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Tau functions are a central tool in the modern theory of integrable systems. This volume provides a thorough introduction, starting from the basics and extending to recent research results. It covers a wide range of applications, including generating functions for solutions of integrable hierarchies, correlation functions in the spectral theory of random matrices and combinatorial generating functions for enumerative geometrical and topological invariants. A self-contained summary of more advanced topics needed to understand the material is provided, as are solutions and hints for the various exercises and problems that are included throughout the text to enrich the subject matter and engage the reader. Building on knowledge of standard topics in undergraduate mathematics and basic concepts and methods of classical and quantum mechanics, this monograph is ideal for graduate students and researchers who wish to become acquainted with the full range of applications of the theory of tau functions.
Fluid dynamics plays a crucial role in many cellular processes, including the locomotion of cells such as bacteria and spermatozoa. These organisms possess flagella, slender organelles whose time periodic motion in a fluid environment gives rise to motility. Sitting at the intersection of applied mathematics, physics and biology, the fluid dynamics of cell motility is one of the most successful applications of mathematical tools to the understanding of the biological world. Based on courses taught over several years, it details the mathematical modelling necessary to understand cell motility in fluids, covering phenomena ranging from single-cell motion to instabilities in cell populations. Each chapter introduces mathematical models to rationalise experiments, uses physical intuition to interpret mathematical results, highlights the history of the field and discusses notable current research questions. All mathematical derivations are included for students new to the field, and end-of-chapter exercises help consolidate understanding and practise applying the concepts.
Quantum mechanics is one of the principle pillars of modern physics. It also remains a topic of great interest to mathematicians. Since its discovery it has inspired and been inspired by many topics within modern mathematics, including functional analysis and operator algebras, Lie groups, Lie algebras and their representations, principle bundles, distribution theory, and much more. Written with beginning graduate students in mathematics in mind, this book provides a thorough treatment of (nonrelativistic) quantum mechanics in a style that is leisurely, without the usual theorem-proof grammar of pure mathematics, while remaining mathematically honest. The author takes the time to fully develop the required mathematics and employs a consistent mathematical presentation to clarify the often-confusing notation of physics texts. Along the way the reader encounters several topics requiring more advanced mathematics than found in many discussions of the subject, making for a fascinating course in how mathematics and physics interact.
Every fluid dynamicist will at some point need to use computation. Thinking about the physics, constraints and the requirements early on will be rewarded with benefits in time, effort, accuracy and expense. How these benefits can be realised is illustrated in this guide for would-be researchers and beginning graduate students to some of the standard methods and common pitfalls of computational fluid mechanics. Based on a lecture course that the author has developed over twenty years, the text is split into three parts. The quick introduction enables students to solve numerically a basic nonlinear problem by a simple method in just three hours. The follow-up part expands on all the key essentials, including discretisation (finite differences, finite elements and spectral methods), time-stepping and linear algebra. The final part is a selection of optional advanced topics, including hyperbolic equations, the representation of surfaces, the boundary integral method, the multigrid method, domain decomposition, the fast multipole method, particle methods and wavelets.
Wigner's theorem is a fundamental part of the mathematical formulation of quantum mechanics. The theorem characterizes unitary and anti-unitary operators as symmetries of quantum mechanical systems, and is a key result when relating preserver problems to quantum mechanics. At the heart of this book is a geometric approach to Wigner-type theorems, unifying both classical and more recent results. Readers are initiated in a wide range of topics from geometric transformations of Grassmannians to lattices of closed subspaces, before moving on to a discussion of applications. An introduction to all the key aspects of the basic theory is included as are plenty of examples, making this book a useful resource for beginning graduate students and non-experts, as well as a helpful reference for specialist researchers.
This practical introduction to stochastic reaction-diffusion modelling is based on courses taught at the University of Oxford. The authors discuss the essence of mathematical methods which appear (under different names) in a number of interdisciplinary scientific fields bridging mathematics and computations with biology and chemistry. The book can be used both for self-study and as a supporting text for advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate-level courses in applied mathematics. New mathematical approaches are explained using simple examples of biological models, which range in size from simulations of small biomolecules to groups of animals. The book starts with stochastic modelling of chemical reactions, introducing stochastic simulation algorithms and mathematical methods for analysis of stochastic models. Different stochastic spatio-temporal models are then studied, including models of diffusion and stochastic reaction-diffusion modelling. The methods covered include molecular dynamics, Brownian dynamics, velocity jump processes and compartment-based (lattice-based) models.
An algebraic structure consists of a set of elements, with some rule of combining them, or some special property of selected subsets of the entire set. Many algebraic structures, such as vector space and group, come to everyday use of a modern physicist. Catering to the needs of graduate students and researchers in the field of mathematical physics and theoretical physics, this comprehensive and valuable text discusses the essential concepts of algebraic structures such as metric space, group, modular numbers, algebraic integers, field, vector space, Boolean algebra, measure space and Lebesgue integral. Important topics including finite and infinite dimensional vector spaces, finite groups and their representations, unitary groups and their representations and representations of the Lorentz group, homotopy and homology of topological spaces are covered extensively. Rich pedagogy includes various problems interspersed throughout the book for better understanding of concepts.
Exploring the origins and evolution of magnetic fields in planets, stars and galaxies, this book gives a basic introduction to magnetohydrodynamics and surveys the observational data, with particular focus on geomagnetism and solar magnetism. Pioneering laboratory experiments that seek to replicate particular aspects of fluid dynamo action are also described. The authors provide a complete treatment of laminar dynamo theory, and of the mean-field electrodynamics that incorporates the effects of random waves and turbulence. Both dynamo theory and its counterpart, the theory of magnetic relaxation, are covered. Topological constraints associated with conservation of magnetic helicity are thoroughly explored and major challenges are addressed in areas such as fast-dynamo theory, accretion-disc dynamo theory and the theory of magnetostrophic turbulence. The book is aimed at graduate-level students in mathematics, physics, Earth sciences and astrophysics, and will be a valuable resource for researchers at all levels.
In this edited volume leaders in the field of partial differential equations present recent work on topics in PDEs arising from geometry and physics. The papers originate from a 2015 research school organized by CIMPA and MIMS in Hammamet, Tunisia to celebrate the 60th birthday of the late Professor Abbas Bahri. The opening chapter commemorates his life and work. While the research presented in this book is cutting-edge, the treatment throughout is at a level accessible to graduate students. It includes short courses offering readers a unique opportunity to learn the state of the art in evolution equations and mathematical models in physics, which will serve as an introduction for students and a useful reference for established researchers. Finally, the volume includes many open problems to inspire the next generation.
During the past two decades the gravitational asymptotic safety scenario has undergone a major transition from an exotic possibility to a serious contender for a realistic theory of quantum gravity. It aims at a mathematically consistent quantum description of the gravitational interaction and the geometry of spacetime within the realm of quantum field theory, which keeps its predictive power at the highest energies. This volume provides a self-contained pedagogical introduction to asymptotic safety, and introduces the functional renormalization group techniques used in its investigation, along with the requisite computational techniques. The foundational chapters are followed by an accessible summary of the results obtained so far. It is the first detailed exposition of asymptotic safety, providing a unique introduction to quantum gravity and it assumes no previous familiarity with the renormalization group. It serves as an important resource for both practising researchers and graduate students entering this maturing field.
Many areas of continuum physics pose a challenge to physicists. What are the most general, admissible statistically homogeneous and isotropic tensor-valued random fields (TRFs)? Previously, only the TRFs of rank 0 were completely described. This book assembles a complete description of such fields in terms of one- and two-point correlation functions for tensors of ranks 1 through 4. Working from the standpoint of invariance of physical laws with respect to the choice of a coordinate system, spatial domain representations, as well as their wavenumber domain counterparts are rigorously given in full detail. The book also discusses, an introduction to a range of continuum theories requiring TRFs, an introduction to mathematical theories necessary for the description of homogeneous and isotropic TRFs, and a range of applications including a strategy for simulation of TRFs, ergodic TRFs, scaling laws of stochastic constitutive responses, and applications to stochastic partial differential equations. It is invaluable for mathematicians looking to solve problems of continuum physics, and for physicists aiming to enrich their knowledge of the relevant mathematical tools.
Reporting a novel breakthrough in the identification and investigation of solvable and integrable nonlinearly coupled evolution ordinary differential equations (ODEs) or partial differential equations (PDEs), this text includes practical examples throughout to illustrate the theoretical concepts. Beginning with systems of ODEs, including second-order ODEs of Newtonian type, it then discusses systems of PDEs, and systems evolving in discrete time. It reports a novel, differential algorithm which can be used to evaluate all the zeros of a generic polynomial of arbitrary degree: a remarkable development of a fundamental mathematical problem with a long history. The book will be of interest to applied mathematicians and mathematical physicists working in the area of integrable and solvable non-linear evolution equations; it can also be used as supplementary reading material for general applied mathematics or mathematical physics courses.
Geometric and topological inference deals with the retrieval of information about a geometric object using only a finite set of possibly noisy sample points. It has connections to manifold learning and provides the mathematical and algorithmic foundations of the rapidly evolving field of topological data analysis. Building on a rigorous treatment of simplicial complexes and distance functions, this self-contained book covers key aspects of the field, from data representation and combinatorial questions to manifold reconstruction and persistent homology. It can serve as a textbook for graduate students or researchers in mathematics, computer science and engineering interested in a geometric approach to data science.
This is an introduction to the dynamics of fluids at small scales, the physical and mathematical underpinnings of Brownian motion, and the application of these subjects to the dynamics and flow of complex fluids such as colloidal suspensions and polymer solutions. It brings together continuum mechanics, statistical mechanics, polymer and colloid science, and various branches of applied mathematics, in a self-contained and integrated treatment that provides a foundation for understanding complex fluids, with a strong emphasis on fluid dynamics. Students and researchers will find that this book is extensively cross-referenced to illustrate connections between different aspects of the field. Its focus on fundamental principles and theoretical approaches provides the necessary groundwork for research in the dynamics of flowing complex fluids.
Solitons emerge in various non-linear systems as stable localized configurations, behaving in many ways like particles, from non-linear optics and condensed matter to nuclear physics, cosmology and supersymmetric theories. This book provides an introduction to integrable and non-integrable scalar field models with topological and non-topological soliton solutions. Focusing on both topological and non-topological solitons, it brings together debates around solitary waves and construction of soliton solutions in various models and provides a discussion of solitons using simple model examples. These include the Kortenweg-de-Vries system, sine-Gordon model, kinks and oscillons, and skyrmions and hopfions. The classical field theory of scalar field in various spatial dimensions is used throughout the book in presentation of related concepts, both at the technical and conceptual level. Providing a comprehensive introduction to the description and construction of solitons, this book is ideal for researchers and graduate students in mathematics and theoretical physics.
This volume compiles notes from four mini courses given at the summer school on asymptotic analysis in general relativity, held at the Institut Fourier in Grenoble, France. It contains an up-to-date panorama of modern techniques in the asymptotic analysis of classical and quantum fields in general relativity. Accessible to graduate students, these notes gather results that were not previously available in textbooks or monographs and will be of wider interest to researchers in general relativity. The topics of these mini courses are: the geometry of black hole spacetimes; an introduction to quantum field theory on curved spacetimes; conformal geometry and tractor calculus; and microlocal analysis for wave propagation.
This self-contained introduction to numerical linear algebra provides a comprehensive, yet concise, overview of the subject. It includes standard material such as direct methods for solving linear systems and least-squares problems, error, stability and conditioning, basic iterative methods and the calculation of eigenvalues. Later chapters cover more advanced material, such as Krylov subspace methods, multigrid methods, domain decomposition methods, multipole expansions, hierarchical matrices and compressed sensing. The book provides rigorous mathematical proofs throughout, and gives algorithms in general-purpose language-independent form. Requiring only a solid knowledge in linear algebra and basic analysis, this book will be useful for applied mathematicians, engineers, computer scientists, and all those interested in efficiently solving linear problems.
Instantons, or pseudoparticles, are solutions to the equations of motion in classical field theories on a Euclidean spacetime. Instantons are found everywhere in quantum theories as they have many applications in quantum tunnelling. Diverse physical phenomena may be described through quantum tunnelling, for example: the Josephson effect, the decay of meta-stable nuclear states, band formation in tight binding models of crystalline solids, the structure of the gauge theory vacuum, confinement in 2+1 dimensions, and the decay of superheated or supercooled phases. Drawing inspiration from Sidney Coleman's Erice lectures, this volume provides an accessible, detailed introduction to instanton methods, with many applications, making it a valuable resource for graduate students in many areas of physics, from condensed matter, particle and nuclear physics, to string theory.
Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) plays a crucial role in astrophysics, planetary magnetism, engineering and controlled nuclear fusion. This comprehensive textbook emphasizes physical ideas, rather than mathematical detail, making it accessible to a broad audience. Starting from elementary chapters on fluid mechanics and electromagnetism, it takes the reader all the way through to the latest ideas in more advanced topics, including planetary dynamos, stellar magnetism, fusion plasmas and engineering applications. With the new edition, readers will benefit from additional material on MHD instabilities, planetary dynamos and applications in astrophysics, as well as a whole new chapter on fusion plasma MHD. The development of the material from first principles and its pedagogical style makes this an ideal companion for both undergraduate students and postgraduate students in physics, applied mathematics and engineering. Elementary knowledge of vector calculus is the only prerequisite.
This book offers a unified perspective on the study of complex systems for scholars of various disciplines, including mathematics, physics, computer science, biology, economics and social science. The contributions, written by leading scientists, cover a broad set of topics, including new approaches to data science, the connection between scaling limits and conformal field theories, and new ideas on the Legendre duality approach in statistical mechanics of disordered systems. The volume moreover explores results on extreme values of correlated random variables and their connection with the Riemann zeta functions, the relation between diffusion phenomena and complex systems, and the Brownian web, which appears as the universal scaling limit of several probabilistic models. Written for researchers from a broad range of scientific fields, this text examines a selection of recent developments in complex systems from a rigorous perspective.