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We prove the existence of multi-soliton and kink-multi-soliton solutions of the Euler–Korteweg system in dimension one. Such solutions behave asymptotically in time like several travelling waves far away from each other. A kink is a travelling wave with different limits at ±∞. The main assumption is the linear stability of the solitons, and we prove that this assumption is satisfied at least in the transonic limit. The proof relies on a classical approach based on energy estimates and a compactness argument.
The present paper concerns the system ut + [ϕ(u)]x = 0, vt + [ψ(u)v]x = 0 having distributions as initial conditions. Under certain conditions, and supposing ϕ, ψ: ℝ → ℝ functions, we explicitly solve this Cauchy problem within a convenient space of distributions u,v. For this purpose, a consistent extension of the classical solution concept defined in the setting of a distributional product (not constructed by approximation processes) is used. Shock waves, δ-shock waves, and also waves defined by distributions that are not measures are presented explicitly as examples. This study is carried out without assuming classical results about conservation laws. For reader's convenience, a brief survey of the distributional product is also included.
The purpose of this work is to investigate the properties of spreading speeds for the monotone semiflows. According to the fundamental work of Liang and Zhao [(2007) Comm. Pure Appl. Math.60, 1–40], the spreading speeds of the monotone semiflows can be derived via the principal eigenvalue of linear operators relating to the semiflows. In this paper, we establish a general method to analyse the sign and the continuity of the spreading speeds. Then we consider a limiting case that admits no spreading phenomenon. The results can be applied to the model of cellular neural networks (CNNs). In this model, we find the rule which determines the propagating phenomenon by parameters.
Let n,
$N \in {\open N}$
with
$\Omega \subseteq {\open R}^n$
open. Given
${\rm H} \in C^2(\Omega \times {\open R}^N \times {\open R}^{Nn})$
, we consider the functional
1
The associated PDE system which plays the role of Euler–Lagrange equations in
$L^\infty $
is
2
$$\left\{\matrix{{\rm H}_{P}(\cdot, u, {\rm D}u)\, {\rm D}\left({\rm H}(\cdot, u, {\rm D} u)\right) = \, 0, \hfill \cr {\rm H}(\cdot, u, {\rm D} u) \, [\![{\rm H}_{P}(\cdot, u, {\rm D} u)]\!]^\bot \left({\rm Div}\left({\rm H}_{P}(\cdot, u, {\rm D} u)\right)- {\rm H}_{\eta}(\cdot, u, {\rm D} u)\right) = 0,\hfill}\right.$$
where
$[\![A]\!]^\bot := {\rm Proj}_{R(A)^\bot }$
. Herein we establish that generalised solutions to (2) can be characterised as local minimisers of (1) for appropriate classes of affine variations of the energy. Generalised solutions to (2) are understood as
${\cal D}$
-solutions, a general framework recently introduced by one of the authors.
We consider a second-order elliptic operator L in skew product of an ordinary differential operator L1 on an interval (a, b) and an elliptic operator on a domain D2 of a Riemannian manifold such that the associated heat kernel is intrinsically ultracontractive. We give criteria for criticality and subcriticality of L in terms of a positive solution having minimal growth at η (η = a, b) to an associated ordinary differential equation. In the subcritical case, we explicitly determine the Martin compactification and Martin kernel for L on the basis of [24]; in particular, the Martin boundary over η is either one point or a compactification of D2, which depends on whether an associated integral near η diverges or converges. From this structure theorem we show a monotonicity property that the Martin boundary over η does not become smaller as the potential term of L1 becomes larger near η.
We prove Hölder continuous regularity of bounded, uniformly continuous, viscosity solutions of degenerate fully nonlinear equations defined in all of ℝn space. In particular, the result applies also to some operators in Carnot groups.
where N > 2, p > 1, and u0 is a bounded continuous non-negative function in RN. We study the case where u0(x) decays at the rate |x|−2/(p−1) as |x| → ∞, and investigate the convergence property of the global solutions to the forward self-similar solutions. We first give the precise description of the relationship between the spatial decay of initial data and the large time behaviour of solutions, and then we show the existence of solutions with a time decay rate slower than the one of self-similar solutions. We also show the existence of solutions that behave in a complicated manner.
We consider the stability of nonlinear travelling waves in a class of activator-inhibitor systems. The eigenvalue equation arising from linearizing about the wave is seen to preserve the manifold of Lagrangian planes for a nonstandard symplectic form. This allows us to define a Maslov index for the wave corresponding to the spatial evolution of the unstable bundle. We formulate the Evans function for the eigenvalue problem and show that the parity of the Maslov index determines the sign of the derivative of the Evans function at the origin. The connection between the Evans function and the Maslov index is established by a ‘detection form,’ which identifies conjugate points for the curve of Lagrangian planes.
The Navier-Stokes equations for viscous, incompressible fluids are studied in the three-dimensional periodic domains, with the body force having an asymptotic expansion, when time goes to infinity, in terms of power-decaying functions in a Sobolev-Gevrey space. Any Leray-Hopf weak solution is proved to have an asymptotic expansion of the same type in the same space, which is uniquely determined by the force, and independent of the individual solutions. In case the expansion is convergent, we show that the next asymptotic approximation for the solution must be an exponential decay. Furthermore, the convergence of the expansion and the range of its coefficients, as the force varies are investigated.
It is well known that a weak solution φ to the initial boundary value problem for the uniformly parabolic equation
$\partial _t\varphi - {\rm div}(A\nabla \varphi ) +\omega \varphi = f $
in
$\Omega _T\equiv \Omega \times (0,T)$
satisfies the uniform estimate
$$\Vert \varphi \Vert_{\infty,\Omega_T}\les \Vert \varphi\Vert_{\infty,\partial_p\Omega_T}+c \Vert f \Vert_{q,\Omega_T}, \ \ \ c=c(N,\lambda, q, \Omega_T), $$
provided that
$q \gt 1+{N}/{2}$
, where Ω is a bounded domain in
${\open R}^N$
with Lipschitz boundary, T > 0,
$\partial _p\Omega _T$
is the parabolic boundary of
$\Omega _T$
,
$\omega \in L^1(\Omega _T)$
with
$\omega \ges 0$
, and λ is the smallest eigenvalue of the coefficient matrix A. This estimate is sharp in the sense that it generally fails if
$q=1+{N}/{2}$
. In this paper, we show that the linear growth of the upper bound in
$\Vert f \Vert_{q,\Omega _T}$
can be improved. To be precise, we establish
$$ \Vert \varphi \Vert_{\infty,\Omega_T}\les \Vert \varphi_0 \Vert_{\infty,\partial_p\Omega_T}+c \Vert f \Vert_{1+{N}/{2},\Omega_T} \left(\ln(\Vert f \Vert_{q,\Omega_T}+1)+1\right). $$
Excitation of surface-plasmon resonances of closely spaced nanometallic structures is a key technique used in nanoplasmonics to control light on subwavelength scales and generate highly confined electric-field hotspots. In this paper, we develop asymptotic approximations in the near-contact limit for the entire set of surface-plasmon modes associated with the prototypical sphere dimer geometry. Starting from the quasi-static plasmonic eigenvalue problem, we employ the method of matched asymptotic expansions between a gap region, where the boundaries are approximately paraboloidal, pole regions within the spheres and close to the gap, and a particle-scale region where the spheres appear to touch at leading order. For those modes that are strongly localised to the gap, relating the gap and pole regions gives a set of effective eigenvalue problems formulated over a half space representing one of the poles. We solve these problems using integral transforms, finding asymptotic approximations, singular in the dimensionless gap width, for the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions. In the special case of modes that are both axisymmetric and odd about the plane bisecting the gap, where matching with the outer region introduces a logarithmic dependence upon the dimensionless gap width, our analysis follows Schnitzer [Singular perturbations approach to localized surface-plasmon resonance: nearly touching metal nanospheres. Phys. Rev. B92(23), 235428 (2015)]. We also analyse the so-called anomalous family of even modes, characterised by field distributions excluded from the gap. We demonstrate excellent agreement between our asymptotic formulae and exact calculations.
The main purpose of this paper is to study the existence of travelling waves with a critical speed for an influenza model with treatment. By using some analysis techniques that involve super-critical speeds and an approximation method, the existence of travelling waves with the critical speed is proved.
In this paper, we study the fractional Dirichlet problem with the homogeneous exterior data posed on a bounded domain with Lipschitz continuous boundary. Under an extra assumption on the domain, slightly weaker than the exterior ball condition, we are able to prove existence and uniqueness of solutions which are Hölder continuous on the boundary. In proving this result, we use appropriate barrier functions obtained by an approximation procedure based on a suitable family of zero-th order problems. This procedure, in turn, allows us to obtain an approximation scheme for the Dirichlet problem through an equicontinuous family of solutions of the approximating zero-th order problems on
${\bar \Omega}$
. Both results are extended to an ample class of fully non-linear operators.
Tissue engineering aims to grow artificial tissues in vitro to replace those in the body that have been damaged through age, trauma or disease. A recent approach to engineer artificial cartilage involves seeding cells within a scaffold consisting of an interconnected 3D-printed lattice of polymer fibres combined with a cast or printed hydrogel, and subjecting the construct (cell-seeded scaffold) to an applied load in a bioreactor. A key question is to understand how the applied load is distributed throughout the construct. To address this, we employ homogenisation theory to derive equations governing the effective macroscale material properties of a periodic, elastic–poroelastic composite. We treat the fibres as a linear elastic material and the hydrogel as a poroelastic material, and exploit the disparate length scales (small inter-fibre spacing compared with construct dimensions) to derive macroscale equations governing the response of the composite to an applied load. This homogenised description reflects the orthotropic nature of the composite. To validate the model, solutions from finite element simulations of the macroscale, homogenised equations are compared to experimental data describing the unconfined compression of the fibre-reinforced hydrogels. The model is used to derive the bulk mechanical properties of a cylindrical construct of the composite material for a range of fibre spacings and to determine the local mechanical environment experienced by cells embedded within the construct.
We consider a broad class of systems of nonlinear integro-differential equations posed on the real line that arise as Euler–Lagrange equations to energies involving nonlinear nonlocal interactions. Although these equations are not readily cast as dynamical systems, we develop a calculus that yields a natural Hamiltonian formalism. In particular, we formulate Noether’s theorem in this context, identify a degenerate symplectic structure, and derive Hamiltonian differential equations on finite-dimensional center manifolds when those exist. Our formalism yields new natural conserved quantities. For Euler–Lagrange equations arising as traveling-wave equations in gradient flows, we identify Lyapunov functions. We provide several applications to pattern-forming systems including neural field and phase separation problems.
The linear Schrödinger equation with piecewise constant potential in one spatial dimension is a well-studied textbook problem. It is one of only a few solvable models in quantum mechanics and shares many qualitative features with physically important models. In examples such as ‘particle in a box’ and tunnelling, attention is restricted to the time-independent Schrödinger equation. This paper combines the unified transform method and recent insights for interface problems to present fully explicit solutions for the time-dependent problem.
The present work is part of a series of studies conducted by the authors on analytical models of avascular tumour growth that exhibit both geometrical anisotropy and physical inhomogeneity. In particular, we consider a tumour structure formed in distinct ellipsoidal regions occupied by cell populations at a certain stage of their biological cycle. The cancer cells receive nutrient by diffusion from an inhomogeneous supply and they are subject to also an inhomogeneous pressure field imposed by the tumour microenvironment. It is proved that the lack of symmetry is strongly connected to a special condition that should hold between the data imposed by the tumour’s surrounding medium, in order for the ellipsoidal growth to be realizable, a feature already present in other non-symmetrical yet more degenerate models. The nutrient and the inhibitor concentration, as well as the pressure field, are provided in analytical fashion via closed-form series solutions in terms of ellipsoidal eigenfunctions, while their behaviour is demonstrated by indicative plots. The evolution equation of all the tumour’s ellipsoidal interfaces is postulated in ellipsoidal terms and a numerical implementation is provided in view of its solution. From the mathematical point of view, the ellipsoidal system is the most general coordinate system that the Laplace operator, which dominates the mathematical models of avascular growth, enjoys spectral decomposition. Therefore, we consider the ellipsoidal model presented in this work, as the most general analytic model describing the avascular growth in inhomogeneous environment. Additionally, due to the intrinsic degrees of freedom inherited to the model by the ellipsoidal geometry, the ellipsoidal model presented can be adapted to a very populous class of avascular tumours, varying in figure and in orientation.
In the following note, we focus on the problem of existence of continuous solutions vanishing at infinity to the equation div v = f for f ∈ Ln(ℝn) and satisfying an estimate of the type ||v||∞ ⩽ C||f||n for any f ∈ Ln(ℝn), where C > 0 is related to the constant appearing in the Sobolev–Gagliardo–Nirenberg inequality for functions with bounded variation (BV functions).
We use an integral equation formulation approach to value shout options, which are exotic options giving an investor the ability to “shout” and lock in profits while retaining the right to benefit from potentially favourable movements in the underlying asset price. Mathematically, the valuation is a free boundary problem involving an optimal exercise boundary which marks the region between shouting and not shouting. We also find the behaviour of the optimal exercise boundary for one- and two-shout options close to expiry.