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Master the design and operation of perfusion cell cultures with this authoritative reference. Discover the current state-of-the-art in the design and operation of continuous bioreactors, with emphasis on mammalian cell cultures for producing therapeutic proteins. Topics include the current market for recombinant therapeutic proteins, current industry challenges and the potential contribution of continuous manufacturing. Provides coverage of every step of process development and reactor operation, including small scale screening to lab-scale and scale-up to manufacturing scale. Illustrated through real-life case studies, this is a perfect resource for groups active in the cell culture field, as well as graduate students in areas such as chemical engineering, biotechnology, chemistry and biology, and to those in the pharmaceutical industry, particularly biopharma, biotechnology and food or agro industry.
This innovative reference provides a coherent and critical view on the potential benefits of a transition from batch to continuous processes in the biopharmaceutical industry, with the main focus on chromatography. It also covers the key topics of protein stability and protein conjugation, addressing the chemical reaction and purification aspects together with their integration. This book offers a fine balance between theoretical modelling and illustrative case studies, between fundamental concepts and applied examples from the academic and industrial literature. Scientists interested in the design of biopharmaceutical processes will find useful practical methodologies, in particular for single-column and multi-column chromatographic processes.
Bringing this best-selling textbook right up to date, the new edition uniquely integrates the theories and methods that drive the fields of biology, biotechnology and medicine, comprehensively covering both the techniques students will encounter in lab classes and those that underpin current key advances and discoveries. The contents have been updated to include both traditional and cutting-edge techniques most commonly used in current life science research. Emphasis is placed on understanding the theory behind the techniques, as well as analysis of the resulting data. New chapters cover proteomics, genomics, metabolomics, and bioinformatics, as well as data analysis and visualisation. Using accessible language to describe concepts and methods, and with a wealth of new in-text worked examples to challenge students' understanding, this textbook provides an essential guide to the key techniques used in current bioscience research.
Recent years have witnessed an increasing number of theoretical and experimental contributions to cancer research from different fields of physics, from biomechanics and soft-condensed matter physics to the statistical mechanics of complex systems. Reviewing these contributions and providing a sophisticated overview of the topic, this is the first book devoted to the emerging interdisciplinary field of cancer physics. Systematically integrating approaches from physics and biology, it includes topics such as cancer initiation and progression, metastasis, angiogenesis, cancer stem cells, tumor immunology, cancer cell mechanics and migration. Biological hallmarks of cancer are presented in an intuitive yet comprehensive way, providing graduate-level students and researchers in physics with a thorough introduction to this important subject. The impact of the physical mechanisms of cancer are explained through analytical and computational models, making this an essential reference for cancer biologists interested in cutting-edge quantitative tools and approaches coming from physics.
The atomic structures of macromolecules provide the key to understanding how life works. Aaron Klug led the way in the development of methods for solving such structures and is one of the pioneers of structural molecular biology. He was awarded a Nobel Prize in 1982 for his work. Illuminating both his personal life and scientific achievements, this unique biography begins with Klug's youth in Durban and his studies at Johannesburg, Cape Town and then Trinity College, Cambridge. Holmes proceeds to explore Klug's career from his work on the structure of viruses with Rosalind Franklin at Birkbeck College, London to his time as Director of the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology (LMB) in Cambridge and as President of the Royal Society. Drawing on their long-term collaboration, interviews and unique access to Klug's archives, Holmes provides a fascinating account of an innovative man and his place in the history of structural molecular biology.
Considered 'the father of genomics', Fred Sanger (1918–2013) paved the way for the modern revolution in our understanding of biology. His pioneering methods for sequencing proteins, RNA and, eventually, DNA earned him two Nobel Prizes. He remains one of only four scientists (and the only British scientist) ever to have achieved that distinction. In this, the first full biography of Fred Sanger to be published, Brownlee traces Sanger's life from his birth in rural Gloucestershire to his retirement in 1983 from the Medical Research Council's Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge. Along the way, he highlights the remarkable extent of Sanger's scientific achievements and provides a real portrait of the modest man behind them. Including an extensive transcript of a rare interview of Sanger by the author, this biography also considers the wider legacy of Sanger's work, including his impact on the Human Genome Project and beyond.
Delivering fundamental insights into the most popular methods of molecular analysis, this text is an invaluable resource for students and researchers. It encompasses an extensive range of spectroscopic and spectrometric techniques used for molecular analysis in the life sciences, especially in the elucidation of the structure and function of biological molecules. Covering the range of up-to-date methodologies from everyday mass spectrometry and centrifugation to the more probing X-ray crystallography and surface-sensitive techniques, the book is intended for undergraduates starting out in the laboratory and for more advanced postgraduates pursuing complex research goals. The comprehensive text provides strong emphasis on the background principles of each method, including equations where they are of integral importance to the individual techniques. With sections on all the major procedures for analysing biological molecules, this book will serve as a useful guide across a range of fields, from new drug discovery to forensics and environmental studies.
Over the last decade, molecular studies carried out on the Australasian biota have revealed a new world of organic structure that exists from submicroscopic to continental scale. Furthermore, in studies of global biogeography and evolution, DNA sequencing has shown that many large groups, such as flowering plants, passerine birds and squamates, have their basal components in this area. Using examples ranging from kangaroos and platypuses to kiwis and birds of paradise, the book examines the patterns of distribution and evolution of Australasian biodiversity and explains them with reference to tectonic and climatic change in the region. The surprising results from molecular biogeography demonstrate that an understanding of evolution in Australasia is essential for understanding the development of modern life on Earth. A milestone in the literature on this subject, this book will be a valuable source of reference for students and researchers in biogeography, biodiversity, ecology and conservation.
First published in 1961, as the third edition of a 1946 original, this book presents a comprehensive analysis of trace elements in plants, and the effects of their deficiency or excess on grazing animals where such effects arise directly from shortage or excess in the plants they eat. Illustrative figures and a comprehensive bibliography are also included. This book will be of value to anyone with an interest in trace elements and the historical development of biochemistry.
The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a valuable and common model for researchers working in the fields of genetics, oncology and developmental sciences. This full-color atlas will aid experimental design and interpretation in these areas by providing a fundamental understanding of zebrafish anatomy. Over 150 photomicrographs are included and can be used for direct comparison with histological slides, allowing quick and accurate identification of the anatomic structures of interest. Hematoxylin and eosin stained longitudinal and transverse sections demonstrate gross anatomic relationships and illustrate the microscopic anatomy of major organs. Unlike much of the current literature, this book is focused exclusively on the zebrafish, eliminating the need for researchers to exclude structures that are only found in other fish.
This concise overview of the fundamental concepts of cancer biology is ideal for those with little or no background in the field. A summary of global cancer patterns introduces students to the general principles of how cancers arise and the risk factors involved. By focusing on fundamental examples of the signalling pathways within cells, the functional effects of DNA damage are explained. Later chapters then build on this foundation to provide a comprehensive summary of the major signalling pathways that affect tumour development. Current therapeutic strategies are reviewed, along with a discussion of methods for tumour detection and biomarker identification. Finally, the impact of whole genome sequencing is discussed, bringing students up to date with key recent developments in the field. From basic principles to insights into cutting-edge research, this book will enable the reader to move into the cancer field with confidence.
Motivating students to engage with physical chemistry through biological examples, this textbook demonstrates how the tools of physical chemistry can be used to illuminate biological questions. It clearly explains key principles and their relevance to life science students, using only the most straightforward and relevant mathematical tools. More than 350 exercises are spread throughout the chapters, covering a wide range of biological applications and explaining issues that students often find challenging. These, along with problems at the end of each chapter and end-of-term review questions, encourage active and continuous study. Over 130 worked examples, many deriving directly from life sciences, help students connect principles and theories to their own laboratory studies. Connections between experimental measurements and key theoretical quantities are frequently highlighted and reinforced. Answers to the exercises are included in the book. Fully worked solutions and answers to the review problems, password-protected for instructors, are available at www.cambridge.org/roussel.
Advances in chemistry, biology and genomics coupled with laboratory automation and computational technologies have led to the rapid emergence of the multidisciplinary field of chemical genomics. This edited text, with contributions from experts in the field, discusses the new techniques and applications that help further the study of chemical genomics. The beginning chapters provide an overview of the basic principles of chemical biology and chemical genomics. This is followed by a technical section that describes the sources of small-molecule chemicals; the basics of high-throughput screening technologies; and various bioassays for biochemical-, cellular- and organism-based screens. The final chapters connect the chemical genomics field with personalized medicine and the druggable genome for future discovery of new therapeutics. This book will be valuable to researchers, professionals and graduate students in many fields, including biology, biomedicine and chemistry.
The concept of molecular machines in biology has transformed the medical field in a profound way. Many essential processes that occur in the cell, including transcription, translation, protein folding and protein degradation, are all carried out by molecular machines. This volume focuses on important molecular machines whose architecture is known and whose functional principles have been established by tools of biophysical imaging (X-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy) and fluorescence probing (single-molecule FRET). This edited volume includes contributions from prominent scientists and researchers who understand and have explored the structure and functions of these machines. This book is essential for students and professionals in the medical field who want to learn more about molecular machines.
Apoptosis, or cell death, can be pathological, a sign of disease and damage, or physiological, a process essential for normal health. This book, with contributions from experts in the field, provides a timely compilation of reviews of mechanisms of apoptosis. The book is organized into three convenient sections. The first section explores the different processes of cell death and how they relate to one another. The second section focuses on organ-specific apoptosis-related diseases. The third section explores cell death in non-mammalian organisms, such as plants. This comprehensive text is a must-read for all researchers and scholars interested in apoptosis.
Provides a comprehensive overview of recent discoveries and current understandings of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Recent advances include the first mammalian non-rhodopsin GPCR structures and reconstitution of purified GPCRs into membrane discs for defined studies, novel signaling features including oligomerization, and advances in understanding the complex ligand pharmacology and physiology of GPCRs, in new assay technologies and drug targeting. The authors take time to detail the importance of the pathophysiological function and drug targeting of GPCRs, specifically β-adrenoceptors in cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, metabotropic glutamate receptors in CNS disorders, S1P receptors in the immune system, and Wnt/Frizzled receptors in osteoporosis. This book will be invaluable to researchers and graduate students in academia and industry who are interested in the GPCR field.
Structure-based (SBDD) and ligand-based (LBDD) drug design are extremely important and active areas of research in both the academic and commercial realms. This book provides a complete snapshot of the field of computer-aided drug design and associated experimental approaches. Topics covered include X-ray crystallography, NMR, fragment-based drug design, free energy methods, docking and scoring, linear-scaling quantum calculations, QSAR, pharmacophore methods, computational ADME-Tox, and drug discovery case studies. A variety of authors from academic and commercial institutions all over the world have contributed to this book, which is illustrated with more than 200 images. This is the only book to cover the subject of structure and ligand-based drug design, and it provides the most up-to-date information on a wide range of topics for the practising computational chemist, medicinal chemist, or structural biologist. Professor Kenneth Merz has been selected as the recipient of the 2010 ACS Award for Computers in Chemical & Pharmaceutical Research that recognizes the advances he has made in the use of quantum mechanics to solve biological and drug discovery problems.
Reporter genes have been used for several decades to study regulation of gene expression in vivo. However, it was little more than a decade ago that a new class of reporter genes was developed for imaging molecular events within living subjects. By following the interactions of protein molecules, researchers can resolve the complex chemical pathways that living cells utilise. This book focuses on this group of imaging reporter genes, starting with detailed descriptions of all reporter genes from different imaging modalities, including optical, MRI, and radionuclide-based imaging. Key scientists in the field explain how to enhance reporter gene imaging utility through instrumentation and the various applications of this technology. This is the first comprehensive book on all aspects of reporter gene imaging, detailing what is known in the field and future goals for research. Investigators in biomedical sciences, physicians, and the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries will benefit from topics covered.
The science of complex biological networks is transforming research in areas ranging from evolutionary biology to medicine. This is the first book on the subject, providing a comprehensive introduction to complex network science and its biological applications. With contributions from key leaders in both network theory and modern cell biology, this book discusses the network science that is increasingly foundational for systems biology and the quantitative understanding of living systems. It surveys studies in the quantitative structure and dynamics of genetic regulatory networks, molecular networks underlying cellular metabolism, and other fundamental biological processes. The book balances empirical studies and theory to give a unified overview of this interdisciplinary science. It is a key introductory text for graduate students and researchers in physics, biology and biochemistry, and presents ideas and techniques from fields outside the reader's own area of specialization.
The acute inflammatory response is the body's first system of alarm signals that are directed toward containment and elimination of microbial invaders. Uncontrolled inflammation has emerged as a pathophysiologic basis for many widely occurring diseases in the general population that were not initially known to be linked to the inflammatory response, including cardiovascular disease, asthma, arthritis, and cancer. To better manage treatment, diagnosis, and prevention of these wide-ranging diseases, multidisciplinary research efforts are underway in both academic and industry settings. This book provides an introduction to the cell types, chemical mediators, and general mechanisms of the host's first response to invasion. World-class experts from institutions around the world have written chapters for this introductory text. The text is presented as an introductory springboard for graduate students, medical scientists, and researchers from other disciplines wishing to gain an appreciation and working knowledge of current cellular and molecular mechanisms fundamental to inflammation.