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In this paper, to model cascading failures, a new stochastic failure model is proposed. In a system subject to cascading failures, after each failure of the component, the remaining component suffers from increased load or stress. This results in shortened residual lifetimes of the remaining components. In this paper, to model this effect, the concept of the usual stochastic order is employed along with the accelerated life test model, and a new general class of stochastic failure models is generated.
We propose a new inference strategy for general population mortality tables based on annual population and death estimates, completed by monthly birth counts. We rely on a deterministic population dynamics model and establish formulas that link the death rates to be estimated with the observables at hand. The inference algorithm takes the form of a recursive and implicit scheme for computing death rate estimates. This paper demonstrates both theoretically and numerically the efficiency of using additional monthly birth counts for appropriately computing annual mortality tables. As a main result, the improved mortality estimators show better features, including the fact that previous anomalies in the form of isolated cohort effects disappear, which confirms from a mathematical perspective the previous contributions by Richards, Cairns et al., and Boumezoued.
An upper bound for the hazard rate function of a convolution of not necessarily independent random lifetimes is provided, which generalizes a recent result established for independent random lifetimes. Similar results are considered for the reversed hazard rate function. Applications to parametric and semiparametric models are also given.
We consider the problem of estimating the rate of defects (mean number of defects per item), given the counts of defects detected by two independent imperfect inspectors on one sample of items. In contrast with the setting for the well-known method of Capture–Recapture, we do not have information regarding the number of defects jointly detected by both inspectors. We solve this problem by constructing two types of estimators—a simple moment-type estimator, and a complicated maximum-likelihood (ML) estimator. The performance of these estimators is studied analytically and by means of simulations. It is shown that the ML estimator is superior to the moment-type estimator. A systematic comparison with the Capture–Recapture method is also made.
In this paper, we analyse the set of all possible aggregate distributions of the sum of standard uniform random variables, a simply stated yet challenging problem in the literature of distributions with given margins. Our main results are obtained for two distinct cases. In the case of dimension two, we obtain four partial characterization results. For dimension greater than or equal to three, we obtain a full characterization of the set of aggregate distributions, which is the first complete characterization result of this type in the literature for any choice of continuous marginal distributions.
The De Vylder and Goovaerts conjecture is an open problem in risk theory, stating that the finite-time ruin probability in a standard risk model is greater than or equal to the corresponding ruin probability evaluated in an associated model with equalized claim amounts. Equalized means here that the jump sizes of the associated model are equal to the average jump in the initial model between 0 and a terminal time T.In this paper, we consider the diffusion approximations of both the standard risk model and its associated risk model. We prove that the associated model, when conveniently renormalized, converges in distribution to a Gaussian process satisfying a simple SDE. We then compute the probability that this diffusion hits the level 0 before time T and compare it with the same probability for the diffusion approximation for the standard risk model. We conclude that the De Vylder and Goovaerts conjecture holds for the diffusion limits.
In this paper we introduce multitype branching processes with inhomogeneous Poisson immigration, and consider in detail the critical Markov case when the local intensity r(t) of the Poisson random measure is a regularly varying function. Various multitype limit distributions (conditional and unconditional) are obtained depending on the rate at which r(t) changes with time. The asymptotic behaviour of the first and second moments, and the probability of nonextinction are investigated.
In this paper we provide an introduction to statistical inference for the classical linear birth‒death process, focusing on computational aspects of the problem in the setting of discretely observed processes. The basic probabilistic properties are given in Section 2, focusing on computation of the transition functions. This is followed by a brief discussion of simulation methods in Section 3, and of frequentist methods in Section 4. Section 5 is devoted to Bayesian methods, from rejection sampling to Markov chain Monte Carlo and approximate Bayesian computation. In Section 6 we consider the time-inhomogeneous case. The paper ends with a brief discussion in Section 7.
The aging of population is perhaps the most important problem that developed countries must face in the near future. Dependency can be seen as a consequence of the process of gradual aging. In a health context, this contingency is defined as a lack of autonomy in performing basic activities of daily living that requires the care of another person or significant help. In Europe in general and in Spain in particular, this phenomena represents a problem with economic, political, social and demographic implications. The prevalence of dependency in the population, as well as its intensity and evolution over the course of a person’s life are issues of greatest importance that should be addressed. The aim of this work is the estimation of life expectancy free of dependency (LEFD) based on functional trajectories to enhance the regular estimation of health expectancy. Using information from the Spanish survey EDAD 2008, we estimate the number of years spent free of dependency for disabled people according to gender, dependency degree (moderate, severe, major) and the earlier or later onset of dependency compared to a central trend. The main findings are as follows: first, we show evidence that to estimate LEFD ignoring the information provided by the functional trajectories may lead to non-representative LEFD estimates; second, in general, dependency-free life expectancy is higher for women than for men. However, its intensity is higher in women with later onset on dependency; Third, the loss of autonomy is higher (and more abrupt) in men than in women. Finally, the diversity of patterns observed at later onset of dependency tends to a dependency extreme-pattern in both genders.
This work investigates analytically, the use of piezoelectric tiles placed on stairways for vibrational energy harvesting – harnessing electrical power from natural vibrational phenomena – from pedestrian footfalls. While energy harvesting from pedestrian traffic along flat pathways has been studied in the linear regime and realised in practical applications, the greater amounts of energy naturally expended in traversing stairways suggest better prospects for harvesting. Considering the characteristics of two types of commercially available piezoelectric tiles – Navy Type III and Navy Type V – analytical models for the coupled electromechanical system are formulated. The harvesting potential of the tiles is then studied under conditions of both deterministic and carefully developed random excitation profiles for three distinct cases: linear, monostable nonlinear and an array of monostable nonlinear tiles on adjacent steps with linear coupling between them. The results indicate enhanced power output when the tiles are: (1) placed on stairways, (2) uncoupled and (3) subjected to excitation profiles with stochastic frequency. In addition, the Navy Type V tiles are seen to outperform the Navy Type III tiles. Finally, the strongly nonlinear regime outperforms the linear one suggesting that the realisation of commercially available piezoelectric tiles with appropriately tailored nonlinear characteristics will likely have a significant impact on energy harvesting from pedestrian traffic.
We consider the pricing of European options under a modified Black–Scholes equation having fractional derivatives in the “spatial” (price) variable. To be specific, the underlying price is assumed to follow a geometric Koponen–Boyarchenko–Levendorski process. This pure jump Lévy process could better capture the real behaviour of market data. Despite many difficulties caused by the “globalness” of the fractional derivatives, we derive an explicit closed-form analytical solution by solving the fractional partial differential equation analytically, using the Fourier transform technique. Based on the newly derived formula, we also examine, in theory, many basic properties of the option price under the current model. On the other hand, for practical purposes, we impose a reliable implementation method for the current formula so that it can be easily used in the trading market. With the numerical results, the impact of different parameters on the option price are also investigated.
Taylor's law (TL) originated as an empirical pattern in ecology. In many sets of samples of population density, the variance of each sample was approximately proportional to a power of the mean of that sample. In a family of nonnegative random variables, TL asserts that the population variance is proportional to a power of the population mean. TL, sometimes called fluctuation scaling, holds widely in physics, ecology, finance, demography, epidemiology, and other sciences, and characterizes many classical probability distributions and stochastic processes such as branching processes and birth-and-death processes. We demonstrate analytically for the first time that a version of TL holds for a class of distributions with infinite mean. These distributions, a subset of stable laws, and the associated TL differ qualitatively from those of light-tailed distributions. Our results employ and contribute to the methodology of Albrecher and Teugels (2006) and Albrecher et al. (2010). This work opens a new domain of investigation for generalizations of TL.
We consider a class of Sevastyanov branching processes with nonhomogeneous Poisson immigration. These processes relax the assumption required by the Bellman–Harris process which imposes the lifespan and offspring of each individual to be independent. They find applications in studies of the dynamics of cell populations. In this paper we focus on the subcritical case and examine asymptotic properties of the process. We establish limit theorems, which generalize classical results due to Sevastyanov and others. Our key findings include a novel law of large numbers and a central limit theorem which emerge from the nonhomogeneity of the immigration process.
Importance sampling has become an important tool for the computation of extreme quantiles and tail-based risk measures. For estimation of such nonlinear functionals of the underlying distribution, the standard efficiency analysis is not necessarily applicable. In this paper we therefore study importance sampling algorithms by considering moderate deviations of the associated weighted empirical processes. Using a delta method for large deviations, combined with classical large deviation techniques, the moderate deviation principle is obtained for importance sampling estimators of two of the most common risk measures: value at risk and expected shortfall.
Model and parameter uncertainties are common whenever some parametric model is selected to value a derivative instrument. Combining the Monte Carlo method with the Smolyak interpolation algorithm, we propose an accurate efficient numerical procedure to quantify the uncertainty embedded in complex derivatives. Except for the value function being sufficiently smooth with respect to the model parameters, there are no requirements on the payoff or candidate models. Numerical tests carried out quantify the uncertainty of Bermudan put options and down-and-out put options under the Heston model, with each model parameter specified in an interval.
Amethod for non-rigid image registration that is suitable for large deformations is presented. Conventional registration methods embed the image in a B-spline object, and the image is evolved by deforming the B-spline object. In this work, we represent the image using B-spline and deform the image using a composition approach. We also derive a computationally efficient algorithm for calculating the B-spline coefficients and gradients of the image by adopting ideas from signal processing using image filters. We demonstrate the application of our method on several different types of 2D and 3D images and compare it with existing methods.