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Inaccuracy and information measures based on cumulative residual entropy are quite useful and have received considerable attention in many fields, such as statistics, probability, and reliability theory. In particular, many authors have studied cumulative residual inaccuracy between coherent systems based on system lifetimes. In a previous paper (Bueno and Balakrishnan, Prob. Eng. Inf. Sci.36, 2022), we discussed a cumulative residual inaccuracy measure for coherent systems at component level, that is, based on the common, stochastically dependent component lifetimes observed under a non-homogeneous Poisson process. In this paper, using a point process martingale approach, we extend this concept to a cumulative residual inaccuracy measure between non-explosive point processes and then specialize the results to Markov occurrence times. If the processes satisfy the proportional risk hazard process property, then the measure determines the Markov chain uniquely. Several examples are presented, including birth-and-death processes and pure birth process, and then the results are applied to coherent systems at component level subject to Markov failure and repair processes.
There are some connections between aging notions, stochastic orders, and expected utilities. It is known that the DRHR (decreasing reversed hazard rate) aging notion can be characterized via the comparative statics result of risk aversion, and that the location-independent riskier order preserves monotonicity between risk premium and the Arrow–Pratt measure of risk aversion, and that the dispersive order preserves this monotonicity for the larger class of increasing utilities. Here, the aging notions ILR (increasing likelihood ratio), IFR (increasing failure rate), IGLR (increasing generalized likelihood ratio), and IGFR (increasing generalized failure rate) are characterized in terms of expected utilities. Based on these observations, we recover the closure properties of ILR, IFR, and DRHR under convolution, and of IGLR and IGFR under product, and investigate the closure properties of the dispersive order, location-independent riskier order, excess wealth order, the total time on test transform order under convolution, and the star order under product. We have some new findings.
In this paper, several linear two-dimensional consecutive k-type systems are studied, which include the linear connected-(k, r)-out-of-$(m,n)\colon\! F$ system and the linear l-connected-(k, r)-out-of-$(m,n)\colon\! F$ system without/with overlapping. Reliabilities of these systems are studied via the finite Markov chain imbedding approach (FMCIA) in a novel way. Some numerical examples are provided to illustrate the theoretical results established here and also to demonstrate the efficiency of the developed method. Finally, some possible applications and generalizations of the developed results are pointed out.
We consider parallel single-server queues in heavy traffic with randomly split Hawkes arrival processes. The service times are assumed to be independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) in each queue and are independent in different queues. In the critically loaded regime at each queue, it is shown that the diffusion-scaled queueing and workload processes converge to a multidimensional reflected Brownian motion in the non-negative orthant with orthonormal reflections. For the model with abandonment, we also show that the corresponding limit is a multidimensional reflected Ornstein–Uhlenbeck diffusion in the non-negative orthant.
Developed sequential order statistics (DSOS) are very useful in modeling the lifetimes of systems with dependent components, where the failure of one component affects the performance of remaining surviving components. We study some stochastic comparison results for DSOS in both one-sample and two-sample scenarios. Furthermore, we study various ageing properties of DSOS. We state many useful results for generalized order statistics as well as ordinary order statistics with dependent random variables. At the end, some numerical examples are given to illustrate the proposed results.
Recently, the relevation transformation has received further attention from researchers, and some interesting results have been developed. It is well known that the active redundancy at component level results in a more reliable coherent system than that at system level. However, the lack of study of this problem with relevation redundancy prevents us from fully understanding such a generalization of the active redundancy. In this note we deal with relevation redundancy to coherent systems of homogeneous components. Typically, for a series system of independent components, we have proved that the lifetime of a system with relevation redundancy at component level is larger than that with relevation redundancy at system level in the sense of the usual stochastic order and the likelihood ratio order, respectively. For a coherent system with dependent components, we have developed a sufficient condition in terms of the domination function to the usual stochastic order between the system lifetime with redundancy at component level and that at system level.
We study competing first passage percolation on graphs generated by the configuration model with infinite-mean degrees. Initially, two uniformly chosen vertices are infected with a type 1 and type 2 infection, respectively, and the infection then spreads via nearest neighbors in the graph. The time it takes for the type 1 (resp. 2) infection to traverse an edge e is given by a random variable
) and, if the vertex at the other end of the edge is still uninfected, it then becomes type 1 (resp. 2) infected and immune to the other type. Assuming that the degrees follow a power-law distribution with exponent
$\tau \in (1,2)$
, we show that with high probability as the number of vertices tends to infinity, one of the infection types occupies all vertices except for the starting point of the other type. Moreover, both infections have a positive probability of winning regardless of the passage-time distribution. The result is also shown to hold for the erased configuration model, where self-loops are erased and multiple edges are merged, and when the degrees are conditioned to be smaller than
In the literature on active redundancy allocation, the redundancy lifetimes are usually postulated to be independent of the component lifetimes for the sake of technical convenience. However, this unrealistic assumption leads to a risk of inaccurately evaluating system reliability, because it overlooks the statistical dependence of lifetimes due to common stresses. In this study, for k-out-of-n:F systems with component and redundancy lifetimes linked by the Archimedean copula, we show that (i) allocating more homogeneous redundancies to the less reliable components tends to produce a redundant system with stochastically larger lifetime, (ii) the reliability of the redundant system can be uniformly maximized through balancing the allocation of homogeneous redundancies in the context of homogeneous components, and (iii) allocating a more reliable matched redundancy to a less reliable component produces a more reliable system. These novel results on k-out-of-n:F systems in which component and redundancy lifetimes are statistically dependent are more applicable to the complicated engineering systems that arise in real practice. Some numerical examples are also presented to illustrate these findings.
In this paper, we analyze a two-queue random time-limited Markov-modulated polling model. In the first part of the paper, we investigate the fluid version: fluid arrives at the two queues as two independent flows with deterministic rate. There is a single server that serves both queues at constant speeds. The server spends an exponentially distributed amount of time in each queue. After the completion of such a visit time to one queue, the server instantly switches to the other queue, i.e., there is no switch-over time.
For this model, we first derive the Laplace–Stieltjes transform (LST) of the stationary marginal fluid content/workload at each queue. Subsequently, we derive a functional equation for the LST of the two-dimensional workload distribution that leads to a Riemann–Hilbert boundary value problem (BVP). After taking a heavy-traffic limit, and restricting ourselves to the symmetric case, the BVP simplifies and can be solved explicitly.
In the second part of the paper, allowing for more general (Lévy) input processes and server switching policies, we investigate the transient process limit of the joint workload in heavy traffic. Again solving a BVP, we determine the stationary distribution of the limiting process. We show that, in the symmetric case, this distribution coincides with our earlier solution of the BVP, implying that in this case the two limits (stationarity and heavy traffic) commute.
We study a general model of recursive trees where vertices are equipped with independent weights and at each time-step a vertex is sampled with probability proportional to its fitness function, which is a function of its weight and degree, and connects to
new-coming vertices. Under a certain technical assumption, applying the theory of Crump–Mode–Jagers branching processes, we derive formulas for the limiting distributions of the proportion of vertices with a given degree and weight, and proportion of edges with endpoint having a certain weight. As an application of this theorem, we rigorously prove observations of Bianconi related to the evolving Cayley tree (Phys. Rev. E66, paper no. 036116, 2002). We also study the process in depth when the technical condition can fail in the particular case when the fitness function is affine, a model we call ‘generalised preferential attachment with fitness’. We show that this model can exhibit condensation, where a positive proportion of edges accumulates around vertices with maximal weight, or, more drastically, can have a degenerate limiting degree distribution, where the entire proportion of edges accumulates around these vertices. Finally, we prove stochastic convergence for the degree distribution under a different assumption of a strong law of large numbers for the partition function associated with the process.
The notion of ordered system signature, originally defined for independent and identical coherent systems, is first extended to the case of independent and non-identical coherent systems, and then some key properties that help simplify its computation are established. Through its use, a dynamic ordered system signature is defined next, which facilitates a systematic study of dynamic properties of several coherent systems under a life test. The theoretical results established here are then illustrated through some specific examples. Finally, the usefulness in the evaluation of aging used systems of the concepts introduced is demonstrated.
We introduce a broad class of multi-hooking networks, wherein multiple copies of a seed are hooked at each step at random locations, and the number of copies follows a predetermined building sequence of numbers. We analyze the degree profile in random multi-hooking networks by tracking two kinds of node degrees—the local average degree of a specific node over time and the global overall average degree in the graph. The former experiences phases and the latter is invariant with respect to the type of building sequence and is somewhat similar to the average degree in the initial seed. We also discuss the expected number of nodes of the smallest degree. Additionally, we study distances in the network through the lens of the average total path length, the average depth of a node, the eccentricity of a node, and the diameter of the graph.
Layer reinsurance treaty is a common form obtained in the problem of optimal reinsurance design. In this paper, we study allocations of policy limits in layer reinsurance treaties with dependent risks. We investigate the effects of orderings and heterogeneity among policy limits on the expected utility functions of the terminal wealth from the viewpoint of risk-averse insurers faced with right tail weakly stochastic arrangement increasing losses. Orderings on optimal allocations are presented for normal layer reinsurance contracts under certain conditions. Parallel studies are also conducted for randomized layer reinsurance contracts. As a special case, the worst allocations of policy limits are also identified when the exact dependence structure among the losses is unknown. Numerical examples are presented to shed light on the theoretical findings.
We consider an (R, Q) inventory model with two types of orders, normal orders and emergency orders, which are issued at different inventory levels. These orders are delivered after exponentially distributed lead times. In between deliveries, the inventory level decreases in a state-dependent way, according to a release rate function
. This function represents the fluid demand rate; it could be controlled by a system manager via price adaptations. We determine the mean number of downcrossings
of any level x in one regenerative cycle, and use it to obtain the steady-state density f (x) of the inventory level. We also derive the rates of occurrence of normal deliveries and of emergency deliveries, and the steady-state probability of having zero inventory.
We use probabilistic methods to study properties of mean-field models, which arise as large-scale limits of certain particle systems with mean-field interaction. The underlying particle system is such that n particles move forward on the real line. Specifically, each particle ‘jumps forward’ at some time points, with the instantaneous rate of jumps given by a decreasing function of the particle’s location quantile within the overall distribution of particle locations. A mean-field model describes the evolution of the particles’ distribution when n is large. It is essentially a solution to an integro-differential equation within a certain class. Our main results concern the existence and uniqueness of—and attraction to—mean-field models which are traveling waves, under general conditions on the jump-rate function and the jump-size distribution.
We introduce a general two-colour interacting urn model on a finite directed graph, where each urn at a node reinforces all the urns in its out-neighbours according to a fixed, non-negative, and balanced reinforcement matrix. We show that the fraction of balls of either colour converges almost surely to a deterministic limit if either the reinforcement is not of Pólya type or the graph is such that every vertex with non-zero in-degree can be reached from some vertex with zero in-degree. We also obtain joint central limit theorems with appropriate scalings. Furthermore, in the remaining case when there are no vertices with zero in-degree and the reinforcement is of Pólya type, we restrict our analysis to a regular graph and show that the fraction of balls of either colour converges almost surely to a finite random limit, which is the same across all the urns.
It was recently proven that the correlation function of the stationary version of a reflected Lévy process is nonnegative, nonincreasing, and convex. In another branch of the literature it was established that the mean value of the reflected process starting from zero is nondecreasing and concave. In the present paper it is shown, by putting them in a common framework, that these results extend to substantially more general settings. Indeed, instead of reflected Lévy processes, we consider a class of more general stochastically monotone Markov processes. In this setup we show monotonicity results associated with a supermodular function of two coordinates of our Markov process, from which the above-mentioned monotonicity and convexity/concavity results directly follow, but now for the class of Markov processes considered rather than just reflected Lévy processes. In addition, various results for the transient case (when the Markov process is not in stationarity) are provided. The conditions imposed are natural, in that they are satisfied by various frequently used Markovian models, as illustrated by a series of examples.