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The Assouad dimension is a notion of dimension in fractal geometry that has been the subject of much interest in recent years. This book, written by a world expert on the topic, is the first thorough account of the Assouad dimension and its many variants and applications in fractal geometry and beyond. It places the theory of the Assouad dimension in context among up-to-date treatments of many key advances in fractal geometry, while also emphasising its diverse connections with areas of mathematics including number theory, dynamical systems, harmonic analysis, and probability theory. A final chapter detailing open problems and future directions for research brings readers to the cutting edge of this exciting field. This book will be an indispensable part of the modern fractal geometer's library and a valuable resource for pure mathematicians interested in the beauty and many applications of the Assouad dimension.
The theory of unitary group representations began with finite groups, and blossomed in the twentieth century both as a natural abstraction of classical harmonic analysis, and as a tool for understanding various physical phenomena. Combining basic theory and new results, this monograph is a fresh and self-contained exposition of group representations and harmonic analysis on solvable Lie groups. Covering a range of topics from stratification methods for linear solvable actions in a finite-dimensional vector space, to complete proofs of essential elements of Mackey theory and a unified development of the main features of the orbit method for solvable Lie groups, the authors provide both well-known and new examples, with a focus on those relevant to contemporary applications. Clear explanations of the basic theory make this an invaluable reference guide for graduate students as well as researchers.
Intersection theory has played a prominent role in the study of closed symplectic 4-manifolds since Gromov's famous 1985 paper on pseudoholomorphic curves, leading to myriad beautiful rigidity results that are either inaccessible or not true in higher dimensions. Siefring's recent extension of the theory to punctured holomorphic curves allowed similarly important results for contact 3-manifolds and their symplectic fillings. Based on a series of lectures for graduate students in topology, this book begins with an overview of the closed case, and then proceeds to explain the essentials of Siefring's intersection theory and how to use it, and gives some sample applications in low-dimensional symplectic and contact topology. The appendices provide valuable information for researchers, including a concise reference guide on Siefring's theory and a self-contained proof of a weak version of the Micallef–White theorem.
The last fifteen years have seen a flurry of exciting developments in Fourier restriction theory, leading to significant new applications in diverse fields. This timely text brings the reader from the classical results to state-of-the-art advances in multilinear restriction theory, the Bourgain–Guth induction on scales and the polynomial method. Also discussed in the second part are decoupling for curved manifolds and a wide variety of applications in geometric analysis, PDEs (Strichartz estimates on tori, local smoothing for the wave equation) and number theory (exponential sum estimates and the proof of the Main Conjecture for Vinogradov's Mean Value Theorem). More than 100 exercises in the text help reinforce these important but often difficult ideas, making it suitable for graduate students as well as specialists. Written by an author at the forefront of the modern theory, this book will be of interest to everybody working in harmonic analysis.
The theory of Toeplitz matrices and operators is a vital part of modern analysis, with applications to moment problems, orthogonal polynomials, approximation theory, integral equations, bounded- and vanishing-mean oscillations, and asymptotic methods for large structured determinants, among others. This friendly introduction to Toeplitz theory covers the classical spectral theory of Toeplitz forms and Wiener–Hopf integral operators and their manifestations throughout modern functional analysis. Numerous solved exercises illustrate the results of the main text and introduce subsidiary topics, including recent developments. Each chapter ends with a survey of the present state of the theory, making this a valuable work for the beginning graduate student and established researcher alike. With biographies of the principal creators of the theory and historical context also woven into the text, this book is a complete source on Toeplitz theory.
The unique feature of this compact student's introduction to Mathematica® and the Wolfram Language™ is that the order of the material closely follows a standard mathematics curriculum. As a result, it provides a brief introduction to those aspects of the Mathematica® software program most useful to students. Used as a supplementary text, it will help bridge the gap between Mathematica® and the mathematics in the course, and will serve as an excellent tutorial for former students. There have been significant changes to Mathematica® since the second edition, and all chapters have now been updated to account for new features in the software, including natural language queries and the vast stores of real-world data that are now integrated through the cloud. This third edition also includes many new exercises and a chapter on 3D printing that showcases the new computational geometry capabilities that will equip readers to print in 3D.
This user-friendly textbook introduces complex analysis at the beginning graduate or advanced undergraduate level. Unlike other textbooks, it follows Weierstrass' approach, stressing the importance of power series expansions instead of starting with the Cauchy integral formula, an approach that illuminates many important concepts. This view allows readers to quickly obtain and understand many fundamental results of complex analysis, such as the maximum principle, Liouville's theorem, and Schwarz's lemma. The book covers all the essential material on complex analysis, and includes several elegant proofs that were recently discovered. It includes the zipper algorithm for computing conformal maps, as well as a constructive proof of the Riemann mapping theorem, and culminates in a complete proof of the uniformization theorem. Aimed at students with some undergraduate background in real analysis, though not Lebesgue integration, this classroom-tested textbook will teach the skills and intuition necessary to understand this important area of mathematics.
The theory of Hardy spaces is a cornerstone of modern analysis. It combines techniques from functional analysis, the theory of analytic functions and Lesbesgue integration to create a powerful tool for many applications, pure and applied, from signal processing and Fourier analysis to maximum modulus principles and the Riemann zeta function. This book, aimed at beginning graduate students, introduces and develops the classical results on Hardy spaces and applies them to fundamental concrete problems in analysis. The results are illustrated with numerous solved exercises that also introduce subsidiary topics and recent developments. The reader's understanding of the current state of the field, as well as its history, are further aided by engaging accounts of important contributors and by the surveys of recent advances (with commented reference lists) that end each chapter. Such broad coverage makes this book the ideal source on Hardy spaces.
This new edition of a classic textbook develops complex analysis from the established theory of real analysis by emphasising the differences that arise as a result of the richer geometry of the complex plane. Key features of the authors' approach are to use simple topological ideas to translate visual intuition to rigorous proof, and, in this edition, to address the conceptual conflicts between pure and applied approaches head-on. Beyond the material of the clarified and corrected original edition, there are three new chapters: Chapter 15, on infinitesimals in real and complex analysis; Chapter 16, on homology versions of Cauchy's theorem and Cauchy's residue theorem, linking back to geometric intuition; and Chapter 17, outlines some more advanced directions in which complex analysis has developed, and continues to evolve into the future. With numerous worked examples and exercises, clear and direct proofs, and a view to the future of the subject, this is an invaluable companion for any modern complex analysis course.
While differentiating elementary functions is merely a skill, finding their integrals is an art. This practical introduction to the art of integration gives readers the tools and confidence to tackle common and uncommon integrals. After a review of the basic properties of the Riemann integral, each chapter is devoted to a particular technique of elementary integration. Thorough explanations and plentiful worked examples prepare the reader for the extensive exercises at the end of each chapter. These exercises increase in difficulty from warm-up problems, through drill examples, to challenging extensions which illustrate such advanced topics as the irrationality of π and e, the solution of the Basel problem, Leibniz's series and Wallis's product. The author's accessible and engaging manner will appeal to a wide audience, including students, teachers and self-learners. The book can serve as a complete introduction to finding elementary integrals, or as a supplementary text for any beginning course in calculus.
This up-to-date introduction to Griffiths' theory of period maps and period domains focusses on algebraic, group-theoretic and differential geometric aspects. Starting with an explanation of Griffiths' basic theory, the authors go on to introduce spectral sequences and Koszul complexes that are used to derive results about cycles on higher-dimensional algebraic varieties such as the Noether–Lefschetz theorem and Nori's theorem. They explain differential geometric methods, leading up to proofs of Arakelov-type theorems, the theorem of the fixed part and the rigidity theorem. They also use Higgs bundles and harmonic maps to prove the striking result that not all compact quotients of period domains are Kähler. This thoroughly revised second edition includes a new third part covering important recent developments, in which the group-theoretic approach to Hodge structures is explained, leading to Mumford–Tate groups and their associated domains, the Mumford–Tate varieties and generalizations of Shimura varieties.
This rigorous textbook is intended for a year-long analysis or advanced calculus course for advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate students. Starting with detailed, slow-paced proofs that allow students to acquire facility in reading and writing proofs, it clearly and concisely explains the basics of differentiation and integration of functions of one and several variables, and covers the theorems of Green, Gauss, and Stokes. Minimal prerequisites are assumed, and relevant linear algebra topics are reviewed right before they are needed, making the material accessible to students from diverse backgrounds. Abstract topics are preceded by concrete examples to facilitate understanding, for example, before introducing differential forms, the text examines low-dimensional examples. The meaning and importance of results are thoroughly discussed, and numerous exercises of varying difficulty give students ample opportunity to test and improve their knowledge of this difficult yet vital subject.
Since their inception, the Perspectives in Logic and Lecture Notes in Logic series have published seminal works by leading logicians. Many of the original books in the series have been unavailable for years, but they are now in print once again. In this volume, the fourth publication in the Lecture Notes in Logic series, Miller develops the necessary features of the theory of descriptive sets in order to present a new proof of Louveau's separation theorem for analytic sets. While some background in mathematical logic and set theory is assumed, the material is based on a graduate course given by the author at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, and is thus accessible to students and researchers alike in these areas, as well as in mathematical analysis.
This is a mathematically rigorous introduction to fractals which emphasizes examples and fundamental ideas. Building up from basic techniques of geometric measure theory and probability, central topics such as Hausdorff dimension, self-similar sets and Brownian motion are introduced, as are more specialized topics, including Kakeya sets, capacity, percolation on trees and the traveling salesman theorem. The broad range of techniques presented enables key ideas to be highlighted, without the distraction of excessive technicalities. The authors incorporate some novel proofs which are simpler than those available elsewhere. Where possible, chapters are designed to be read independently so the book can be used to teach a variety of courses, with the clear structure offering students an accessible route into the topic.
This comprehensive monograph is ideal for established researchers in the field and also graduate students who wish to learn more about the subject. The text is made accessible to a broad audience as it does not require any knowledge of Lie groups and only a limited knowledge of differential geometry. The author's primary emphasis is on potential theory on the hyperbolic ball, but many other relevant results for the hyperbolic upper half-space are included both in the text and in the end-of-chapter exercises. These exercises expand on the topics covered in the chapter and involve routine computations and inequalities not included in the text. The book also includes some open problems, which may be a source for potential research projects.
Fourier analysis aims to decompose functions into a superposition of simple trigonometric functions, whose special features can be exploited to isolate specific components into manageable clusters before reassembling the pieces. This two-volume text presents a largely self-contained treatment, comprising not just the major theoretical aspects (Part I) but also exploring links to other areas of mathematics and applications to science and technology (Part II). Following the historical and conceptual genesis, this book (Part I) provides overviews of basic measure theory and functional analysis, with added insight into complex analysis and the theory of distributions. The material is intended for both beginning and advanced graduate students with a thorough knowledge of advanced calculus and linear algebra. Historical notes are provided and topics are illustrated at every stage by examples and exercises, with separate hints and solutions, thus making the exposition useful both as a course textbook and for individual study.
The subject of special functions is often presented as a collection of disparate results, rarely organized in a coherent way. This book emphasizes general principles that unify and demarcate the subjects of study. The authors' main goals are to provide clear motivation, efficient proofs, and original references for all of the principal results. The book covers standard material, but also much more. It shows how much of the subject can be traced back to two equations - the hypergeometric equation and confluent hypergeometric equation - and it details the ways in which these equations are canonical and special. There is extended coverage of orthogonal polynomials, including connections to approximation theory, continued fractions, and the moment problem, as well as an introduction to new asymptotic methods. There are also chapters on Meijer G-functions and elliptic functions. The final chapter introduces Painlevé transcendents, which have been termed the 'special functions of the twenty-first century'.
Varieties of Integration explores the critical contributions by Riemann, Darboux, Lebesgue, Henstock, Kurzweil, and Stieltjes to the theory of integration and provides a glimpse of more recent variations of the integral such as those involving operator-valued measures. By the first year of graduate school, a young mathematician will have encountered at least three separate definitions of the integral. The associated integrals are typically studied in isolation with little attention paid to the relationships between them or to the historical issues that motivated their definitions. Varieties of Integration redresses this situation by introducing the Riemann, Darboux, Lebesgue, and gauge integrals in a single volume using a common set of examples. This approach allows the reader to see how the definitions influence proof techniques and computational strategies. Then the properties of the integrals are compared in three major areas: the class of integrable functions, the convergence properties of the integral, and the best form of the Fundamental Theorems of Calculus.
A thespian or cinematographer might define a cameo as "a brief appearance of a known figure," while a gemologist or lapidary might define it as "a precious or semiprecious stone." This book presents fifty short enhancements or supplements (the Cameos) for the first-year calculus course in which a geometric figure briefly appears. Some of the Cameos illustrate mainstream topics such as the derivative, combinatorial formulas used to compute Riemann sums, or the geometry behind many geometric series. Other Cameos present topics accessible to students at the calculus level but not usually encountered in the course, such as the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality, the arithmetic mean-geometric mean inequality, and the Euler-Mascheroni constant.
There are fifty Cameos in the book, grouped into five sections: Part I Limits and Differentiation; Part II Integration; Part III Infinite Series; Part IV Additional Topics, and Part V Appendix: Some Precalculus Topics. Many of the Cameos include exercises, so Solutions to all the Exercises follows Part V. The book concludes with References and an Index.
Many of the Cameos are adapted from articles published in journals of the MAA, such as the American Mathematical Monthly, Mathematics Magazine, and the College Mathematics Journal. Some come from other mathematical journals, and some were created for this book. By gathering the Cameos into a book we hope that they will be more accessible to teachers of calculus, both for use in the classroom and as supplementary explorations for students.
Ridge functions are a rich class of simple multivariate functions which have found applications in a variety of areas. These include partial differential equations (where they are sometimes termed 'plane waves'), computerised tomography, projection pursuit in the analysis of large multivariate data sets, the MLP model in neural networks, Waring's problem over linear forms, and approximation theory. Ridge Functions is the first book devoted to studying them as entities in and of themselves. The author describes their central properties and provides a solid theoretical foundation for researchers working in areas such as approximation or data science. He also includes an extensive bibliography and discusses some of the unresolved questions that may set the course for future research in the field.