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We show that the transition matrix from the polytabloid basis to the web basis of the irreducible
$\mathfrak{S}_{2n}$
-representation of shape
$(n,n)$
has nonnegative integer entries. This proves a conjecture of Russell and Tymoczko [Int. Math. Res. Not., 2019(5) (2019), 1479–1502].
We analyse the asymptotic extremal growth rate of the Betti numbers of clique complexes of graphs on n vertices not containing a fixed forbidden induced subgraph H.
In particular, we prove a theorem of the alternative: for any H the growth rate achieves exactly one of five possible exponentials, that is, independent of the field of coefficients, the nth root of the maximal total Betti number over n-vertex graphs with no induced copy of H has a limit, as n tends to infinity, and, ranging over all H, exactly five different limits are attained.
For the interesting case where H is the 4-cycle, the above limit is 1, and we prove a superpolynomial upper bound.
The category of Cohen–Macaulay modules of an algebra
$B_{k,n}$
is used in Jensen et al. (A categorification of Grassmannian cluster algebras, Proc. Lond. Math. Soc. (3) 113(2) (2016), 185–212) to give an additive categorification of the cluster algebra structure on the homogeneous coordinate ring of the Grassmannian of
$k$
-planes in
$n$
-space. In this paper, we find canonical Auslander–Reiten sequences and study the Auslander–Reiten translation periodicity for this category. Furthermore, we give an explicit construction of Cohen–Macaulay modules of arbitrary rank. We then use our results to establish a correspondence between rigid indecomposable modules of rank 2 and real roots of degree 2 for the associated Kac–Moody algebra in the tame cases.
We show a precise formula, in the form of a monomial, for certain families of parabolic Kazhdan–Lusztig polynomials of the symmetric group. The proof stems from results of Lapid–Mínguez on irreducibility of products in the Bernstein–Zelevinski ring. By quantizing those results into a statement on quantum groups and their canonical bases, we obtain identities of coefficients of certain transition matrices that relate Kazhdan–Lusztig polynomials to their parabolic analogues. This affirms some basic cases of conjectures raised recently by Lapid.
Let
$n,r,k\in \mathbb{N}$
. An
$r$
-colouring of the vertices of a regular
$n$
-gon is any mapping
$\unicode[STIX]{x1D712}:\mathbb{Z}_{n}\rightarrow \{1,2,\ldots ,r\}$
. Two colourings are equivalent if one of them can be obtained from another by a rotation of the polygon. An
$r$
-ary necklace of length
$n$
is an equivalence class of
$r$
-colourings of
$\mathbb{Z}_{n}$
. We say that a colouring is
$k$
-alternating if all
$k$
consecutive vertices have pairwise distinct colours. We compute the smallest number
$r$
for which there exists a
$k$
-alternating
$r$
-colouring of
$\mathbb{Z}_{n}$
and we count, for any
$r$
, 2-alternating
$r$
-colourings of
$\mathbb{Z}_{n}$
and 2-alternating
$r$
-ary necklaces of length
$n$
.
We study the equivariant oriented cohomology ring
$\mathtt{h}_{T}(G/P)$
of partial flag varieties using the moment map approach. We define the right Hecke action on this cohomology ring, and then prove that the respective Bott–Samelson classes in
$\mathtt{h}_{T}(G/P)$
can be obtained by applying this action to the fundamental class of the identity point, hence generalizing previously known results of Chow groups by Brion, Knutson, Peterson, Tymoczko and others. Our main result concerns the equivariant oriented cohomology theory
$\mathfrak{h}$
corresponding to the 2-parameter Todd genus. We give a new interpretation of Deodhar’s parabolic Kazhdan–Lusztig basis, i.e., we realize it as some cohomology classes (the parabolic Kazhdan–Lusztig (KL) Schubert classes) in
$\mathfrak{h}_{T}(G/P)$
. We make a positivity conjecture, and a conjecture about the relationship of such classes with smoothness of Schubert varieties. We also prove the latter in several special cases.
The purpose of this paper is to understand lattices of certain subcategories in module categories of representation-finite gentle algebras called tiling algebras, as introduced by Coelho Simões and Parsons. We present combinatorial models for torsion pairs and wide subcategories in the module category of tiling algebras. Our models use the oriented flip graphs and noncrossing tree partitions, previously introduced by the authors, and a description of the extension spaces between indecomposable modules over tiling algebras. In addition, we classify two-term simple-minded collections in bounded derived categories of tiling algebras. As a consequence, we obtain a characterization of c-matrices for any quiver mutation-equivalent to a type A Dynkin quiver.
A classical result of Honsberger states that the number of incongruent triangles with integer sides and perimeter
$n$
is the nearest integer to
$n^{2}/48$
(
$n$
even) or
$(n+3)^{2}/48$
(
$n$
odd). We solve the analogous problem for
$m$
-gons (for arbitrary but fixed
$m\geq 3$
) and for polygons (with arbitrary number of sides).
We investigate whether the property of having linear quotients is inherited by ideals generated by multigraded shifts of a Borel ideal and a squarefree Borel ideal. We show that the ideal generated by the first multigraded shifts of a Borel ideal has linear quotients, as do the ideal generated by the
$k$
th multigraded shifts of a principal Borel ideal and an equigenerated squarefree Borel ideal for each
$k$
. Furthermore, we show that equigenerated squarefree Borel ideals share the property of being squarefree Borel with the ideals generated by multigraded shifts.
the pioneer of interchange laws in universal algebra
We establish a combinatorial model for the Boardman–Vogt tensor product of several absolutely free operads, that is, free symmetric operads that are also free as 𝕊-modules. Our results imply that such a tensor product is always a free 𝕊-module, in contrast with the results of Kock and Bremner–Madariaga on hidden commutativity for the Boardman–Vogt tensor square of the operad of non-unital associative algebras.
Le diagrams and Grassmann necklaces both index the collection of positroids in the nonnegative Grassmannian Gr≥0(k, n), but they excel at very different tasks: for example, the dimension of a positroid is easily extracted from its Le diagram, while the list of bases of a positroid is far more easily obtained from its Grassmann necklace. Explicit bijections between the two are, therefore, desirable. An algorithm for turning a Le diagram into a Grassmann necklace already exists; in this note, we give the reverse algorithm.
A result of Haglund implies that the
$(q,t)$
-bigraded Hilbert series of the space of diagonal harmonics is a
$(q,t)$
-Ehrhart function of the flow polytope of a complete graph with netflow vector
$(-n,1,\ldots ,1)$
. We study the
$(q,t)$
-Ehrhart functions of flow polytopes of threshold graphs with arbitrary netflow vectors. Our results generalize previously known specializations of the mentioned bigraded Hilbert series at
$t=1$
,
$0$
, and
$q^{-1}$
. As a corollary to our results, we obtain a proof of a conjecture of Armstrong, Garsia, Haglund, Rhoades, and Sagan about the
$(q,q^{-1})$
-Ehrhart function of the flow polytope of a complete graph with an arbitrary netflow vector.
We explicitly describe the isomorphism between two combinatorial realizations of Kashiwara’s infinity crystal in types B and C. The first realization is in terms of marginally large tableaux and the other is in terms of Kostant partitions coming from PBW bases. We also discuss a stack notation for Kostant partitions which simplifies that realization.
In this paper we define almost gentle algebras, which are monomial special multiserial algebras generalizing gentle algebras. We show that the trivial extension of an almost gentle algebra by its minimal injective co-generator is a symmetric special multiserial algebra and hence a Brauer configuration algebra. Conversely, we show that any almost gentle algebra is an admissible cut of a unique Brauer configuration algebra and, as a consequence, we obtain that every Brauer configuration algebra with multiplicity function identically one is the trivial extension of an almost gentle algebra. We show that a hypergraph is associated with every almost gentle algebra A, and that this hypergraph induces the Brauer configuration of the trivial extension of A. Among other things, this gives a combinatorial criterion to decide when two almost gentle algebras have isomorphic trivial extensions.
If
$K$
is a simplicial complex on
$m$
vertices, the flagification of
$K$
is the minimal flag complex
$K^{f}$
on the same vertex set that contains
$K$
. Letting
$L$
be the set of vertices, there is a sequence of simplicial inclusions
$L\stackrel{}{\longrightarrow }K\stackrel{}{\longrightarrow }K^{f}$
. This induces a sequence of maps of polyhedral products
$(\text{}\underline{X},\text{}\underline{A})^{L}\stackrel{g}{\longrightarrow }(\text{}\underline{X},\text{}\underline{A})^{K}\stackrel{f}{\longrightarrow }(\text{}\underline{X},\text{}\underline{A})^{K^{f}}$
. We show that
$\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FA}f$
and
$\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FA}f\circ \unicode[STIX]{x1D6FA}g$
have right homotopy inverses and draw consequences. For a flag complex
$K$
the polyhedral product of the form
$(\text{}\underline{CY},\text{}\underline{Y})^{K}$
is a co-
$H$
-space if and only if the 1-skeleton of
$K$
is a chordal graph, and we deduce that the maps
$f$
and
$f\circ g$
have right homotopy inverses in this case.
A square-free monomial ideal
$I$
of
$k[x_{1},\ldots ,x_{n}]$
is said to be an
$f$
-ideal if the facet complex and non-face complex associated with
$I$
have the same
$f$
-vector. We show that
$I$
is an
$f$
-ideal if and only if its Newton complementary dual
$\widehat{I}$
is also an
$f$
-ideal. Because of this duality, previous results about some classes of
$f$
-ideals can be extended to a much larger class of
$f$
-ideals. An interesting by-product of our work is an alternative formulation of the Kruskal–Katona theorem for
$f$
-vectors of simplicial complexes.
Boij–Söderberg theory characterizes syzygies of graded modules and sheaves on projective space. This paper continues earlier work with Sam, extending the theory to the setting of
$\text{GL}_{k}$
-equivariant modules and sheaves on Grassmannians. Algebraically, we study modules over a polynomial ring in
$kn$
variables, thought of as the entries of a
$k\times n$
matrix. We give equivariant analogs of two important features of the ordinary theory: the Herzog–Kühl equations and the pairing between Betti and cohomology tables. As a necessary step, we also extend previous results, concerning the base case of square matrices, to cover complexes other than free resolutions. Our statements specialize to those of ordinary Boij–Söderberg theory when
$k=1$
. Our proof of the equivariant pairing gives a new proof in the graded setting: it relies on finding perfect matchings on certain graphs associated to Betti tables and to spectral sequences. As an application, we construct three families of extremal rays on the Betti cone for
$2\times 3$
matrices.
We propose here a generalization of the problem addressed by the SHGH conjecture. The SHGH conjecture posits a solution to the question of how many conditions a general union
$X$
of fat points imposes on the complete linear system of curves in
$\mathbb{P}^{2}$
of fixed degree
$d$
, in terms of the occurrence of certain rational curves in the base locus of the linear subsystem defined by
$X$
. As a first step towards a new theory, we show that rational curves play a similar role in a special case of a generalized problem, which asks how many conditions are imposed by a general union of fat points on linear subsystems defined by imposed base points. Moreover, motivated by work of Di Gennaro, Ilardi and Vallès and of Faenzi and Vallès, we relate our results to the failure of a strong Lefschetz property, and we give a Lefschetz-like criterion for Terao’s conjecture on the freeness of line arrangements.
Athanasiadis [‘A survey of subdivisions and local
$h$
-vectors’, in The Mathematical Legacy of Richard P. Stanley (American Mathematical Society, Providence, RI, 2017), 39–51] asked whether the local
$h$
-polynomials of type
$A$
cluster subdivisions have only real zeros. We confirm this conjecture and prove that the local
$h$
-polynomials for all the Cartan–Killing types have only real roots. Our proofs use multiplier sequences and Chebyshev polynomials of the second kind.
Classical finite association schemes lead to finite-dimensional algebras which are generated by finitely many stochastic matrices. Moreover, there exist associated finite hypergroups. The notion of classical discrete association schemes can be easily extended to the possibly infinite case. Moreover, this notion can be relaxed slightly by using suitably deformed families of stochastic matrices by skipping the integrality conditions. This leads to a larger class of examples which are again associated with discrete hypergroups. In this paper we propose a topological generalization of association schemes by using a locally compact basis space
$X$
and a family of Markov-kernels on
$X$
indexed by some locally compact space
$D$
where the supports of the associated probability measures satisfy some partition property. These objects, called continuous association schemes, will be related to hypergroup structures on
$D$
. We study some basic results for this notion and present several classes of examples. It turns out that, for a given commutative hypergroup, the existence of a related continuous association scheme implies that the hypergroup has many features of a double coset hypergroup. We, in particular, show that commutative hypergroups, which are associated with commutative continuous association schemes, carry dual positive product formulas for the characters. On the other hand, we prove some rigidity results in particular in the compact case which say that for given spaces
$X,D$
there are only a few continuous association schemes.