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Mathematicians have long known that geometry is not absolute. Our understanding of what constitutes a 'space' has driven, and been driven by, significant applications inside and outside of mathematics. The workshop 'New Spaces in Mathematics and Physics', held in 2015 at the Institut Henri Poincaré, brought together many researchers to discuss various new notions of space in mathematics and theoretical physics, with particular attention given to often overlooked aspects of their subjects, conceptual reflections and historical perspectives. This volume and its companion New Spaces in Physics arise from their lectures and discussions. This volume covers a broad range of topics in mathematics, including diffeologies, synthetic differential geometry, microlocal analysis, topos theory, infinity-groupoids, homotopy type theory, category-theoretic methods in geometry, stacks, derived geometry, and noncommutative geometry.
The proceedings of the Los Angeles Caltech-UCLA 'Cabal Seminar' were originally published in the 1970s and 1980s. Large Cardinals, Determinacy and Other Topics is the final volume in a series of four books collecting the seminal papers from the original volumes together with extensive unpublished material, new papers on related topics and discussion of research developments since the publication of the original volumes. Part VII focuses on 'Extensions of AD, models with choice', while Part VIII ('Other topics') collects material important to the Cabal that does not fit neatly into one of its main themes. Part VII is preceded by an introductory survey putting the papers into present context. These four volumes will be a necessary part of the book collection of every set theorist.
This quick yet detailed introduction to set theory and forcing builds the reader's intuition about it as much as the mathematical detail. Intuition, rather absent from the existing literature on the subject, here plays a large role. The reader will not only learn the facts, but will understand why they are true and will be brought to ask: what else could be true? Having presented forcing in Part I, the second part of the book discusses contemporary issues in the theory of forcing. It includes known and some previously unpublished results as well as many open questions. This is ideal for those who want to start a research career in forcing but do not have a personal interlocutor. Obviously, not everything about forcing is in this book. Many references are included to help the reader further explore the vast amount of research literature available on the subject.
The last two decades have seen a wave of exciting new developments in the theory of algorithmic randomness and its applications to other areas of mathematics. This volume surveys much of the recent work that has not been included in published volumes until now. It contains a range of articles on algorithmic randomness and its interactions with closely related topics such as computability theory and computational complexity, as well as wider applications in areas of mathematics including analysis, probability, and ergodic theory. In addition to being an indispensable reference for researchers in algorithmic randomness, the unified view of the theory presented here makes this an excellent entry point for graduate students and other newcomers to the field.
The beginning graduate student in homotopy theory is confronted with a vast literature on spectra that is scattered across books, articles and decades. There is much folklore but very few easy entry points. This comprehensive introduction to stable homotopy theory changes that. It presents the foundations of the subject together in one place for the first time, from the motivating phenomena to the modern theory, at a level suitable for those with only a first course in algebraic topology. Starting from stable homotopy groups and (co)homology theories, the authors study the most important categories of spectra and the stable homotopy category, before moving on to computational aspects and more advanced topics such as monoidal structures, localisations and chromatic homotopy theory. The appendix containing essential facts on model categories, the numerous examples and the suggestions for further reading make this a friendly introduction to an often daunting subject.
There have been remarkably few systematic expositions of the theory of derived categories since its inception in the work of Grothendieck and Verdier in the 1960s. This book is the first in-depth treatment of this important component of homological algebra. It carefully explains the foundations in detail before moving on to key applications in commutative and noncommutative algebra, many otherwise unavailable outside of research articles. These include commutative and noncommutative dualizing complexes, perfect DG modules, and tilting DG bimodules. Written with graduate students in mind, the emphasis here is on explicit constructions (with many examples and exercises) as opposed to axiomatics, with the goal of demystifying this difficult subject. Beyond serving as a thorough introduction for students, it will serve as an important reference for researchers in algebra, geometry and mathematical physics.
Why do we need the real numbers? How should we construct them? These questions arose in the nineteenth century, along with the ideas and techniques needed to address them. Nowadays it is commonplace for apprentice mathematicians to hear 'we shall assume the standard properties of the real numbers' as part of their training. But exactly what are those properties? And why can we assume them? This book is clearly and entertainingly written for those students, with historical asides and exercises to foster understanding. Starting with the natural (counting) numbers and then looking at the rational numbers (fractions) and negative numbers, the author builds to a careful construction of the real numbers followed by the complex numbers, leaving the reader fully equipped with all the number systems required by modern mathematical analysis. Additional chapters on polynomials and quarternions provide further context for any reader wanting to delve deeper.
Category theory is unmatched in its ability to organize and layer abstractions and to find commonalities between structures of all sorts. No longer the exclusive preserve of pure mathematicians, it is now proving itself to be a powerful tool in science, informatics, and industry. By facilitating communication between communities and building rigorous bridges between disparate worlds, applied category theory has the potential to be a major organizing force. This book offers a self-contained tour of applied category theory. Each chapter follows a single thread motivated by a real-world application and discussed with category-theoretic tools. We see data migration as an adjoint functor, electrical circuits in terms of monoidal categories and operads, and collaborative design via enriched profunctors. All the relevant category theory, from simple to sophisticated, is introduced in an accessible way with many examples and exercises, making this an ideal guide even for those without experience of university-level mathematics.
Proofs play a central role in advanced mathematics and theoretical computer science, yet many students struggle the first time they take a course in which proofs play a significant role. This bestselling text's third edition helps students transition from solving problems to proving theorems by teaching them the techniques needed to read and write proofs. Featuring over 150 new exercises and a new chapter on number theory, this new edition introduces students to the world of advanced mathematics through the mastery of proofs. The book begins with the basic concepts of logic and set theory to familiarize students with the language of mathematics and how it is interpreted. These concepts are used as the basis for an analysis of techniques that can be used to build up complex proofs step by step, using detailed 'scratch work' sections to expose the machinery of proofs about numbers, sets, relations, and functions. Assuming no background beyond standard high school mathematics, this book will be useful to anyone interested in logic and proofs: computer scientists, philosophers, linguists, and, of course, mathematicians.
The text covers important algorithm design techniques, such as greedy algorithms, dynamic programming, and divide-and-conquer, and gives applications to contemporary problems. Techniques including Fast Fourier transform, KMP algorithm for string matching, CYK algorithm for context free parsing and gradient descent for convex function minimization are discussed in detail. The book's emphasis is on computational models and their effect on algorithm design. It gives insights into algorithm design techniques in parallel, streaming and memory hierarchy computational models. The book also emphasizes the role of randomization in algorithm design, and gives numerous applications ranging from data-structures such as skip-lists to dimensionality reduction methods.
Classical logic is concerned, loosely, with the behaviour of truths. Epistemic logic similarly is about the behaviour of known or believed truths. Justification logic is a theory of reasoning that enables the tracking of evidence for statements and therefore provides a logical framework for the reliability of assertions. This book, the first in the area, is a systematic account of the subject, progressing from modal logic through to the establishment of an arithmetic interpretation of intuitionistic logic. The presentation is mathematically rigorous but in a style that will appeal to readers from a wide variety of areas to which the theory applies. These include mathematical logic, artificial intelligence, computer science, philosophical logic and epistemology, linguistics, and game theory.
This book provides an introduction to modern homotopy theory through the lens of higher categories after Joyal and Lurie, giving access to methods used at the forefront of research in algebraic topology and algebraic geometry in the twenty-first century. The text starts from scratch - revisiting results from classical homotopy theory such as Serre's long exact sequence, Quillen's theorems A and B, Grothendieck's smooth/proper base change formulas, and the construction of the Kan–Quillen model structure on simplicial sets - and develops an alternative to a significant part of Lurie's definitive reference Higher Topos Theory, with new constructions and proofs, in particular, the Yoneda Lemma and Kan extensions. The strong emphasis on homotopical algebra provides clear insights into classical constructions such as calculus of fractions, homotopy limits and derived functors. For graduate students and researchers from neighbouring fields, this book is a user-friendly guide to advanced tools that the theory provides for application.
Model theory begins with an audacious idea: to consider statements about mathematical structures as mathematical objects of study in their own right. While inherently important as a tool of mathematical logic, it also enjoys connections to and applications in diverse branches of mathematics, including algebra, number theory and analysis. Despite this, traditional introductions to model theory assume a graduate-level background of the reader. In this innovative textbook, Jonathan Kirby brings model theory to an undergraduate audience. The highlights of basic model theory are illustrated through examples from specific structures familiar from undergraduate mathematics, paying particular attention to definable sets throughout. With numerous exercises of varying difficulty, this is an accessible introduction to model theory and its place in mathematics.
Proof complexity is a rich subject drawing on methods from logic, combinatorics, algebra and computer science. This self-contained book presents the basic concepts, classical results, current state of the art and possible future directions in the field. It stresses a view of proof complexity as a whole entity rather than a collection of various topics held together loosely by a few notions, and it favors more generalizable statements. Lower bounds for lengths of proofs, often regarded as the key issue in proof complexity, are of course covered in detail. However, upper bounds are not neglected: this book also explores the relations between bounded arithmetic theories and proof systems and how they can be used to prove upper bounds on lengths of proofs and simulations among proof systems. It goes on to discuss topics that transcend specific proof systems, allowing for deeper understanding of the fundamental problems of the subject.
Spectral spaces are a class of topological spaces. They are a tool linking algebraic structures, in a very wide sense, with geometry. They were invented to give a functional representation of Boolean algebras and distributive lattices and subsequently gained great prominence as a consequence of Grothendieck's invention of schemes. There are more than 1,000 research articles about spectral spaces, but this is the first monograph. It provides an introduction to the subject and is a unified treatment of results scattered across the literature, filling in gaps and showing the connections between different results. The book includes new research going beyond the existing literature, answering questions that naturally arise from this comprehensive approach. The authors serve graduates by starting gently with the basics. For experts, they lead them to the frontiers of current research, making this book a valuable reference source.
This is the first book to be dedicated entirely to Drinfeld's quasi-Hopf algebras. Ideal for graduate students and researchers in mathematics and mathematical physics, this treatment is largely self-contained, taking the reader from the basics, with complete proofs, to much more advanced topics, with almost complete proofs. Many of the proofs are based on general categorical results; the same approach can then be used in the study of other Hopf-type algebras, for example Turaev or Zunino Hopf algebras, Hom-Hopf algebras, Hopfish algebras, and in general any algebra for which the category of representations is monoidal. Newcomers to the subject will appreciate the detailed introduction to (braided) monoidal categories, (co)algebras and the other tools they will need in this area. More advanced readers will benefit from having recent research gathered in one place, with open questions to inspire their own research.
Slenderness is a concept relevant to the fields of algebra, set theory, and topology. This first book on the subject is systematically presented and largely self-contained, making it ideal for researchers and graduate students. The appendix gives an introduction to the necessary set theory, in particular to the (non-)measurable cardinals, to help the reader make smooth progress through the text. A detailed index shows the numerous connections among the topics treated. Every chapter has a historical section to show the original sources for results and the subsequent development of ideas, and is rounded off with numerous exercises. More than 100 open problems and projects are presented, ready to inspire the keen graduate student or researcher. Many of the results are appearing in print for the first time, and many of the older results are presented in a new light.
This text organizes a range of results in chromatic homotopy theory, running a single thread through theorems in bordism and a detailed understanding of the moduli of formal groups. It emphasizes the naturally occurring algebro-geometric models that presage the topological results, taking the reader through a pedagogical development of the field. In addition to forming the backbone of the stable homotopy category, these ideas have found application in other fields: the daughter subject 'elliptic cohomology' abuts mathematical physics, manifold geometry, topological analysis, and the representation theory of loop groups. The common language employed when discussing these subjects showcases their unity and guides the reader breezily from one domain to the next, ultimately culminating in the construction of Witten's genus for String manifolds. This text is an expansion of a set of lecture notes for a topics course delivered at Harvard University during the spring term of 2016.
This book presents and applies a framework for studying the complexity of algorithms. It is aimed at logicians, computer scientists, mathematicians and philosophers interested in the theory of computation and its foundations, and it is written at a level suitable for non-specialists. Part I provides an accessible introduction to abstract recursion theory and its connection with computability and complexity. This part is suitable for use as a textbook for an advanced undergraduate or graduate course: all the necessary elementary facts from logic, recursion theory, arithmetic and algebra are included. Part II develops and applies an extension of the homomorphism method due jointly to the author and Lou van den Dries for deriving lower complexity bounds for problems in number theory and algebra which (provably or plausibly) restrict all elementary algorithms from specified primitives. The book includes over 250 problems, from simple checks of the reader's understanding, to current open problems.
This book formally introduces synthetic differential topology, a natural extension of the theory of synthetic differential geometry which captures classical concepts of differential geometry and topology by means of the rich categorical structure of a necessarily non-Boolean topos and of the systematic use of logical infinitesimal objects in it. Beginning with an introduction to those parts of topos theory and synthetic differential geometry necessary for the remainder, this clear and comprehensive text covers the general theory of synthetic differential topology and several applications of it to classical mathematics, including the calculus of variations, Mather's theorem, and Morse theory on the classification of singularities. The book represents the state of the art in synthetic differential topology and will be of interest to researchers in topos theory and to mathematicians interested in the categorical foundations of differential geometry and topology.