge number of challenges, including new patterns of disease, rapidly evolving medical technologies, ageing populations and continuing budget constraints. This book is written by clinicians for clinicians and hospital managers, and those who design and operate hospitals. It sets out why hospitals need to change as the patients they treat and the technology to treat them changes. In a series of chapters by leading authorities in their field, it challenges existing models, reviews best practice from many countries and presents clear policy recommendations for policymakers and hospital administrators. It covers the main patient groups and conditions as well as those departments that make modern effective care possible, in imaging and laboratory medicine. Each chapter looks at patient pathways, aspects of workforce, required levels of specialisation and technology, and the opportunities and challenges for optimising the delivery of services in the hospital of the future. This title is also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core.
In the global infectious-disease research community, there has long been uncertainty about the conditions under which biological resources may be studied or transferred out of countries. This work examines the reasons for that uncertainty and shows how global biomedical research has been shaped by international disputes over access to biological resources. Bringing together government leaders, World Health Organization officials, and experts in virology, wildlife biology, clinical ethics, technology transfer, and international law, the book identifies the critical problems - and implications of these problems - posed by negotiating for access and sharing benefits, and proposes solutions to ensure that biomedical advances are not threatened by global politics. Written in accessible, non-technical language, this work should be read by anyone who sees global health and biomedical research as a priority for international lawmakers.
Medicine is becoming increasingly reliant on diagnostic, prognostic and screening tests for the successful treatment of patients. With new tests being developed all the time, a more informed understanding of the benefits and drawbacks of these tests is crucial. Providing readers with the tools needed to evaluate and interpret these tests, numerous real-world examples demonstrate the practical application and relevance of the material. The mathematics involved are rigorously explained using simple and informative language. Topics covered include the diagnostic process, reliability and accuracy of tests, and quantifying treatment benefits using randomized trials, amongst others. Engaging illustrations act as visual representations of the concepts discussed in the book, complementing the textual explanation.Based on decades of experience teaching in a clinical research training program, this fully updated second edition is an essential guide for anyone looking to select, develop or market medical tests.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a biological mechanism whereby a micro-organism evolves over time to develop the ability to become resistant to antimicrobial therapies such as antibiotics. The drivers of and potential solutions to AMR are complex, often spanning multiple sectors. The internationally recognised response to AMR advocates for a 'One Health' approach, which requires policies to be developed and implemented across human, animal, and environmental health. To date, misaligned economic incentives have slowed the development of novel antimicrobials and limited efforts to reduce antimicrobial usage. However, the research which underpins the variety of policy options to tackle AMR is rapidly evolving across multiple disciplines such as human medicine, veterinary medicine, agricultural sciences, epidemiology, economics, sociology and psychology. By bringing together in one place the latest evidence and analysing the different facets of the complex problem of tackling AMR, this book offers an accessible summary for policy-makers, academics and students on the big questions around AMR policy.
Public Health: Local and Global Perspectives provides students with a comprehensive overview of Australian and international public health issues and contexts. It introduces the discipline of public health and aims to deepen students' understanding of the determinants of health, historical and theoretical perspectives of public health, current health research and evidence-based practice. This fully revised and expanded edition includes new chapters on ethics in public health, planning and evaluation, individual behavioural change, gender-based health inequalities and public health approaches to drug use. Each chapter features a strong pedagogical foundation, including learning objectives, key terms, illustrative case studies, tutorial exercises, further reading and comprehensive summaries that equip students with a deeper understanding of key concepts. Written by an accomplished author team led by Pranee Liamputtong, Public Health remains an essential learning resource.
This practical book is designed for applied researchers who want to use mixed models with their data. It discusses the basic principles of mixed model analysis, including two-level and three-level structures, and covers continuous outcome variables, dichotomous outcome variables, and categorical and survival outcome variables. Emphasizing interpretation of results, the book develops the most important applications of mixed models, such as the study of group differences, longitudinal data analysis, multivariate mixed model analysis, IPD meta-analysis, and mixed model predictions. All examples are analyzed with STATA, and an extensive overview and comparison of alternative software packages is provided. All datasets used in the book are available for download, so readers can re-analyze the examples to gain a strong understanding of the methods. Although most examples are taken from epidemiological and clinical studies, this book is also highly recommended for researchers working in other fields.
Psychological hedonism - the idea that people tend to act in ways that maximize pleasure and minimize displeasure - has a decidedly poor reputation among academics who study human behavior. Opinions range from outright rejection to those who believe it to be intuitively obvious, but untestable and therefore unhelpful. In this book, the author introduces an empirically testable and useful theory of psychological hedonism based on contemporary theory and research in the emerging field of affective neuroscience. He goes on to argue that people are genetically endowed with a tendency towards psychological hedonism as a function of Darwinian processes. This view of psychological hedonism in light of its Darwinian origins - thereinafter referred to as Darwinian hedonism - is essential to address the growing global epidemic of unhealthy behavior, such as poor diet, physical inactivity, and substance use.
The book analyses how policies to prevent diseases are related to policies aiming to cure illnesses. It does this by conducting a comparative historical analysis of Australia, Germany, Switzerland, the UK, and the US. It also demonstrates how the politicization of the medical profession contributes to the success of preventative health policy. The book argues that two factors lead to a close relationship of curative and preventative elements in health policies and institutions: a strong national government that possesses a wide range of control over subnational levels of government, and whether professional organizations (especially the medical profession) perceive preventative and non-medical health policy as important and campaign for it politically. The book provides a historical and comparative narrative to substantiate this claim empirically.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a chronic, under-detected and under-treated psychiatric consequence of trauma that is often linked to new-onset medical and psychological conditions, impaired quality of life and long-term disability across the globe. This book is the first systematic analysis of the rates, risk factors, consequences and global burden of trauma and PTSD across a variety of wealthy and underdeveloped settings. An analysis of a global survey conducted by the World Health Organization and featuring findings from over 70,000 participants around the world, this text demonstrates a unique perspective on the prevalence of exposure to trauma and PTSD and the impact it has on population health. The findings inside this text underscore the urgent need for policymakers and healthcare providers to prioritize interventions aimed at reducing the burden of trauma, PTSD and its consequences.
The fields of Global Health and Global Emergency Response have attracted increased interest and study. There has been tremendous growth in the educational opportunities around humanitarian emergencies; however, educational resources have not yet followed the same growth. This book corrects this trend, offering a comprehensive single resource dedicated to health in humanitarian emergencies. Providing an introduction to the public health principles of response to humanitarian emergencies, the text also emphasizes the need to coordinate the public health and emergency clinical response within the architecture of the greater response effort. With contributing authors among some of the world's leading health experts and policy influencers in the field, the content is based on best practices, peer reviewed evidence, and expert consensus. The text acts as a resource for clinical and public health practitioners, graduate-level students, and individuals working in response to humanitarian emergencies for government agencies, international agencies, and NGOs.
Practical Implementation of an Antibiotic Stewardship Program provides an essential resource for healthcare providers in acute care, long-term care, and ambulatory care settings looking either to begin or to strengthen existing antibiotic stewardship programs. Each chapter is written by both physician and pharmacist leaders in the stewardship field and incorporates both practical knowledge as well as evidence-based guidance. This book will also serve as a useful resource for medical students, pharmacy students, residents, and infectious diseases fellows looking to learn more about the field of antibiotic stewardship.
Practical Healthcare Epidemiology takes a hands-on approach to infection prevention for physicians, healthcare epidemiologists, infection preventionists, microbiologists, nurses, and other healthcare professionals. Increased regulatory requirements and patient knowledge and involvement has elevated patient safety, healthcare-associated infections, antibiotic stewardship and quality-of-care to healthcare wide issues. This fully updated new edition brings together the expertise of leaders in healthcare epidemiology to provide best practice expert guidance on infection prevention for adult and pediatric patients in all types of healthcare facilities, from community hospitals and academic institutions, to long-term care and resource limited settings. Written in clear, straightforward terms to address prevention planning and immediate responses to specific situations, this is the go-to resource for any practitioners in medicine or public health involved in infection prevention, regardless of their current expertise in the field.
This unique book presents original research from the largest cross-national survey of the epidemiology of mental disorders ever conducted. It provides the latest findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys based on interviews of nearly 150,000 individuals in twenty-six countries on six continents. The book is ordered by specific disorder, with individual chapters dedicated to presenting detailed findings on the prevalence, onset timing, sociodemographic profile, comorbidity, associated impairment and treatment for eighteen mental disorders. There is also discussion of important cross-national consistencies in the epidemiology of mental disorders and highlighting of intriguing patterns of cross-national variation. This is one of the most comprehensive summaries of the epidemiology of mental disorders ever published, making this an invaluable resource for researchers, clinicians, students and policy-makers in the fields of mental and public health.
Preventing War and Promoting Peace: A Guide for Health Professionals is an interdisciplinary study of how pervasive militarism creates a propensity for war through the influence of academia, economic policy, the defense industry, and the news media. Comprising contributions by academics and practitioners from the fields of public health, medicine, nursing, law, sociology, psychology, political science, and peace and conflict studies, as well as representatives from organizations active in war prevention, the book emphasizes the underlying preventable causes of war, particularly militarism, and focuses on the methods health professionals can use to prevent war. Preventing War and Promoting Peace provides hard-hitting facts about the devastating health effects of war and a broad perspective on war and health, presenting a new paradigm for the proactive engagement of health professions in the prevention of war and the promotion of peace.