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Noncommutative geometry combines themes from algebra, analysis and geometry and has significant applications to physics. This book focuses on cyclic theory, and is based upon the lecture courses by Daniel G. Quillen at the University of Oxford from 1988–92, which developed his own approach to the subject. The basic definitions, examples and exercises provided here allow non-specialists and students with a background in elementary functional analysis, commutative algebra and differential geometry to get to grips with the subject. Quillen's development of cyclic theory emphasizes analogies between commutative and noncommutative theories, in which he reinterpreted classical results of Hamiltonian mechanics, operator algebras and differential graded algebras into a new formalism. In this book, cyclic theory is developed from motivating examples and background towards general results. Themes covered are relevant to current research, including homomorphisms modulo powers of ideals, traces on noncommutative differential forms, quasi-free algebras and Chern characters on connections.
A Gallery of Combustion and Fire is the first book to provide a graphical perspective of the extremely visual phenomenon of combustion in full color. It is designed primarily to be used in parallel with, and supplement existing combustion textbooks that are usually in black and white, making it a challenge to visualize such a graphic phenomenon. Each image includes a description of how it was generated, which is detailed enough for the expert but simple enough for the novice. Processes range from small scale academic flames up to full scale industrial flames under a wide range of conditions such as low and normal gravity, atmospheric to high pressures, actual and simulated flames, and controlled and uncontrolled flames. Containing over 500 color images, with over 230 contributors from over 75 organizations, this volume is a valuable asset for experts and novices alike.
Index theory studies the solutions to differential equations on geometric spaces, their relation to the underlying geometry and topology, and applications to physics. If the space of solutions is infinite dimensional, it becomes necessary to generalise the classical Fredholm index using tools from the K-theory of operator algebras. This leads to higher index theory, a rapidly developing subject with connections to noncommutative geometry, large-scale geometry, manifold topology and geometry, and operator algebras. Aimed at geometers, topologists and operator algebraists, this book takes a friendly and concrete approach to this exciting theory, focusing on the main conjectures in the area and their applications outside of it. A well-balanced combination of detailed introductory material (with exercises), cutting-edge developments and references to the wider literature make this a valuable guide to this active area for graduate students and experts alike.
Now in its second edition, this popular textbook on game theory is unrivalled in the breadth of its coverage, the thoroughness of technical explanations and the number of worked examples included. Covering non-cooperative and cooperative games, this introduction to game theory includes advanced chapters on auctions, games with incomplete information, games with vector payoffs, stable matchings and the bargaining set. This edition contains new material on stochastic games, rationalizability, and the continuity of the set of equilibrium points with respect to the data of the game. The material is presented clearly and every concept is illustrated with concrete examples from a range of disciplines. With numerous exercises, and the addition of a solution manual with this edition, the book is an extensive guide to game theory for undergraduate through graduate courses in economics, mathematics, computer science, engineering and life sciences, and will also serve as useful reference for researchers.
Suitable for both senior undergraduate and graduate students, this is a self-contained book dealing with the classical theory of the partial differential equations through a modern approach; requiring minimal previous knowledge. It represents the solutions to three important equations of mathematical physics – Laplace and Poisson equations, Heat or diffusion equation, and wave equations in one and more space dimensions. Keen readers will benefit from more advanced topics and many references cited at the end of each chapter. In addition, the book covers advanced topics such as Conservation Laws and Hamilton-Jacobi Equation. Numerous real-life applications are interspersed throughout the book to retain readers' interest.
Understand the interaction between ocean waves and oscillating systems with this useful new edition. With a focus on linear analysis of low-amplitude waves, you are provided with a thorough understanding of wave interactions, presented to be easily accessible to non-specialist readers. Topics covered include the background mathematics of oscillations, gravity waves on water, the dynamics of wave-body interactions, and the absorption of wave energy by oscillating bodies and oscillating water columns. Featuring new content throughout, including three new chapters on oscillating-body wave energy converters, oscillating water columns and other types of wave energy converters, and wave energy converter arrays, this book is an excellent resource for students, researchers, and engineers who are new to the subject of wave energy conversion, as well as those with more experience.
The last two decades have seen a wave of exciting new developments in the theory of algorithmic randomness and its applications to other areas of mathematics. This volume surveys much of the recent work that has not been included in published volumes until now. It contains a range of articles on algorithmic randomness and its interactions with closely related topics such as computability theory and computational complexity, as well as wider applications in areas of mathematics including analysis, probability, and ergodic theory. In addition to being an indispensable reference for researchers in algorithmic randomness, the unified view of the theory presented here makes this an excellent entry point for graduate students and other newcomers to the field.
The Mahler measure is a fascinating notion and an exciting topic in contemporary mathematics, interconnecting with subjects as diverse as number theory, analysis, arithmetic geometry, special functions and random walks. This friendly and concise introduction to the Mahler measure is a valuable resource for both graduate courses and self-study. It provides the reader with the necessary background material, before presenting the recent achievements and the remaining challenges in the field. The first part introduces the univariate Mahler measure and addresses Lehmer's question, and then discusses techniques of reducing multivariate measures to hypergeometric functions. The second part touches on the novelties of the subject, especially the relation with elliptic curves, modular forms and special values of L-functions. Finally, the Appendix presents the modern definition of motivic cohomology and regulator maps, as well as Deligne–Beilinson cohomology. The text includes many exercises to test comprehension and challenge readers of all abilities.
This text is geared toward students who have an undergraduate degree or extensive coursework in engineering or the physical sciences and who wish to develop their understanding of the essential topics of applied mathematics. The methods covered in the chapters form the core of analysis in engineering and the physical sciences. Readers will learn the solutions, techniques, and approaches that they will use as academic researchers or industrial R&D specialists. For example, they will be able to understand the fundamentals behind the various scientific software packages that are used to solve technical problems (such as the equations describing the solid mechanics of complex structures or the fluid mechanics of short-term weather prediction and long-term climate change), which is crucial to working with such codes successfully. Detailed and numerous worked problems help to ensure a clear and well-paced introduction to applied mathematics. Computational challenge problems at the end of each chapter provide students with the opportunity for hands-on learning and help to ensure mastery of the concepts. Adaptable to one- and two-semester courses.
The amount of mathematics invented for number-theoretic reasons is impressive. It includes much of complex analysis, the re-foundation of algebraic geometry on commutative algebra, group cohomology, homological algebra, and the theory of motives. Zeta and L-functions sit at the meeting point of all these theories and have played a profound role in shaping the evolution of number theory. This book presents a big picture of zeta and L-functions and the complex theories surrounding them, combining standard material with results and perspectives that are not made explicit elsewhere in the literature. Particular attention is paid to the development of the ideas surrounding zeta and L-functions, using quotes from original sources and comments throughout the book, pointing the reader towards the relevant history. Based on an advanced course given at Jussieu in 2013, it is an ideal introduction for graduate students and researchers to this fascinating story.
Every fluid dynamicist will at some point need to use computation. Thinking about the physics, constraints and the requirements early on will be rewarded with benefits in time, effort, accuracy and expense. How these benefits can be realised is illustrated in this guide for would-be researchers and beginning graduate students to some of the standard methods and common pitfalls of computational fluid mechanics. Based on a lecture course that the author has developed over twenty years, the text is split into three parts. The quick introduction enables students to solve numerically a basic nonlinear problem by a simple method in just three hours. The follow-up part expands on all the key essentials, including discretisation (finite differences, finite elements and spectral methods), time-stepping and linear algebra. The final part is a selection of optional advanced topics, including hyperbolic equations, the representation of surfaces, the boundary integral method, the multigrid method, domain decomposition, the fast multipole method, particle methods and wavelets.
The theory of unitary group representations began with finite groups, and blossomed in the twentieth century both as a natural abstraction of classical harmonic analysis, and as a tool for understanding various physical phenomena. Combining basic theory and new results, this monograph is a fresh and self-contained exposition of group representations and harmonic analysis on solvable Lie groups. Covering a range of topics from stratification methods for linear solvable actions in a finite-dimensional vector space, to complete proofs of essential elements of Mackey theory and a unified development of the main features of the orbit method for solvable Lie groups, the authors provide both well-known and new examples, with a focus on those relevant to contemporary applications. Clear explanations of the basic theory make this an invaluable reference guide for graduate students as well as researchers.
Using numerical integration, it is possible to predict the individual motions of a group of a few celestial objects interacting with each other gravitationally. In this introduction to the few-body problem, a key figure in developing more efficient methods over the past few decades summarizes and explains them, covering both basic analytical formulations and numerical methods. The mathematics required for celestial mechanics and stellar dynamics is explained, starting with two-body motion and progressing through classical methods for planetary system dynamics. This first part of the book can be used as a short course on celestial mechanics. The second part develops the contemporary methods for which the author is renowned - symplectic integration and various methods of regularization. This volume explains the methodology of the subject for graduate students and researchers in celestial mechanics and astronomical dynamics with an interest in few-body dynamics and the regularization of the equations of motion.
Mathematical models of bond markets are of interest to researchers working in applied mathematics, especially in mathematical finance. This book concerns bond market models in which random elements are represented by Lévy processes. These are more flexible than classical models and are well suited to describing prices quoted in a discontinuous fashion. The book's key aims are to characterize bond markets that are free of arbitrage and to analyze their completeness. Nonlinear stochastic partial differential equations (SPDEs) are an important tool in the analysis. The authors begin with a relatively elementary analysis in discrete time, suitable for readers who are not familiar with finance or continuous time stochastic analysis. The book should be of interest to mathematicians, in particular to probabilists, who wish to learn the theory of the bond market and to be exposed to attractive open mathematical problems.
Category theory provides structure for the mathematical world and is seen everywhere in modern mathematics. With this book, the author bridges the gap between pure category theory and its numerous applications in homotopy theory, providing the necessary background information to make the subject accessible to graduate students or researchers with a background in algebraic topology and algebra. The reader is first introduced to category theory, starting with basic definitions and concepts before progressing to more advanced themes. Concrete examples and exercises illustrate the topics, ranging from colimits to constructions such as the Day convolution product. Part II covers important applications of category theory, giving a thorough introduction to simplicial objects including an account of quasi-categories and Segal sets. Diagram categories play a central role throughout the book, giving rise to models of iterated loop spaces, and feature prominently in functor homology and homology of small categories.
Created as a celebration of mathematical pioneer Emma Previato, this comprehensive book highlights the connections between algebraic geometry and integrable systems, differential equations, mathematical physics, and many other areas. The authors, many of whom have been at the forefront of research into these topics for the last decades, have all been influenced by Previato's research, as her collaborators, students, or colleagues. The diverse articles in the book demonstrate the wide scope of Previato's work and the inclusion of several survey and introductory articles makes the text accessible to graduate students and non-experts, as well as researchers. This first volume covers a wide range of areas related to integrable systems, often emphasizing the deep connections with algebraic geometry. Common themes include theta functions and Abelian varieties, Lax equations, integrable hierarchies, Hamiltonian flows and difference operators. These powerful tools are applied to spinning top, Hitchin, Painleve and many other notable special equations.
This accessible text covers key results in functional analysis that are essential for further study in the calculus of variations, analysis, dynamical systems, and the theory of partial differential equations. The treatment of Hilbert spaces covers the topics required to prove the Hilbert–Schmidt theorem, including orthonormal bases, the Riesz representation theorem, and the basics of spectral theory. The material on Banach spaces and their duals includes the Hahn–Banach theorem, the Krein–Milman theorem, and results based on the Baire category theorem, before culminating in a proof of sequential weak compactness in reflexive spaces. Arguments are presented in detail, and more than 200 fully-worked exercises are included to provide practice applying techniques and ideas beyond the major theorems. Familiarity with the basic theory of vector spaces and point-set topology is assumed, but knowledge of measure theory is not required, making this book ideal for upper undergraduate-level and beginning graduate-level courses.
The beginning graduate student in homotopy theory is confronted with a vast literature on spectra that is scattered across books, articles and decades. There is much folklore but very few easy entry points. This comprehensive introduction to stable homotopy theory changes that. It presents the foundations of the subject together in one place for the first time, from the motivating phenomena to the modern theory, at a level suitable for those with only a first course in algebraic topology. Starting from stable homotopy groups and (co)homology theories, the authors study the most important categories of spectra and the stable homotopy category, before moving on to computational aspects and more advanced topics such as monoidal structures, localisations and chromatic homotopy theory. The appendix containing essential facts on model categories, the numerous examples and the suggestions for further reading make this a friendly introduction to an often daunting subject.
Intersection theory has played a prominent role in the study of closed symplectic 4-manifolds since Gromov's famous 1985 paper on pseudoholomorphic curves, leading to myriad beautiful rigidity results that are either inaccessible or not true in higher dimensions. Siefring's recent extension of the theory to punctured holomorphic curves allowed similarly important results for contact 3-manifolds and their symplectic fillings. Based on a series of lectures for graduate students in topology, this book begins with an overview of the closed case, and then proceeds to explain the essentials of Siefring's intersection theory and how to use it, and gives some sample applications in low-dimensional symplectic and contact topology. The appendices provide valuable information for researchers, including a concise reference guide on Siefring's theory and a self-contained proof of a weak version of the Micallef–White theorem.
This book shows how operator theory interacts with function theory in one and several variables. The authors develop the theory in detail, leading the reader to the cutting edge of contemporary research. It starts with a treatment of the theory of bounded holomorphic functions on the unit disc. Model theory and the network realization formula are used to solve Nevanlinna-Pick interpolation problems, and the same techniques are shown to work on the bidisc, the symmetrized bidisc, and other domains. The techniques are powerful enough to prove the Julia-Carathéodory theorem on the bidisc, Lempert's theorem on invariant metrics in convex domains, the Oka extension theorem, and to generalize Loewner's matrix monotonicity results to several variables. In Part II, the book gives an introduction to non-commutative function theory, and shows how model theory and the network realization formula can be used to understand functions of non-commuting matrices.