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Written by experts in their respective fields, this collection of pedagogic surveys provides detailed insight and background into five separate areas at the forefront of modern research in orthogonal polynomials and special functions at a level suited to graduate students. A broad range of topics are introduced including exceptional orthogonal polynomials, q-series, applications of spectral theory to special functions, elliptic hypergeometric functions, and combinatorics of orthogonal polynomials. Exercises, examples and some open problems are provided. The volume is derived from lectures presented at the OPSF-S6 Summer School at the University of Maryland, and has been carefully edited to provide a coherent and consistent entry point for graduate students and newcomers.
Matrix positivity is a central topic in matrix theory: properties that generalize the notion of positivity to matrices arose from a large variety of applications, and many have also taken on notable theoretical significance, either because they are natural or unifying. This is the first book to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date reference of important material on matrix positivity classes, their properties, and their relations. The matrix classes emphasized in this book include the classes of semipositive matrices, P-matrices, inverse M-matrices, and copositive matrices. This self-contained reference will be useful to a large variety of mathematical, engineering and social scientists and graduate students. The generalizations of positivity and the connections observed provide a unique perspective, along with theoretical insight into applications and future challenges. Direct applications can be found in data analysis, differential equations, mathematical programming, computational complexity, models of the economy, population biology, dynamical systems and control theory.
The theory of unitary group representations began with finite groups, and blossomed in the twentieth century both as a natural abstraction of classical harmonic analysis, and as a tool for understanding various physical phenomena. Combining basic theory and new results, this monograph is a fresh and self-contained exposition of group representations and harmonic analysis on solvable Lie groups. Covering a range of topics from stratification methods for linear solvable actions in a finite-dimensional vector space, to complete proofs of essential elements of Mackey theory and a unified development of the main features of the orbit method for solvable Lie groups, the authors provide both well-known and new examples, with a focus on those relevant to contemporary applications. Clear explanations of the basic theory make this an invaluable reference guide for graduate students as well as researchers.
The goal of this monograph is to develop Hopf theory in a new setting which features centrally a real hyperplane arrangement. The new theory is parallel to the classical theory of connected Hopf algebras, and relates to it when specialized to the braid arrangement. Joyal's theory of combinatorial species, ideas from Tits' theory of buildings, and Rota's work on incidence algebras inspire and find a common expression in this theory. The authors introduce notions of monoid, comonoid, bimonoid, and Lie monoid relative to a fixed hyperplane arrangement. They also construct universal bimonoids by using generalizations of the classical notions of shuffle and quasishuffle, and establish the Borel–Hopf, Poincaré–Birkhoff–Witt, and Cartier–Milnor–Moore theorems in this setting. This monograph opens a vast new area of research. It will be of interest to students and researchers working in the areas of hyperplane arrangements, semigroup theory, Hopf algebras, algebraic Lie theory, operads, and category theory.
Through the fundamental work of Deligne and Lusztig in the 1970s, further developed mainly by Lusztig, the character theory of reductive groups over finite fields has grown into a rich and vast area of mathematics. It incorporates tools and methods from algebraic geometry, topology, combinatorics and computer algebra, and has since evolved substantially. With this book, the authors meet the need for a contemporary treatment, complementing in core areas the well-established books of Carter and Digne–Michel. Focusing on applications in finite group theory, the authors gather previously scattered results and allow the reader to get to grips with the large body of literature available on the subject, covering topics such as regular embeddings, the Jordan decomposition of characters, d-Harish–Chandra theory and Lusztig induction for unipotent characters. Requiring only a modest background in algebraic geometry, this useful reference is suitable for beginning graduate students as well as researchers.
On its original publication, this book provided the first elementary treatment of representation theory of finite groups of Lie type in book form. This second edition features new material to reflect the continuous evolution of the subject, including entirely new chapters on Hecke algebras, Green functions and Lusztig families. The authors cover the basic theory of representations of finite groups of Lie type, such as linear, unitary, orthogonal and symplectic groups. They emphasise the Curtis–Alvis duality map and Mackey's theorem and the results that can be deduced from it, before moving on to a discussion of Deligne–Lusztig induction and Lusztig's Jordan decomposition theorem for characters. The book contains the background information needed to make it a useful resource for beginning graduate students in algebra as well as seasoned researchers. It includes exercises and explicit examples.
There have been remarkably few systematic expositions of the theory of derived categories since its inception in the work of Grothendieck and Verdier in the 1960s. This book is the first in-depth treatment of this important component of homological algebra. It carefully explains the foundations in detail before moving on to key applications in commutative and noncommutative algebra, many otherwise unavailable outside of research articles. These include commutative and noncommutative dualizing complexes, perfect DG modules, and tilting DG bimodules. Written with graduate students in mind, the emphasis here is on explicit constructions (with many examples and exercises) as opposed to axiomatics, with the goal of demystifying this difficult subject. Beyond serving as a thorough introduction for students, it will serve as an important reference for researchers in algebra, geometry and mathematical physics.
Since the notion was introduced by Gromov in the 1980s, hyperbolicity of groups and spaces has played a significant role in geometric group theory; hyperbolic groups have good geometric properties that allow us to prove strong results. However, many classes of interest in our exploration of the universe of finitely generated groups contain examples that are not hyperbolic. Thus we wish to go 'beyond hyperbolicity' to find good generalisations that nevertheless permit similarly strong results. This book is the ideal resource for researchers wishing to contribute to this rich and active field. The first two parts are devoted to mini-courses and expository articles on coarse median spaces, semihyperbolicity, acylindrical hyperbolicity, Morse boundaries, and hierarchical hyperbolicity. These serve as an introduction for students and a reference for experts. The topics of the surveys (and more) re-appear in the research articles that make up Part III, presenting the latest results beyond hyperbolicity.
Written in lucid language, this valuable text discusses fundamental concepts of von Neumann algebras including bounded linear operators in Hilbert spaces, finite von Neumann algebras, linear forms on algebra of operators, geometry of projections and classification of von Neumann algebras in an easy to understand manner. The revised text covers new material including the first two examples of factors of type II^1, an example of factor of type III and theorems for von Neumann algebras with a cyclic and separating vector. Pedagogical features including solved problems and exercises are interspersed throughout the book.
Every four years leading researchers gather to survey the latest developments in all aspects of group theory. Initially held in St Andrews, these meetings have become the premier forum for group theory across the whole of the UK. Since 1981, the proceedings of 'Groups St Andrews' have provided a regular snapshot of the state-of-the-art in group theory and helped to shape the direction of research in the field. This volume contains papers from the 2017 meeting held in Birmingham. It includes expository articles from the invited speakers, and further surveys contributed by the participants. Topics include: generation of finite simple groups, block theory, fusion systems, algebraic groups, one-relator groups, geometric group theory, and Beauville groups.
This is the first book to be dedicated entirely to Drinfeld's quasi-Hopf algebras. Ideal for graduate students and researchers in mathematics and mathematical physics, this treatment is largely self-contained, taking the reader from the basics, with complete proofs, to much more advanced topics, with almost complete proofs. Many of the proofs are based on general categorical results; the same approach can then be used in the study of other Hopf-type algebras, for example Turaev or Zunino Hopf algebras, Hom-Hopf algebras, Hopfish algebras, and in general any algebra for which the category of representations is monoidal. Newcomers to the subject will appreciate the detailed introduction to (braided) monoidal categories, (co)algebras and the other tools they will need in this area. More advanced readers will benefit from having recent research gathered in one place, with open questions to inspire their own research.
Abstract Algebra with Applications provides a friendly and concise introduction to algebra, with an emphasis on its uses in the modern world. The first part of this book covers groups, after some preliminaries on sets, functions, relations, and induction, and features applications such as public-key cryptography, Sudoku, the finite Fourier transform, and symmetry in chemistry and physics. The second part of this book covers rings and fields, and features applications such as random number generators, error correcting codes, the Google page rank algorithm, communication networks, and elliptic curve cryptography. The book's masterful use of colorful figures and images helps illustrate the applications and concepts in the text. Real-world examples and exercises will help students contextualize the information. Intended for a year-long undergraduate course in algebra for mathematics, engineering, and computer science majors, the only prerequisites are calculus and a bit of courage when asked to do a short proof.
Slenderness is a concept relevant to the fields of algebra, set theory, and topology. This first book on the subject is systematically presented and largely self-contained, making it ideal for researchers and graduate students. The appendix gives an introduction to the necessary set theory, in particular to the (non-)measurable cardinals, to help the reader make smooth progress through the text. A detailed index shows the numerous connections among the topics treated. Every chapter has a historical section to show the original sources for results and the subsequent development of ideas, and is rounded off with numerous exercises. More than 100 open problems and projects are presented, ready to inspire the keen graduate student or researcher. Many of the results are appearing in print for the first time, and many of the older results are presented in a new light.
This graduate textbook offers a self-contained introduction to the concepts and techniques of logarithmic geometry, a key tool for analyzing compactification and degeneration in algebraic geometry and number theory. It features a systematic exposition of the foundations of the field, from the basic results on convex geometry and commutative monoids to the theory of logarithmic schemes and their de Rham and Betti cohomology. The book will be of use to graduate students and researchers working in algebraic, analytic, and arithmetic geometry as well as related fields.
This book offers a self-contained exposition of local class field theory, serving as a second course on Galois theory. It opens with a discussion of several fundamental topics in algebra, such as profinite groups, p-adic fields, semisimple algebras and their modules, and homological algebra with the example of group cohomology. The book culminates with the description of the abelian extensions of local number fields, as well as the celebrated Kronecker–Weber theory, in both the local and global cases. The material will find use across disciplines, including number theory, representation theory, algebraic geometry, and algebraic topology. Written for beginning graduate students and advanced undergraduates, this book can be used in the classroom or for independent study.
This volume collects the proceedings of the conference 'Topological methods in group theory', held at Ohio State University in 2014 in honor of Ross Geoghegan's 70th birthday. It consists of eleven peer-reviewed papers on some of the most recent developments at the interface of topology and geometric group theory. The authors have given particular attention to clear exposition, making this volume especially useful for graduate students and for mathematicians in other areas interested in gaining a taste of this rich and active field. A wide cross-section of topics in geometric group theory and topology are represented, including left-orderable groups, groups deﬁned by automata, connectivity properties and Σ-invariants of groups, amenability and non-amenability problems, and boundaries of certain groups. Also included are topics that are more geometric or topological in nature, such as the geometry of simplices, decomposition complexity of certain groups, and problems in shape theory.
Equivariant homotopy theory started from geometrically motivated questions about symmetries of manifolds. Several important equivariant phenomena occur not just for a particular group, but in a uniform way for all groups. Prominent examples include stable homotopy, K-theory or bordism. Global equivariant homotopy theory studies such uniform phenomena, i.e. universal symmetries encoded by simultaneous and compatible actions of all compact Lie groups. This book introduces graduate students and researchers to global equivariant homotopy theory. The framework is based on the new notion of global equivalences for orthogonal spectra, a much finer notion of equivalence than is traditionally considered. The treatment is largely self-contained and contains many examples, making it suitable as a textbook for an advanced graduate class. At the same time, the book is a comprehensive research monograph with detailed calculations that reveal the intrinsic beauty of global equivariant phenomena.
The Mathieu groups have many fascinating and unusual characteristics and have been studied at length since their discovery. This book provides a unique, geometric perspective on these groups. The amalgam method is explained and used to construct M24, enabling readers to learn the method through its application to a familiar example. The same method is then used to construct, among others, the octad graph, the Witt design and the Golay code. This book also provides a systematic account of 'small groups', and serves as a useful reference for the Mathieu groups. The material is presented in such a way that it guides the reader smoothly and intuitively through the process, leading to a deeper understanding of the topic.
Euclidean and other geometries are distinguished by the transformations that preserve their essential properties. Using linear algebra and transformation groups, this book provides a readable exposition of how these classical geometries are both differentiated and connected. Following Cayley and Klein, the book builds on projective and inversive geometry to construct 'linear' and 'circular' geometries, including classical real metric spaces like Euclidean, hyperbolic, elliptic, and spherical, as well as their unitary counterparts. The first part of the book deals with the foundations and general properties of the various kinds of geometries. The latter part studies discrete-geometric structures and their symmetries in various spaces. Written for graduate students, the book includes numerous exercises and covers both classical results and new research in the field. An understanding of analytic geometry, linear algebra, and elementary group theory is assumed.
This self-contained book introduces readers to discrete harmonic analysis with an emphasis on the Discrete Fourier Transform and the Fast Fourier Transform on finite groups and finite fields, as well as their noncommutative versions. It also features applications to number theory, graph theory, and representation theory of finite groups. Beginning with elementary material on algebra and number theory, the book then delves into advanced topics from the frontiers of current research, including spectral analysis of the DFT, spectral graph theory and expanders, representation theory of finite groups and multiplicity-free triples, Tao's uncertainty principle for cyclic groups, harmonic analysis on GL(2,Fq), and applications of the Heisenberg group to DFT and FFT. With numerous examples, figures, and over 160 exercises to aid understanding, this book will be a valuable reference for graduate students and researchers in mathematics, engineering, and computer science.