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Firms in emerging markets are becoming leading global players despite operating in challenging home country environments, but little is known about how they build their capabilities. By analyzing multiple companies operating across over a dozen emerging markets in Asia, Latin America, Africa and Europe, the authors identify the specific challenges faced by emerging market firms to become internationally competitive. Furthermore, they provide actionable solutions to upgrading capabilities, sustaining competitive advantage, and achieving multinational status, all whilst operating in emerging economies. Featuring contributions from eminent business scholars from across the globe, this timely volume provides a valuable tool for academics and practitioners, managers and consultants, especially those involved with emerging market firms working to grow and succeed globally.
This is an accessible guide to the vocabulary used in trade negotiations. It explains about 3,000 terms and concepts in simple language. Its main emphasis is on the multilateral trading system represented by the agreements under the World Trade Organization (WTO). In addition it covers many of the trade-related activities, outcomes and terms used in other international organizations, such as the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The last decade has seen considerable attention to trade and investment facilitation as well as a rapid spread in the formation of free-trade areas in all parts of the world. This dictionary allocates generous space to the vocabulary associated with such agreements. Additional areas covered include emerging trade issues and issues based particularly on developing-country concerns.
In recent years, investor-state tribunals have often permitted shareholders' claims for reflective loss despite the well-established principle of no reflective loss applied consistently in domestic regimes and in other fields of international law. Investment tribunals have justified their decisions by relying on definitions of 'investment' in investment agreements that often include 'shares', while the no-reflective-loss principle is generally justified on the basis of policy considerations pertaining to the preservation of the efficiency of the adjudicatory process and to the protection of other stakeholders, such as creditors. Although these policy considerations militating for the prohibition of shareholders' claims for reflective loss also apply in investor-state arbitration, they are curable in that context and must be balanced with policy considerations specific to the field of international investment law that weigh in favor of such claims: the protection of foreign investors in order to promote trade and investment liberalization.
Transparency of trade regulations by all WTO Members is essential for open, fair and predictable trade relations. A myriad of different regulations apply in all WTO Members and have the potential for affecting international trade. The Agreements on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary measures and on Technical Barriers to Trade provide the most comprehensive frameworks in the WTO to address the costs arising from such regulatory diversity, through obligations on regulatory transparency and co-operation. This book gives a detailed account of the legal disciplines of the two Agreements, an in-depth presentation of discussions between WTO Members, and an overview of the few cases that end up in formal dispute settlement. It shows that the strength of the WTO legal and institutional system goes well beyond its dispute settlement system, with transparency enabling implementation of WTO obligations through better information sharing and co-operation among Members themselves, through non-judicial means.
Huawei has become China's most prominent multinational company and a leader in the ICT sector. Given unprecedented access to the company, the authors of this book examine the management transformation of Huawei from its inception in 1987 until 2019, observing in detail not only the creation of its organizational routines but also the breaking of routines across most major functional areas: Management, Product Development, HR, Supply Chain, Finance, R&D, Intellectual Property, and International Business. 'Dynamic capabilities' are central to theories of competitive advantage and this book highlights Huawei as an ideal case study for the successful implementation of change routines and change-supporting values. The chapters cover all the major change initiatives the firm has undertaken since 1996 to import best practices from the West, with the help of consultants. The insights presented in the book will be particularly interesting for academics in the field of strategy, management, and business history.
Innovations are dramatically changing the traditionally conservative global ocean shipping industry as it works to become more efficient and more sustainable. Academic and former shipping company owner Peter Lorange is best placed to make sense of how to approach and keep ahead of these changes. This book explains what the key innovations are, how to ensure a return on investment, the barriers to innovation and how to overcome them. Drawing on a number of specialist case studies, Lorange outlines the specific analytical and decision-making steps to consider and the actions to take to arrive at a new strategic blueprint for modern shipping companies. This book is invaluable for practising shipping company executives, advanced students of shipping, logistics, port management and maritime economics, and investors deciding whether to invest in a particular shipping firm.
How have Chinese multinationals benefited from China's economic boom to enable their international expansion? This book is based on many years of original research tracing the emergence, growth and future of Chinese firms in the world economy. The authors seek to provide new perspectives and insights for business executives and graduate students through a comprehensive study of how China's firms globalize and operate, and the implications of this for economic success. Based on detailed case studies and summative examples of successful Chinese firms, Tse and Hung point out their strengths (e.g. making innovations affordable to many developing nations), their weaknesses (products made in China are not highly regarded) and their mistakes (being insensitive to host economy needs and at times corruptive acts). They argue that the world economy would benefit from engaging with Chinese and other emerging economy firms to learn from the strategies they employ to achieve their global reach.
This book explores the combination of capital's changing composition and labour's subjective agency to examine whether the waning days of the 'sweatshop' have indeed begun. Focused on the garment and footwear sectors, it introduces a universal logic that governs competition and reshapes the chain. By analysing workers' collective action at various sites of production, it observes how this internal logic plays out for labour who are testing the limits of the social order, stretching it until the seams show. By examining the most valorised parts of underdeveloped sectors, one can see where capital is going and how it is getting there. These findings contribute to ongoing efforts to establish workers' rights in sectors plagued by poverty and powerlessness, building fires and collapses. With this change and a capable labour movement, there's hope yet that workers may close the gap.
Preferential Services Liberalization offers the first, comprehensive analysis of the conditions that the World Trade Organization sets for preferential trade agreements (PTAs) in the area of services. Johanna Jacobsson provides an in-depth analysis of the relevant GATS rules, puts forward a practical method to analyze services PTAs, and applies the method to services agreements concluded by the EU. The result is a detailed examination of the legal criteria for services PTAs and methods to study them, combined with a better understanding of the level of liberalization reached by the EU and its member states. This book does go beyond the EU in analyzing the implications that multi-level governance has for international services liberalization. It proposes a new approach to study services commitments of any federal state and argues that lower levels of government should receive more attention in international negotiations over services trade.
In today's competitive global economy, most managers are - or will be - global managers. They may work in their home country, but are influenced by global events and have to manage diverse workforces. As such, they need multicultural competence and global management skills to work successfully across cultures. This new edition pairs a richly illustrated text with management applications, key concepts, discussion questions, web-based cases and skill-building exercises aimed at current and aspiring managers. Each chapter is accompanied by a Manager's Notebook highlighting field strategies and encouraging students to develop multicultural competence that will be highly valued by future employers. Exploring the challenges and opportunities facing global managers, readers can examine cultural, organizational, and managerial environments before developing a range of skills from communication and leadership to negotiation and global team management. Suitable for students taking courses in international management, cross-cultural management or international HRM at advanced undergraduate, Masters and MBA levels.
Through a collaboration among twenty legal scholars from eleven countries in North America, Europe and Asia, Patent Remedies and Complex Products presents an international consensus on the use of patent remedies for complex products such as smartphones, computer networks and the Internet of Things. It covers the application of both monetary remedies like reasonable royalties, lost profits, and enhanced damages, as well as injunctive relief. Readers will also learn about the effect of competition laws and agreements to license standards-essential patents on terms that are 'fair, reasonable and non-discriminatory' (FRAND) on patent remedies. Where national values and policy make consensus difficult, contributors discuss the nature and direction of further research required to resolve disagreements. This title is also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core.
Drawing on twenty years of research and observations, Li explains how bribery and corruption are carried out in countries with weak institutional environments, and how these activities become globalized. By distinguishing rule-based, relation-based and clan-based governance, this book offers a novel explanation to the age-old puzzle of why some countries thrive despite corruption. It also sheds lights on the symbiotic roles corruption and anticorruption campaigns play in maintaining dictatorships. Applying cost-benefit analysis to different governance environments, Li argues that as non-rule-based economies expand, the transition from relying on private relationships to relying on public rules is inevitable. However, by highlighting the globalization of corruption by non-rule-based countries, this book warns against the potential threats and consequences of bribery by powerful dictatorial governments. This book will appeal to scholars, analysts and graduate students studying corruption, as well as policymakers, business professionals and executives seeking insights into the characteristics of bribery and corruption within different institutional settings.
This book focuses on the changing gender patterns of work in a global retail environment associated with the rise of contemporary retail and global sourcing. This has affected the working lives of hundreds of millions of workers in high-, middle- and low-income countries. The growth of contemporary retail has been driven by the commercialised production of many goods previously produced unpaid by women within the home. Sourcing is now largely undertaken through global value chains in low- or middle-income economies, using a 'cheap' feminised labour force to produce low-price goods. As women have been drawn into the labour force, households are increasingly dependent on the purchase of food and consumer goods, blurring the boundaries between paid and unpaid work. This book examines how gendered patterns of work have changed and explores the extent to which global retail opens up new channels to leverage more gender-equitable gains in sourcing countries.
In his previous Schumpeter Prize-winning work, Lee analysed the 'middle-income trap', in which a developing country grows strongly only to plateau at a certain point. Yet certain developing countries, most significantly China, have managed to escape this trap. Building on the conception of the ladder from developing to developed countries being kicked way, this book suggests alternative ways, such as 'leapfrogging', in which latecomers can catch up with their forerunners. Providing policy solutions for development challenges in non-technical terms, Lee frames his theories with insightful and inventive allegories. In doing so, Lee also accounts for the catch-up paradox, in which one cannot conclusively catch-up if they are continually trying to follow the path of those ahead. He argues that eventual catch-up and overtaking require pursuing a path that differs from that taken by forerunners. This highly original and accessible book will appeal to students, scholars, practitioners, and anyone interested in economic development and innovation.
The increasing dominance of the Asia–Pacific region as a source of international business growth has created a dynamic and complex business environment. For this reason, a sound understanding of regional economies, communities and operational challenges is critical for any international business manager working in a global context. With an emphasis on 'doing business in Asia', Contemporary International Business in the Asia–Pacific Region addresses topics that are driving international business today. Providing content and research that is accessible to local and international students, this text introduces core business concepts and comprehensively covers a range of key areas, including trade and economic development, dimensions of culture, business planning and strategy development, research and marketing, and employee development in cross-cultural contexts. Written by authors with industry experience and academic expertise, Contemporary International Business in the Asia–Pacific Region is an essential resource for students of business and management.
Now in its eighth edition, this is the textbook for current and future global leaders wanting to lead competently and sustainably in their business practices. Fully updated, the authors build on their forty years of teaching, researching and working with managers worldwide to bring students the latest developments in global business practice. Now including end-of-chapter reflection questions to guide topic comprehension, and directed further resources to assist individual research, this edition also sees the return of Ivey Business School and IMD cases in the book. This edition also includes a new conception of mindful global leadership as the integrating framework for execution of global strategy, highlighting the importance of a holistic approach to working across cultures and distance. Combining a wealth of theoretical knowledge with real-world examples from diverse cultures, countries and industry sectors, the practical guidance and well-chosen examples throughout the book bring key concepts to life.