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We propose and investigate a stage-structured SLIRM epidemic model with latent period in a spatially continuous habitat. We first show the existence of semi-travelling waves that connect the unstable disease-free equilibrium as the wave coordinate goes to − ∞, provided that the basic reproduction number $\mathcal {R}_0 > 1$ and $c > c_*$ for some positive number $c_*$. We then use a combination of asymptotic estimates, Laplace transform and Cauchy's integral theorem to show the persistence of semi-travelling waves. Based on the persistent property, we construct a Lyapunov functional to prove the convergence of the semi-travelling wave to an endemic (positive) equilibrium as the wave coordinate goes to + ∞. In addition, by the Laplace transform technique, the non-existence of bounded semi-travelling wave is also proved when $\mathcal {R}_0 > 1$ and $0 < c < c_*$. This indicates that $c_*$ is indeed the minimum wave speed. Finally simulations are given to illustrate the evolution of profiles.
The asymptotic behavior of solutions to a family of Dirichlet boundary value problems, involving differential operators in divergence form, on a domain equipped with a Finsler metric is investigated. Solutions are shown to converge uniformly to the distance function to the boundary of the domain, which takes into account the Finsler norm involved in the equation. This implies that a well-known result in the analysis of problems modeling torsional creep continues to hold in this more general setting.
We study the existence of entropy solutions by assuming the right-hand side function f to be an integrable function for some elliptic nonlocal p-Laplacian type problems. Moreover, the existence of weak solutions for the corresponding parabolic cases is also established. The main aim of this paper is to provide some positive answers for the two questions proposed by Chipot and de Oliveira (Math. Ann., 2019, 375, 283-306).
The work in this paper concerns the study of different approximations for one-dimensional one-phase Stefan-like problems with a space-dependent latent heat. It is considered two different problems, which differ from each other in their boundary condition imposed at the fixed face: Dirichlet and Robin conditions. The approximate solutions are obtained by applying the heat balance integral method (HBIM), the modified HBIM and the refined integral method (RIM). Taking advantage of the exact analytical solutions, we compare and test the accuracy of the approximate solutions. The analysis is carried out using the dimensionless generalised Stefan number (Ste) and Biot number (Bi). It is also studied the case when Bi goes to infinity in the problem with a convective condition, recovering the approximate solutions when a temperature condition is imposed at the fixed face. Some numerical simulations are provided in order to assert which of the approximate integral methods turns out to be optimal. Moreover, we pose an approximate technique based on minimising the least-squares error, obtaining also approximate solutions for the classical Stefan problem.
This paper is concerned with the existence results for generalized transition waves of space periodic and time heterogeneous lattice Fisher-KPP equations. By constructing appropriate subsolutions and supersolutions, we show that there is a critical wave speed such that a transition wave solution exists as soon as the least mean of wave speed is above this critical speed. Moreover, the critical speed we construct is proved to be minimal in some particular cases, such as space-time periodic or space independent.
where $\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FA}$ is a smooth bounded domain in $\mathbb{R}^{N}$, $N\geq 2$. This work generalizes the well-known works on the Lyapunov inequality for extremal Pucci’s equations with gradient nonlinearity.
We prove that any simple planar travelling wave solution to the membrane equation in spatial dimension
$d\geqslant 3$
with bounded spatial extent is globally nonlinearly stable under sufficiently small compactly supported perturbations, where the smallness depends on the size of the support of the perturbation as well as on the initial travelling wave profile. The main novelty of the argument is the lack of higher order peeling in our vector-field-based method. In particular, the higher order energies (in fact, all energies at order
$2$
or higher) are allowed to grow polynomially (but in a controlled way) in time. This is in contrast with classical global stability arguments, where only the ‘top’ order energies used in the bootstrap argument exhibit growth, and reflects the fact that the background travelling wave solution has ‘infinite energy’ and the coefficients of the perturbation equation are not asymptotically Lorentz invariant. Nonetheless, we can prove that the perturbation converges to zero in
$C^{2}$
by carefully analysing the nonlinear interactions and exposing a certain ‘vestigial’ null structure in the equations.
In this article, we consider diffusive transport of a reactive substance in a saturated porous medium including variable porosity. Thereby, the evolution of the microstructure is caused by precipitation of the transported substance. We are particularly interested in analysing the model when the equations degenerate due to clogging. Introducing an appropriate weighted function space, we are able to handle the degeneracy and obtain analytical results for the transport equation. Also the decay behaviour of this solution with respect to the porosity is investigated. There a restriction on the decay order is assumed, that is, besides low initial concentration also dense precipitation leads to possible high decay. We obtain nonnegativity and boundedness for the weak solution to the transport equation. Moreover, we study an ordinary differential equation (ODE) describing the change of porosity. Thereby, the control of an appropriate weighted norm of the gradient of the porosity is crucial for the analysis of the transport equation. In order to obtain global in time solutions to the overall coupled system, we apply a fixed point argument. The problem is solved for substantially degenerating hydrodynamic parameters.
In this paper we study a general eigenvalue problem for the so called (p, 2)-Laplace operator on a smooth bounded domain Ω ⊂ ℝN under a nonlinear Steklov type boundary condition, namely
For positive weight functions a and b satisfying appropriate integrability and boundedness assumptions, we show that, for all p>1, the eigenvalue set consists of an isolated null eigenvalue plus a continuous family of eigenvalues located away from zero.
In this paper, we study the nonlinear diffusion equation associated with a particle system where the common drift depends on the rate of absorption of particles at a boundary. We provide an interpretation of this equation, which is also related to the supercooled Stefan problem, as a structural credit risk model with default contagion in a large interconnected banking system. Using the method of heat potentials, we derive a coupled system of Volterra integral equations for the transition density and for the loss through absorption. An approximation by expansion is given for a small interaction parameter. We also present a numerical solution algorithm and conduct computational tests.
This paper deals with the periodic homogenization of nonlocal parabolic Hamilton–Jacobi equations with superlinear growth in the gradient terms. We show that the problem presents different features depending on the order of the nonlocal operator, giving rise to three different cell problems and effective operators. To prove the locally uniform convergence to the unique solution of the Cauchy problem for the effective equation we need a new comparison principle among viscosity semi-solutions of integrodifferential equations that can be of independent interest.
The present paper is devoted to the study of the existence, the uniqueness and the stability of transition fronts of non-local dispersal equations in time heterogeneous media of bistable type under the unbalanced condition. We first study space non-increasing transition fronts and prove various important qualitative properties, including uniform steepness, stability, uniform stability and exponential decaying estimates. Then, we show that any transition front, after certain space shift, coincides with a space non-increasing transition front (if it exists), which implies the uniqueness, up-to-space shifts and monotonicity of transition fronts provided that a space non-increasing transition front exists. Moreover, we show that a transition front must be a periodic travelling front in periodic media and asymptotic speeds of transition fronts exist in uniquely ergodic media. Finally, we prove the existence of space non-increasing transition fronts, whose proof does not need the unbalanced condition.
We prove the existence of multi-soliton and kink-multi-soliton solutions of the Euler–Korteweg system in dimension one. Such solutions behave asymptotically in time like several travelling waves far away from each other. A kink is a travelling wave with different limits at ±∞. The main assumption is the linear stability of the solitons, and we prove that this assumption is satisfied at least in the transonic limit. The proof relies on a classical approach based on energy estimates and a compactness argument.
The present paper concerns the system ut + [ϕ(u)]x = 0, vt + [ψ(u)v]x = 0 having distributions as initial conditions. Under certain conditions, and supposing ϕ, ψ: ℝ → ℝ functions, we explicitly solve this Cauchy problem within a convenient space of distributions u,v. For this purpose, a consistent extension of the classical solution concept defined in the setting of a distributional product (not constructed by approximation processes) is used. Shock waves, δ-shock waves, and also waves defined by distributions that are not measures are presented explicitly as examples. This study is carried out without assuming classical results about conservation laws. For reader's convenience, a brief survey of the distributional product is also included.
The purpose of this work is to investigate the properties of spreading speeds for the monotone semiflows. According to the fundamental work of Liang and Zhao [(2007) Comm. Pure Appl. Math.60, 1–40], the spreading speeds of the monotone semiflows can be derived via the principal eigenvalue of linear operators relating to the semiflows. In this paper, we establish a general method to analyse the sign and the continuity of the spreading speeds. Then we consider a limiting case that admits no spreading phenomenon. The results can be applied to the model of cellular neural networks (CNNs). In this model, we find the rule which determines the propagating phenomenon by parameters.
Let n,
$N \in {\open N}$
with
$\Omega \subseteq {\open R}^n$
open. Given
${\rm H} \in C^2(\Omega \times {\open R}^N \times {\open R}^{Nn})$
, we consider the functional
1
The associated PDE system which plays the role of Euler–Lagrange equations in
$L^\infty $
is
2
$$\left\{\matrix{{\rm H}_{P}(\cdot, u, {\rm D}u)\, {\rm D}\left({\rm H}(\cdot, u, {\rm D} u)\right) = \, 0, \hfill \cr {\rm H}(\cdot, u, {\rm D} u) \, [\![{\rm H}_{P}(\cdot, u, {\rm D} u)]\!]^\bot \left({\rm Div}\left({\rm H}_{P}(\cdot, u, {\rm D} u)\right)- {\rm H}_{\eta}(\cdot, u, {\rm D} u)\right) = 0,\hfill}\right.$$
where
$[\![A]\!]^\bot := {\rm Proj}_{R(A)^\bot }$
. Herein we establish that generalised solutions to (2) can be characterised as local minimisers of (1) for appropriate classes of affine variations of the energy. Generalised solutions to (2) are understood as
${\cal D}$
-solutions, a general framework recently introduced by one of the authors.
We consider a second-order elliptic operator L in skew product of an ordinary differential operator L1 on an interval (a, b) and an elliptic operator on a domain D2 of a Riemannian manifold such that the associated heat kernel is intrinsically ultracontractive. We give criteria for criticality and subcriticality of L in terms of a positive solution having minimal growth at η (η = a, b) to an associated ordinary differential equation. In the subcritical case, we explicitly determine the Martin compactification and Martin kernel for L on the basis of [24]; in particular, the Martin boundary over η is either one point or a compactification of D2, which depends on whether an associated integral near η diverges or converges. From this structure theorem we show a monotonicity property that the Martin boundary over η does not become smaller as the potential term of L1 becomes larger near η.
We consider the stability of nonlinear travelling waves in a class of activator-inhibitor systems. The eigenvalue equation arising from linearizing about the wave is seen to preserve the manifold of Lagrangian planes for a nonstandard symplectic form. This allows us to define a Maslov index for the wave corresponding to the spatial evolution of the unstable bundle. We formulate the Evans function for the eigenvalue problem and show that the parity of the Maslov index determines the sign of the derivative of the Evans function at the origin. The connection between the Evans function and the Maslov index is established by a ‘detection form,’ which identifies conjugate points for the curve of Lagrangian planes.
We prove Hölder continuous regularity of bounded, uniformly continuous, viscosity solutions of degenerate fully nonlinear equations defined in all of ℝn space. In particular, the result applies also to some operators in Carnot groups.