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Steady two-dimensional fluid flow over an obstacle is solved using complex variable methods. We consider the cases of rectangular obstacles, such as large boulders, submerged in a potential flow. These may arise in geophysics, marine and civil engineering. Our models are applicable to initiation of motion that may result in subsequent transport. The local flow depends on the obstacle shape, slowing down in confining corners and speeding up in expanding corners. The flow generates hydrodynamic forces, drag and lift, and their associated moments, which differ around each face. Our model replaces the need for ill-defined drag and lift coefficients with geometry-dependent functions. We predict smaller flow velocities to initiate motion. We show how a joint-bound boulder can be transported against gravity, and analyse the influence of a wake region behind an isolated boulder.
We study the temporal decay estimate of the Oseen semigroup in a two-dimensional exterior domain. We establish the local energy decay estimate with a suitable dependence on the small translation speed, which is a significant improvement of Hishida’s result in 2016. As an application, we prove the
estimates of the Oseen semigroup uniformly in the small translation speed.
The flow past an obstacle is a fundamental object in fluid mechanics. In 1967 Finn and Smith proved the unique existence of stationary solutions, called the physically reasonable solutions, to the Navier–Stokes equations in a two-dimensional exterior domain modeling this type of flows when the Reynolds number is sufficiently small. The asymptotic behavior of their solution at spatial infinity has been studied in detail and well understood by now, while its stability has remained open due to the difficulty specific to the two-dimensionality. In this paper, we prove that the physically reasonable solutions constructed by Finn and Smith are asymptotically stable with respect to small and well-localized initial perturbations.
We analyse the vorticity production of lake-scale circulation in wind-induced shallow flows using a linear elliptic partial differential equation. The linear equation is derived from the vorticity form of the shallow-water equation using a linear bed friction formula. The features of the wind-induced steady-state flow are analysed in a circular basin with topography as a concave paraboloid, having a quadratic pile in the middle of the basin. In our study, the size of the pile varies by a size parameter. The vorticity production due to the gradient in the topography (and the distance of the boundary) makes the streamlines parallel to topographical contours, and beyond a critical size parameter, it results in a secondary vortex pair. We compare qualitatively and quantitatively the steady-state circulation patterns and vortex evolution of the flow fields calculated by our linear vorticity model and the full, nonlinear shallow-water equations. From these results, we hypothesize that the steady-state topographical vorticity production in lake-scale wind-induced circulations can be described by the equilibrium of the wind friction field and the bed friction field. Moreover, the latter can also be considered as a linear function of the velocity vector field, and hence the problem can be described by a linear equation.
This paper studies the regularity results of classical solutions to the two-dimensional critical Oldroyd-B model in the corotational case. The critical case refers to the full Laplacian dissipation in the velocity or the full Laplacian dissipation in the non-Newtonian part of the stress tensor. Whether or not their classical solutions develop finite time singularities is a difficult problem and remains open. The object of this paper is two-fold. Firstly, we establish the global regularity result to the case when the critical case occurs in the velocity and a logarithmic dissipation occurs in the non-Newtonian part of the stress tensor. Secondly, when the critical case occurs in the non-Newtonian part of the stress tensor, we first present many interesting global a priori bounds, then establish a conditional global regularity in terms of the non-Newtonian part of the stress tensor. This criterion comes naturally from our approach to obtain a global L∞-bound for the vorticity ω.
The Navier-Stokes equations for viscous, incompressible fluids are studied in the three-dimensional periodic domains, with the body force having an asymptotic expansion, when time goes to infinity, in terms of power-decaying functions in a Sobolev-Gevrey space. Any Leray-Hopf weak solution is proved to have an asymptotic expansion of the same type in the same space, which is uniquely determined by the force, and independent of the individual solutions. In case the expansion is convergent, we show that the next asymptotic approximation for the solution must be an exponential decay. Furthermore, the convergence of the expansion and the range of its coefficients, as the force varies are investigated.
We present a Rayleigh–Ritz method for the approximation of fluid flow in a curved duct, including the secondary cross-flow, which is well known to develop for nonzero Dean numbers. Having a straightforward method to estimate the cross-flow for ducts with a variety of cross-sectional shapes is important for many applications. One particular example is in microfluidics where curved ducts with low aspect ratio are common, and there is an increasing interest in nonrectangular duct shapes for the purpose of size-based cell separation. We describe functionals which are minimized by the axial flow velocity and cross-flow stream function which solve an expansion of the Navier–Stokes model of the flow. A Rayleigh–Ritz method is then obtained by computing the coefficients of an appropriate polynomial basis, taking into account the duct shape, such that the corresponding functionals are stationary. Whilst the method itself is quite general, we describe an implementation for a particular family of duct shapes in which the top and bottom walls are described by a polynomial with respect to the lateral coordinate. Solutions for a rectangular duct and two nonstandard duct shapes are examined in detail. A comparison with solutions obtained using a finite-element method demonstrates the rate of convergence with respect to the size of the basis. An implementation for circular cross-sections is also described, and results are found to be consistent with previous studies.
In this paper, we consider the Stokes equations in a perforated domain. When the number of holes increases while their radius tends to 0, it is proven in Desvillettes et al. [J. Stat. Phys.131 (2008) 941–967], under suitable dilution assumptions, that the solution is well approximated asymptotically by solving a Stokes–Brinkman equation. We provide here quantitative estimates in
-norms of this convergence.
The immersed boundary method is a widely used mixed Eulerian/Lagrangian framework for simulating the motion of elastic structures immersed in viscous fluids. In this work, we consider a poroelastic immersed boundary method in which a fluid permeates a porous, elastic structure of negligible volume fraction, and extend this method to include stress relaxation of the material. The porous viscoelastic method presented here is validated for a prescribed oscillatory shear and for an expansion driven by the motion at the boundary of a circular material by comparing numerical solutions to an analytical solution of the Maxwell model for viscoelasticity. Finally, an application of the modelling framework to cell biology is provided: passage of a cell through a microfluidic channel. We demonstrate that the rheology of the cell cytoplasm is important for capturing the transit time through a narrow channel in the presence of a pressure drop in the extracellular fluid.
Nonsymmetric branching flow through a three-dimensional (3D) vessel is considered at medium-to-high flow rates. The branching is from one mother vessel to two or more daughter vessels downstream, with laminar steady or unsteady conditions assumed. The inherent 3D nonsymmetry is due to the branching shapes themselves, or the differences in the end pressures in the daughter vessels, or the incident velocity profiles in the mother. Computations based on lattice-Boltzmann methodology are described first. A subsequent analysis focuses on small 3D disturbances and increased Reynolds numbers. This reduces the 3D problem to a two-dimensional one at the outer wall in all pressure-driven cases. As well as having broader implications for feeding into a network of vessels, the findings enable predictions of how much swirling motion in the cross-plane is generated in a daughter vessel downstream of a 3D branch junction, and the significant alterations provoked locally in the shear stresses and pressures at the walls. Nonuniform incident wall-shear and unsteady effects are examined. A universal asymptotic form is found for the flux change into each daughter vessel in a 3D branching of arbitrary cross-section with a thin divider.
This paper presents topology optimization of capillary, the typical two-phase flow with immiscible fluids, where the level set method and diffuse-interface model are combined to implement the proposed method. The two-phase flow is described by the diffuse-interface model with essential no slip condition imposed on the wall, where the singularity at the contact line is regularized by the molecular diffusion at the interface between two immiscible fluids. The level set method is utilized to express the fluid and solid phases in the flows and the wall energy at the implicit fluid-solid interface. Based on the variational procedure for the total free energy of two-phase flow, the Cahn-Hilliard equations for the diffuse-interface model are modified for the two-phase flow with implicit boundary expressed by the level set method. Then the topology optimization problem for the two-phase flow is constructed for the cost functional with general formulation. The sensitivity analysis is implemented by using the continuous adjoint method. The level set function is evolved by solving the Hamilton-Jacobian equation, and numerical test is carried out for capillary to demonstrate the robustness of the proposed topology optimization method. It is straightforward to extend this proposed method into the other two-phase flows with two immiscible fluids.
A robust residual-based a posteriori error estimator is proposed for a weak Galerkin finite element method for the Stokes problem in two and three dimensions. The estimator consists of two terms, where the first term characterises the difference between the L2-projection of the velocity approximation on the element interfaces and the corresponding numerical trace, and the second is related to the jump of the velocity approximation between the adjacent elements. We show that the estimator is reliable and efficient through two estimates of global upper and global lower bounds, up to two data oscillation terms caused by the source term and the nonhomogeneous Dirichlet boundary condition. The estimator is also robust in the sense that the constant factors in the upper and lower bounds are independent of the viscosity coefficient. Numerical results are provided to verify the theoretical results.
If the closed wire frame of a soap film having the shape of a Möbius strip is pulled apart and gradually deformed into a planar circle, the soap film transforms into a two-sided orientable surface. In the presence of a finite-time twist singularity, which changes the linking number of the film's Plateau border and the centreline of the wire, the topological transformation involves the collapse of the film toward the wire. In contrast to experimental studies of this process reported elsewhere, we use a numerical approach based on the immersed boundary method, which treats the soap film as a massless membrane in a Navier-Stokes fluid. In addition to known effects, we discover vibrating motions of the film arising after the topological change is completed, similar to the vibration of a circular membrane.
The present paper follows our previous work [Yang et al., Phys. Rev. E, 90 (2014), 063011] in which the bending modes of a symmetric flexible fiber in viscous flows were studied by using a coupling approach of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) and element bending group (EBG). It was shown that a symmetric flexible fiber can undergo four different bending modes including stable U-shape, slight swing, violent flapping and stable closure modes. For an asymmetric flexible fiber, the bending modes can be different. This paper numerically studies the fiber shape, flow field and fluid drag of an asymmetric flexible fiber immersed in a viscous fluid flow by using the SPH-EBG coupling method. An asymmetric number is defined to describe the asymmetry of a flexible fiber. The effects of the asymmetric number on the fiber shape, flow field and fluid drag are investigated.
We present a moving-least-square immersed boundary method for solving viscous incompressible flow involving deformable and rigid boundaries on a uniform Cartesian grid. For rigid boundaries, noslip conditions at the rigid interfaces are enforced using the immersed-boundary direct-forcing method. We propose a reconstruction approach that utilizes moving least squares (MLS) method to reconstruct the velocity at the forcing points in the vicinity of the rigid boundaries. For deformable boundaries, MLS method is employed to construct the interpolation and distribution operators for the immersed boundary points in the vicinity of the rigid boundaries instead of using discrete delta functions. The MLS approach allows us to avoid distributing the Lagrangian forces into the solid domains as well as to avoid using the velocity of points inside the solid domains to compute the velocity of the deformable boundaries. The present numerical technique has been validated by several examples including a Poiseuille flow in a tube, deformations of elastic capsules in shear flow and dynamics of red-blood cell in microfluidic devices.
The Stokes axisymmetric flow of an incompressible viscous fluid past a micropolar fluid spheroid whose shape deviates slightly from that of a sphere is studied analytically. The boundary conditions used are the vanishing of the normal velocities, the continuity of the tangential velocities, continuity of shear stresses and spin-vorticity relation at the surface of the spheroid. The hydrodynamic drag force acting on the fluid spheroid is calculated. An exact solution of the problem is obtained to the first order in the small parameter characterizing the deformation. It is observed that due to increase spin parameter value, the drag coefficient decreases. Well known results are deduced and comparisons are made with classical viscous fluid and micropolar fluid.
A numerical method is presented for the computation of externally forced Stokes flows bounded by the plane z=0 and satisfying periodic boundary conditions in the x and y directions. The motivation for this work is the simulation of flows generated by cilia, which are hair-like structures attached to the surface of cells that generate flows through coordinated beating. Large collections of cilia on a surface can be modeled using a doubly-periodic domain. The approach presented here is to derive a regularized version of the fundamental solution of the incompressible Stokes equations in Fourier space for the periodic directions and physical space for the z direction. This analytical expression for û(k,m;z) can then be used to compute the fluid velocity u(x,y,z) via a two-dimensional inverse fast Fourier transform for any fixed value of z. Repeating the computation for multiple values of z leads to the fluid velocity on a uniform grid in physical space. The zero-flow condition at the plane z=0 is enforced through the use of images. The performance of the method is illustrated by numerical examples of particle transport by nodal cilia, which verify optimal particle transport for parameters consistent with previous studies. The results also show that for two cilia in the periodic box, out-of-phase beating produces considerablemore particle transport than in-phase beating.
In this article, we study theoretically and numerically the interaction of a vortex induced by a rotating cylinder with a perpendicular plane. We show the existence of weak solutions to the swirling vortex models by using the Hopf extension method, and by an elegant contradiction argument, respectively. We demonstrate numerically that the model could produce phenomena of swirling vortex including boundary layer pumping and two-celled vortex that are observed in potential line vortex interacting with a plane and in a tornado.