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In the middle of the last century, after hearing a talk of Mostow on one of his rigidity theorems, Borel conjectured in a letter to Serre a purely topological version of rigidity for aspherical manifolds (i.e. manifolds with contractible universal covers). The Borel conjecture is now one of the central problems of topology with many implications for manifolds that need not be aspherical. Since then, the theory of rigidity has vastly expanded in both precision and scope. This book rethinks the implications of accepting his heuristic as a source of ideas. Doing so leads to many variants of the original conjecture - some true, some false, and some that remain conjectural. The author explores this collection of ideas, following them where they lead whether into rigidity theory in its differential geometric and representation theoretic forms, or geometric group theory, metric geometry, global analysis, algebraic geometry, K-theory, or controlled topology.
Elementary treatments of Markov chains, especially those devoted to discrete-time and finite state-space theory, leave the impression that everything is smooth and easy to understand. This exposition of the works of Kolmogorov, Feller, Chung, Kato and other mathematical luminaries focuses on time-continuous chains but is not so far from being elementary itself. It reminds us once again that the first impression is false: an infinite, but denumerable state-space is where the fun begins. If you have not heard of Blackwell's example (in which all states are instantaneous), do not understand what the minimal process is, or do not know what happens after explosion, dive right in. But beware lest you are enchanted: 'There are more spells than your commonplace magicians ever dreamed of.'
This is the second of three volumes that form the Encyclopedia of Special Functions, an extensive update of the Bateman Manuscript Project. Volume 2 covers multivariable special functions. When the Bateman project appeared, study of these was in an early stage, but revolutionary developments began to be made in the 1980s and have continued ever since. World-renowned experts survey these over the course of 12 chapters, each containing an extensive bibliography. The reader encounters different perspectives on a wide range of topics, from Dunkl theory, to Macdonald theory, to the various deep generalizations of classical hypergeometric functions to the several variables case, including the elliptic level. Particular attention is paid to the close relation of the subject with Lie theory, geometry, mathematical physics and combinatorics.
Written by experts in their respective fields, this collection of pedagogic surveys provides detailed insight and background into five separate areas at the forefront of modern research in orthogonal polynomials and special functions at a level suited to graduate students. A broad range of topics are introduced including exceptional orthogonal polynomials, q-series, applications of spectral theory to special functions, elliptic hypergeometric functions, and combinatorics of orthogonal polynomials. Exercises, examples and some open problems are provided. The volume is derived from lectures presented at the OPSF-S6 Summer School at the University of Maryland, and has been carefully edited to provide a coherent and consistent entry point for graduate students and newcomers.
Matrix positivity is a central topic in matrix theory: properties that generalize the notion of positivity to matrices arose from a large variety of applications, and many have also taken on notable theoretical significance, either because they are natural or unifying. This is the first book to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date reference of important material on matrix positivity classes, their properties, and their relations. The matrix classes emphasized in this book include the classes of semipositive matrices, P-matrices, inverse M-matrices, and copositive matrices. This self-contained reference will be useful to a large variety of mathematical, engineering and social scientists and graduate students. The generalizations of positivity and the connections observed provide a unique perspective, along with theoretical insight into applications and future challenges. Direct applications can be found in data analysis, differential equations, mathematical programming, computational complexity, models of the economy, population biology, dynamical systems and control theory.
This book provides a complete and reasonably self-contained account of a new classification of connected Lie groups into two classes. The first part describes the use of tools from potential theory to establish the classification and to show that the analytic and algebraic approaches to the classification are equivalent. Part II covers geometric theory of the same classification and a proof that it is equivalent to the algebraic approach. Part III is a new approach to the geometric classification that requires more advanced geometric technology, namely homotopy, homology and the theory of currents. Using these methods, a more direct, but also more sophisticated, approach to the equivalence of the geometric and algebraic classification is made. Background material is introduced gradually to familiarise readers with ideas from areas such as Lie groups, differential topology and probability, in particular, random walks on groups. Numerous open problems inspire students to explore further.
This is the first of three volumes that form the Encyclopedia of Special Functions, an extensive update of the Bateman Manuscript Project. Volume 1 contains most of the material on orthogonal polynomials, from the classical orthogonal polynomials of Hermite, Laguerre and Jacobi to the Askey–Wilson polynomials, which are the most general basic hypergeometric orthogonal polynomials. Separate chapters cover orthogonal polynomials on the unit circle and matrix orthogonal polynomials, with detailed results about matrix-valued Jacobi polynomials. A final chapter on moment problems provides many examples of indeterminate moment problems. A thorough bibliography rounds off what will be an essential reference.
The interplay of geometry, spectral theory and stochastics has a long and fruitful history, and is the driving force behind many developments in modern mathematics. Bringing together contributions from a 2017 conference at the University of Potsdam, this volume focuses on global effects of local properties. Exploring the similarities and differences between the discrete and the continuous settings is of great interest to both researchers and graduate students in geometric analysis. The range of survey articles presented in this volume give an expository overview of various topics, including curvature, the effects of geometry on the spectrum, geometric group theory, and spectral theory of Laplacian and Schrödinger operators. Also included are shorter articles focusing on specific techniques and problems, allowing the reader to get to the heart of several key topics.
The Bellman function, a powerful tool originating in control theory, can be used successfully in a large class of difficult harmonic analysis problems and has produced some notable results over the last thirty years. This book by two leading experts is the first devoted to the Bellman function method and its applications to various topics in probability and harmonic analysis. Beginning with basic concepts, the theory is introduced step-by-step starting with many examples of gradually increasing sophistication, culminating with Calderón–Zygmund operators and end-point estimates. All necessary techniques are explained in generality, making this book accessible to readers without specialized training in non-linear PDEs or stochastic optimal control. Graduate students and researchers in harmonic analysis, PDEs, functional analysis, and probability will find this to be an incisive reference, and can use it as the basis of a graduate course.
Index theory studies the solutions to differential equations on geometric spaces, their relation to the underlying geometry and topology, and applications to physics. If the space of solutions is infinite dimensional, it becomes necessary to generalise the classical Fredholm index using tools from the K-theory of operator algebras. This leads to higher index theory, a rapidly developing subject with connections to noncommutative geometry, large-scale geometry, manifold topology and geometry, and operator algebras. Aimed at geometers, topologists and operator algebraists, this book takes a friendly and concrete approach to this exciting theory, focusing on the main conjectures in the area and their applications outside of it. A well-balanced combination of detailed introductory material (with exercises), cutting-edge developments and references to the wider literature make this a valuable guide to this active area for graduate students and experts alike.
This accessible text covers key results in functional analysis that are essential for further study in the calculus of variations, analysis, dynamical systems, and the theory of partial differential equations. The treatment of Hilbert spaces covers the topics required to prove the Hilbert–Schmidt theorem, including orthonormal bases, the Riesz representation theorem, and the basics of spectral theory. The material on Banach spaces and their duals includes the Hahn–Banach theorem, the Krein–Milman theorem, and results based on the Baire category theorem, before culminating in a proof of sequential weak compactness in reflexive spaces. Arguments are presented in detail, and more than 200 fully-worked exercises are included to provide practice applying techniques and ideas beyond the major theorems. Familiarity with the basic theory of vector spaces and point-set topology is assumed, but knowledge of measure theory is not required, making this book ideal for upper undergraduate-level and beginning graduate-level courses.
This book shows how operator theory interacts with function theory in one and several variables. The authors develop the theory in detail, leading the reader to the cutting edge of contemporary research. It starts with a treatment of the theory of bounded holomorphic functions on the unit disc. Model theory and the network realization formula are used to solve Nevanlinna-Pick interpolation problems, and the same techniques are shown to work on the bidisc, the symmetrized bidisc, and other domains. The techniques are powerful enough to prove the Julia-Carathéodory theorem on the bidisc, Lempert's theorem on invariant metrics in convex domains, the Oka extension theorem, and to generalize Loewner's matrix monotonicity results to several variables. In Part II, the book gives an introduction to non-commutative function theory, and shows how model theory and the network realization formula can be used to understand functions of non-commuting matrices.
Based on the author's university lecture courses, this book presents the many facets of one of the most important open problems in operator algebra theory. Central to this book is the proof of the equivalence of the various forms of the problem, including forms involving C*-algebra tensor products and free groups, ultraproducts of von Neumann algebras, and quantum information theory. The reader is guided through a number of results (some of them previously unpublished) revolving around tensor products of C*-algebras and operator spaces, which are reminiscent of Grothendieck's famous Banach space theory work. The detailed style of the book and the inclusion of background information make it easily accessible for beginning researchers, Ph.D. students, and non-specialists alike.
Wigner's theorem is a fundamental part of the mathematical formulation of quantum mechanics. The theorem characterizes unitary and anti-unitary operators as symmetries of quantum mechanical systems, and is a key result when relating preserver problems to quantum mechanics. At the heart of this book is a geometric approach to Wigner-type theorems, unifying both classical and more recent results. Readers are initiated in a wide range of topics from geometric transformations of Grassmannians to lattices of closed subspaces, before moving on to a discussion of applications. An introduction to all the key aspects of the basic theory is included as are plenty of examples, making this book a useful resource for beginning graduate students and non-experts, as well as a helpful reference for specialist researchers.
The last fifteen years have seen a flurry of exciting developments in Fourier restriction theory, leading to significant new applications in diverse fields. This timely text brings the reader from the classical results to state-of-the-art advances in multilinear restriction theory, the Bourgain–Guth induction on scales and the polynomial method. Also discussed in the second part are decoupling for curved manifolds and a wide variety of applications in geometric analysis, PDEs (Strichartz estimates on tori, local smoothing for the wave equation) and number theory (exponential sum estimates and the proof of the Main Conjecture for Vinogradov's Mean Value Theorem). More than 100 exercises in the text help reinforce these important but often difficult ideas, making it suitable for graduate students as well as specialists. Written by an author at the forefront of the modern theory, this book will be of interest to everybody working in harmonic analysis.
The theory of Toeplitz matrices and operators is a vital part of modern analysis, with applications to moment problems, orthogonal polynomials, approximation theory, integral equations, bounded- and vanishing-mean oscillations, and asymptotic methods for large structured determinants, among others. This friendly introduction to Toeplitz theory covers the classical spectral theory of Toeplitz forms and Wiener–Hopf integral operators and their manifestations throughout modern functional analysis. Numerous solved exercises illustrate the results of the main text and introduce subsidiary topics, including recent developments. Each chapter ends with a survey of the present state of the theory, making this a valuable work for the beginning graduate student and established researcher alike. With biographies of the principal creators of the theory and historical context also woven into the text, this book is a complete source on Toeplitz theory.
Approximate groups have shot to prominence in recent years, driven both by rapid progress in the field itself and by a varied and expanding range of applications. This text collects, for the first time in book form, the main concepts and techniques into a single, self-contained introduction. The author presents a number of recent developments in the field, including an exposition of his recent result classifying nilpotent approximate groups. The book also features a considerable amount of previously unpublished material, as well as numerous exercises and motivating examples. It closes with a substantial chapter on applications, including an exposition of Breuillard, Green and Tao's celebrated approximate-group proof of Gromov's theorem on groups of polynomial growth. Written by an author who is at the forefront of both researching and teaching this topic, this text will be useful to advanced students and to researchers working in approximate groups and related areas.
Over 100 years ago Harald Bohr identified a deep problem about the convergence of Dirichlet series, and introduced an ingenious idea relating Dirichlet series and holomorphic functions in high dimensions. Elaborating on this work, almost twnety years later Bohnenblust and Hille solved the problem posed by Bohr. In recent years there has been a substantial revival of interest in the research area opened up by these early contributions. This involves the intertwining of the classical work with modern functional analysis, harmonic analysis, infinite dimensional holomorphy and probability theory as well as analytic number theory. New challenging research problems have crystallized and been solved in recent decades. The goal of this book is to describe in detail some of the key elements of this new research area to a wide audience. The approach is based on three pillars: Dirichlet series, infinite dimensional holomorphy and harmonic analysis.