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This is the second volume of a two-volume work that traces the development of series and products from 1380 to 2000 by presenting and explaining the interconnected concepts and results of hundreds of unsung as well as celebrated mathematicians. Some chapters deal with the work of primarily one mathematician on a pivotal topic, and other chapters chronicle the progress over time of a given topic. This updated second edition of Sources in the Development of Mathematics adds extensive context, detail, and primary source material, with many sections rewritten to more clearly reveal the significance of key developments and arguments. Volume 1, accessible even to advanced undergraduate students, discusses the development of the methods in series and products that do not employ complex analytic methods or sophisticated machinery. Volume 2 examines more recent results, including deBranges' resolution of Bieberbach's conjecture and Nevanlinna's theory of meromorphic functions.
This is the first volume of a two-volume work that traces the development of series and products from 1380 to 2000 by presenting and explaining the interconnected concepts and results of hundreds of unsung as well as celebrated mathematicians. Some chapters deal with the work of primarily one mathematician on a pivotal topic, and other chapters chronicle the progress over time of a given topic. This updated second edition of Sources in the Development of Mathematics adds extensive context, detail, and primary source material, with many sections rewritten to more clearly reveal the significance of key developments and arguments. Volume 1, accessible to even advanced undergraduate students, discusses the development of the methods in series and products that do not employ complex analytic methods or sophisticated machinery. Volume 2 treats more recent work, including deBranges' solution of Bieberbach's conjecture, and requires more advanced mathematical knowledge.
With a few notable exceptions, pure mathematics in Britain at the beginning of the nineteenth century was mainly a recreation for amateurs. Drawing on primary sources, John Heard provides an engaging account of the process by which it rose to become an academic discipline of repute which by the First World War was led by G. H. Hardy, and supported by the internationally-respected London Mathematical Society. In chronicling that rise, this book describes key contributions and the social environment in which mathematicians operated, using contemporary commentary where appropriate. No mathematical knowledge is required, and readers with a wide range of interests and backgrounds will find much to enjoy here. The material is presented from an impartial point of view, and provides full references to help any researchers who want to dig deeper into the original sources. The result is a unique insight into the world of Victorian mathematics and science.
Quine's set theory, New Foundations, has often been treated as an anomaly in the history and philosophy of set theory. In this book, Sean Morris shows that it is in fact well-motivated, emerging in a natural way from the early development of set theory. Morris introduces and explores the notion of set theory as explication: the view that there is no single correct axiomatization of set theory, but rather that the various axiomatizations all serve to explicate the notion of set and are judged largely according to pragmatic criteria. Morris also brings out the important interplay between New Foundations, Quine's philosophy of set theory, and his philosophy more generally. We see that his early technical work in logic foreshadows his later famed naturalism, with his philosophy of set theory playing a crucial role in his primary philosophical project of clarifying our conceptual scheme and specifically its logical and mathematical components.
This is the second volume of the first fully-fledged English translation of the works of Archimedes - antiquity's greatest scientist and one of the most important scientific figures in history. It covers On Spirals and is based on a reconsideration of the Greek text and diagrams, now made possible through new discoveries from the Archimedes Palimpsest. On Spirals is one of Archimedes' most dazzling geometrical tours de force, suggesting a manner of 'squaring the circle' and, along the way, introducing the attractive geometrical object of the spiral. The form of argument, no less than the results themselves, is striking, and Reviel Netz contributes extensive and insightful comments that focus on Archimedes' scientific style, making this volume indispensable for scholars of classics and the history of science, and of great interest for the scientists and mathematicians of today.
This thorough work presents the fundamental results of modular function theory as developed during the nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries. It features beautiful formulas and derives them using skillful and ingenious manipulations, especially classical methods often overlooked today. Starting with the work of Gauss, Abel, and Jacobi, the book then discusses the attempt by Dedekind to construct a theory of modular functions independent of elliptic functions. The latter part of the book explains how Hurwitz completed this task and includes one of Hurwitz's landmark papers, translated by the author, and delves into the work of Ramanujan, Mordell, and Hecke. For graduate students and experts in modular forms, this book demonstrates the relevance of these original sources and thereby provides the reader with new insights into contemporary work in this area.
An important figure in the development of modern mathematical logic and abstract algebra, Augustus De Morgan (1806–71) was also a witty writer who made a hobby of collecting evidence of paradoxical and illogical thinking from historical sources as well as contemporary pamphlets and periodicals. Based on articles that had appeared in The Athenaeum during his lifetime, this work was edited by his widow and published in book form in 1872. It parades all varieties of crackpot, from circle-squarers to inventors of perpetual motion machines, all for the reader's entertainment and education. Filled with anecdotes, personal opinions and 'squibs' of every kind, the book remains enjoyable reading for those who are amused rather than appalled by the human condition. Also reissued in the Cambridge Library Collection are the Memoir of Augustus De Morgan (1882), prepared by his wife, and his ambitious Formal Logic (1847).
The transition from studying calculus in schools to studying mathematical analysis at university is notoriously difficult. In this third edition of Numbers and Functions, Professor Burn invites the student reader to tackle each of the key concepts in turn, progressing from experience through a structured sequence of more than 800 problems to concepts, definitions and proofs of classical real analysis. The sequence of problems, of which most are supplied with brief answers, draws students into constructing definitions and theorems for themselves. This natural development is informed and complemented by historical insight. Carefully corrected and updated throughout, this new edition also includes extra questions on integration and an introduction to convergence. The novel approach to rigorous analysis offered here is designed to enable students to grow in confidence and skill and thus overcome the traditional difficulties.
'Read Euler, read Euler, he is master of us all' LaPlace exhorted us. And it is true, Euler writes with unerring grace and ease. He is exceptionally clear thinking and clear speaking. It is a joy and a pleasure to follow him. It is especially so with Ed Sandifer as your guide. Sandifer has been studying Euler for decades and is one of the world's leading experts on his work. This volume is the second collection of Sandifer's 'How Euler Did It' columns. Each is a jewel of historical and mathematical exposition. The sum total of years of work and study of the most prolific mathematician of history, this volume will leave you marveling at Euler's clever inventiveness and Sandifer's wonderful ability to explicate and put it all in context.
Throughout his early life, Isaac Todhunter (1820–84) excelled as a student of mathematics, gaining a scholarship at the University of London and numerous awards during his time at St John's College, Cambridge. Taking up fellowship of the college in 1849, he became widely known for both his educational texts and his historical accounts of various branches of mathematics. The present work, first published in 1865, describes the rise of probability theory as a recognised subject, beginning with a discussion of the famous 'problem of points', as considered by the likes of the Chevalier de Méré, Blaise Pascal and Pierre de Fermat during the latter half of the seventeenth century. Subsequently, the application of advanced methods that had been developed in classical areas of mathematics led to rapid progress in probability theory. Todhunter traces this growth, closing with a thorough account of Pierre-Simon Laplace's far-reaching work in the area.
In the preface to this work, mathematician Augustus De Morgan (1806–71) claims that 'The most worthless book of a bygone day is a record worthy of preservation.' His purpose in writing this catalogue, published in 1847, was to provide an accurate record of the early history of publishing on arithmetic, but describing only those books which he had examined himself. He surveyed the library of the Royal Society, works in the British Museum, the wares of specialist booksellers, and the private collections of himself and his friends to compile a chronological list of books from 1491 to 1846 (the final book being a work of his own), giving bibliographical details, a description of the contents, and sometimes comments on the mathematics on display. De Morgan's Formal Logic and a Memoir of Augustus De Morgan by his widow are also reissued in the Cambridge Library Collection.
This volume is the first systematic presentation of the work of Albert Einstein, comprising fourteen essays by leading historians and philosophers of science that introduce readers to his work. Following an introduction that places Einstein's work in the context of his life and times, the book opens with essays on the papers of Einstein's 'miracle year', 1905, covering Brownian motion, light quanta, and special relativity, as well as his contributions to early quantum theory and the opposition to his light quantum hypothesis. Further essays relate Einstein's path to the general theory of relativity (1915) and the beginnings of two fields it spawned, relativistic cosmology and gravitational waves. Essays on Einstein's later years examine his unified field theory program and his critique of quantum mechanics. The closing essays explore the relation between Einstein's work and twentieth-century philosophy, as well as his political writings.
Ernst Mach (1838–1916), the first scientist to study objects moving faster than the speed of sound, propounded a scientific philosophy which called for a strict adherence to observable data. He maintained that the sole purpose of scientific study is to provide the simplest possible description of detectable phenomena. In this work, first published in German in 1883 and here translated in 1893 by Thomas J. McCormack (1865–1932) from the 1888 second edition, Mach begins with a historical discussion of mechanical principles. He then proceeds to a critique of Newton's concept of 'absolute' space and time, reflecting Mach's rejection of theoretical concepts in the absence of definitive evidence. Although historically controversial, Mach's ideas and attitudes informed philosophers as influential as Russell and Wittgenstein, and his insistence upon a 'relative' idea of space and time provided much of the philosophical basis for Einstein's theory of general relativity decades later.
By the end of the eighteenth century, British mathematics had been stuck in a rut for a hundred years. Calculus was still taught in the style of Newton, with no recognition of the great advances made in continental Europe. The examination system at Cambridge even mandated the use of Newtonian notation. As discontented undergraduates, Charles Babbage (1791–1871) and John Herschel (1792–1871) formed the Analytical Society in 1811. The group, including William Whewell and George Peacock, sought to promote the new continental mathematics. Babbage's preface to the present work, first published in 1813, may be considered the movement's manifesto. He provided the first paper here, and Herschel the two others. Although the group was relatively short-lived, its ideas took root as its erstwhile members rose to prominence. As the society's sole publication, this remains a significant text in the history of British mathematics.
The quadratic formula for the solution of quadratic equations was discovered independently by scholars in many ancient cultures and is familiar to everyone. Less well known are formulas for solutions of cubic and quartic equations whose discovery was the high point of 16th century mathematics. Their study forms the heart of this book, as part of the broader theme that a polynomials coefficients can be used to obtain detailed information on its roots. A closing chapter offers glimpses into the theory of higher-degree polynomials, concluding with a proof of the fundamental theorem of algebra. The book also includes historical sections designed to reveal key discoveries in the study of polynomial equations as milestones in intellectual history across cultures. Beyond the Quadratic Formula is designed for self-study, with many results presented as exercises and some supplemented by outlines for solution. The intended audience includes in-service and prospective secondary mathematics teachers, high school students eager to go beyond the standard curriculum, undergraduates who desire an in-depth look at a topic they may have unwittingly skipped over, and the mathematically curious who wish to do some work to unlock the mysteries of this beautiful subject.
The mathematician Charles Babbage (1791–1871) was one of the most original thinkers of the nineteenth century. In this influential 1830 publication, he criticises the continued failure of government to support science and scientists. In addition, he identifies the weaknesses of the then existing scientific societies, saving his most caustic remarks for the Royal Society. Asserting that the societies were operated largely by small groups of amateurs possessing only superficial interest and knowledge of science, Babbage explores the importance of the relationships between science, technology and society. Exposing the absence of a true scientific culture, he states, 'The pursuit of science does not, in England, constitute a distinct profession, as it does in other countries.' These concerns found favour with many, influencing reforms of the Royal Society and leading to the founding of the British Association.
Prior to the advent of computers, no mathematician, physicist or engineer could do without a volume of tables of logarithmic and trigonometric functions. These tables made possible certain calculations which would otherwise be impossible. Unfortunately, carelessness and lazy plagiarism meant that the tables often contained serious errors. Those prepared by Charles Hutton (1737–1823) were notable for their reliability and remained the standard for a century. Hutton had risen, by mathematical ability, hard work and some luck, from humble beginnings to become a professor of mathematics at the Royal Military Academy. His mathematical work was distinguished by utility rather than originality, but his contributions to the teaching of the subject were substantial. This seventh edition was published in 1858 with additional material by Olinthus Gregory (1774–1841). The preliminary matter will be of interest to any modern-day reader who wishes to know how calculation was done before the electronic computer.
The discovery of infinite products by Wallis and infinite series by Newton marked the beginning of the modern mathematical era. It allowed Newton to solve the problem of finding areas under curves defined by algebraic equations, an achievement beyond the scope of the earlier methods of Torricelli, Fermat and Pascal. While Newton and his contemporaries, including Leibniz and the Bernoullis, concentrated on mathematical analysis and physics, Euler's prodigious accomplishments demonstrated that series and products could also address problems in algebra, combinatorics and number theory. In this book, Ranjan Roy describes many facets of the discovery and use of infinite series and products as worked out by their originators, including mathematicians from Asia, Europe and America. The text provides context and motivation for these discoveries, with many detailed proofs, offering a valuable perspective on modern mathematics. Mathematicians, mathematics students, physicists and engineers will all read this book with benefit and enjoyment.
Originally published in 1910, Principia Mathematica led to the development of mathematical logic and computers and thus to information sciences. It became a model for modern analytic philosophy and remains an important work. In the late 1960s the Bertrand Russell Archives at McMaster University in Canada obtained Russell's papers, letters and library. These archives contained the manuscripts for the new Introduction and three Appendices that Russell added to the second edition in 1925. Also included was another manuscript, 'The Hierarchy of Propositions and Functions', which was divided up and re-used to create the final changes for the second edition. These documents provide fascinating insight, including Russell's attempts to work out the theorems in the flawed Appendix B, 'On Induction'. An extensive introduction describes the stages of the manuscript material on the way to print and analyzes the proposed changes in the context of the development of symbolic logic after 1910.
The aim of this book is to explain the shape of Greek mathematical thinking. It can be read on three levels: as a description of the practices of Greek mathematics; as a theory of the emergence of the deductive method; and as a case-study for a general view on the history of science. The starting point for the enquiry is geometry and the lettered diagram. Reviel Netz exploits the mathematicians' practices in the construction and lettering of their diagrams, and the continuing interaction between text and diagram in their proofs, to illuminate the underlying cognitive processes. A close examination of the mathematical use of language follows, especially mathematicians' use of repeated formulae. Two crucial chapters set out to show how mathematical proofs are structured and explain why Greek mathematical practice manages to be so satisfactory. A final chapter looks into the broader historical setting of Greek mathematical practice.