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For women and other marginalized groups, the reality is that the laws regulating estates and trusts may not be treating them fairly. By using popular feminist legal theories as well as their own definitions of feminism, the authors of this volume present rewritten opinions from well-known estates and trust cases. Covering eleven important cases, this collection reflects the diversity in society and explores the need for greater diversity in the law. By re-examining these cases, the contributors are able to demonstrate how women's property rights, as well as the rights of other marginalized groups, have been limited by the law.
Tax scholars traditionally emphasize economics and assume that all tax systems can be evaluated in more or less the same way. By applying the insights of anthropology, sociology, and other social sciences, Michael A. Livingston demonstrates that tax systems frequently pursue different values and that the convergence of tax systems is frequently overstated. In Tax and Culture, he applies these insights to specific countries, such as China and India, and specific tax issues, including progressivity, tax avoidance, and the emerging area of environmental taxation. Livingston concludes that the concept of a global tax culture is, in many cases, merely a reflection of Western hegemony, and is unlikely to survive the changes implicit in the rise of non-Western nations and cultures.
International Commercial Tax, 2nd edition takes account of the substantial developments of the last decade. With more than sixty percent new material, the book considers the outcomes of the OECD's BEPS project and the substantial consequential 2017 revisions of the OECD and UN Model tax treaties. With the continuing rise in the economic importance of non-OECD countries and the UK distancing itself from the EU, there has been a refocusing with less direct attention on UK domestic law and greater focus on the approaches of other significant countries, especially other common law jurisdictions. This provides greater flexibility as to how a particular point or issue is illustrated with practical examples. Greater attention is given to the UN Model, which is increasingly important. The book continues to compare the approach under model tax treaties with EU law and is updated with copious references and illustrations from the burgeoning jurisprudence of the EU Court.
The United States introduced the earned income tax credit (EITC) in 1975, where it remains the most significant earnings-based refundable credit in the Internal Revenue Code. While the United States was the first country to use its domestic revenue system to deliver and administer social welfare benefits to lower-income individuals or families, a number of other countries, including New Zealand and Canada, have experimented with or incorporated similar credits into their tax systems. In this work, Michelle Lyon Drumbl, drawing on her extensive advocacy experience representing low-income taxpayers in EITC audits, analyzes the effectiveness of the EITC in the United States and offers suggestions for how it can be improved. This timely book should be read by anyone interested in how the EITC can be reimagined to better serve the working poor and, more generally, whether the tax system can promote social justice.
In International Taxation of Trust Income, Mark Brabazon establishes the study of international taxation of trust income as a globally coherent subject. Covering the international tax settings of Australia, New Zealand, the UK, and the US, and their taxation of grantors/settlors, beneficiaries, trusts, and trust distributions, the book identifies a set of principles and corresponding tax settings that countries may apply to cross-border income derived by, through, or from a trust. It also identifies international mismatches between tax settings and purely domestic design irregularities that cause anomalous double- or non-taxation, and proposes an approach to tax design that recognises the policy functions (including anti-avoidance) of particular rules, the relative priority of different tax claims, the fiscal sovereignty of each country, and the respective roles of national laws and tax treaties. Finally, the book includes consideration of BEPS reforms, including the transparent entity clause of the OECD Model Tax Treaty.
Goods and Services Tax (GST) was implemented in India in July 2017, after four decades of protracted deliberations amid critical socio-economic and political challenges. GST is a comprehensive multistage value added tax (VAT) on goods and services where both central and state governments share the same tax base. Finding a suitable design for GST that encompasses taxes from both the centre and the state tax brackets makes the Indian GST unique among GST implemented in other federal countries. This book is a study of the evolution of GST in India since the Report of the Indirect Taxation Enquiry Committee of 1977. It studies the following issues on GST: a) inclusion and exclusion of taxes, b) finding a suitable mechanism to handle inter-state transactions, c) finding revenue neutrality of the tax reform, d) providing compensation to states for any possible loss of revenue due to its adoption, and e) possible scope for coordination in GST administration.
This book brings a unique, comparative approach to competition policy in healthcare. By examining an insurance-based and a taxation-funded healthcare system, insights emerge into the applicability and application of general competition law and healthcare-specific competition rules at EU and Member State level. The developing interactions between healthcare regulators and competition authorities, and issues arising from hospital mergers with regard to general and healthcare-specific merger control both receive in-depth analysis.Insights into competition reforms in the Dutch and English healthcare systems show that the term “healthcare” is problematic: there are important distinctions between public and private healthcare, and between healthcare providers and healthcare purchasers. Even a focus on “healthcare providers” has limitations given the myriad services which comprise healthcare delivery. Competition reforms in healthcare attract controversy if seen exclusively as an end in themselves. This book argues that a nuanced approach is needed: competition in healthcare needs to be tempered, and even focused, by national and EU commitments to solidarity. Following Brexit, scholars and policy makers will maintain interest in comparative and EU law research. This book will thus be essential reading for anyone wishing to understand the mutual implications of EU competition law and policy for developing national healthcare reforms.Dr Mary Guy is a Lecturer in Law at Lancaster Law School and is directing the law component of a British Academy/Leverhulme Trust–funded interdisciplinary project on ‘EU Health Policy and Law – Shaping a Future Research Agenda’ in 2018-2020. She is a member of the European Association of Health Law, the Society of Legal Scholars, the Socio-Legal Studies Association, the British Association of Comparative Law, and the Chartered Institute of Linguists Educational Trust.
Modern-day tax treaties have their foundations in one of the three Model Tax Treaties developed by the League of Nations in 1928. Using previously unexplored archival material, Sunita Jogarajan provides the first in-depth examination of the development of the League's Models. This new research provides insights into questions such as the importance of double taxation versus tax evasion; the preference for source-taxation versus residence-taxation; the influence of theory and practice on the League's work; the development of bilateral rather than multilateral treaties; the influence of developing countries on the League's work; the role of Commentary in interpreting model tax treaties; and the influential factors and key individuals involved. A better understanding of the development of the original models will inform and help guide interpretation and reform of modern-day tax treaties. Additionally, this book will be of interest to scholars of international relations and the development of law at international organisations.
Seventy-five percent of Americans claim religious affiliation, which can impact their taxpaying responsibilities. In this illuminating book, Samuel D. Brunson describes the many problems and breakdowns that can occur when tax meets religion in the United States, and shows how the US government has too often responded to these issues in an unprincipled, ad hoc manner. God and the IRS offers a better framework to understand tax and religion. It should be read by scholars of religion and the law, policymakers, and individuals interested in understanding the implications of taxation on their religious practices.
Could a feminist perspective change the shape of tax laws? Feminist reasoning and analysis are recognized as having tremendous potential to affect employment discrimination, sexual harassment, and reproductive rights laws - but they can likewise transform tax law (as well as other statutory or code-based areas of the law). By highlighting the importance of perspective, background, and preconceptions on reading and interpreting statutes, this volume shows what a difference feminist analysis can make to statutory interpretation. Feminist Judgments: Rewritten Tax Opinions brings together a group of scholars and lawyers to rewrite tax decisions in which a feminist emphasis would have changed the outcome, the court's reasoning, or the future direction of the law. Featuring cases including medical expense deductions for fertility treatment, gender confirmation surgery, tax benefits for married individuals, the tax treatment of tribal lands, and business expense deductions, this volume opens the way for a discussion of how viewpoint is a key factor in statutory interpretation.
Figuring Out the Tax recounts the forgotten early development of the federal income tax in the US, resulting from the interplay between Congress and the Treasury Department in the decades following the enactment of the tax in 1913. It covers a wide range of topics including the income tax treatments of marriage, capital losses, charitable contributions and homeownership, as well as the rise, demise and resurrection of income tax withholding. Lawrence Zelenak deftly illustrates how the income tax achieved its current form through a range of stories which are new to tax history scholarship and involve some remarkable personalities and surprising plot twists. Although of particular interest to tax academics and professionals, this book will also serve as a useful introduction to the development of income tax for undergraduate students and law students.
Many companies that have become household names have avoided billions in taxes by 'parking' their valuable intellectual property (IP) assets in holding companies located in tax-favored jurisdictions. In the United States, for example, many domestic companies have moved their IP to tax-favored states such as Delaware or Nevada, while multinational companies have done the same by setting up foreign subsidiaries in Ireland, Singapore, Switzerland, and the Netherlands. In this illuminating work, tax scholar Jeffrey A. Maine teams up with IP expert Xuan-Thao Nguyen to explain how the use of these IP holding companies has become economically unjustified and socially unacceptable, and how numerous calls for change have been made. This book should be read by anyone interested in how corporations - including Gore-Tex, Victoria's Secret, Sherwin-Williams, Toys-R-Us, Apple, Microsoft, and Uber - have avoided tax liability with IP holding companies and how different constituencies are working to stop them.
Bringing a unique voice to international taxation, this book argues against the conventional support of multilateral co-operation in favour of structured competition as a way to promote both justice and efficiency in international tax policy. Tsilly Dagan analyzes international taxation as a decentralized market, where governments have increasingly become strategic actors. While many of the challenges of the current international tax regime derive from this decentralized competitive structure, Dagan argues that curtailing competition through centralization is not necessarily the answer. Conversely, competition - if properly calibrated and notwithstanding its dubious reputation - is conducive, rather than detrimental, to both efficiency and global justice. International Tax Policy begins with the basic normative goals of income taxation, explaining how competition transforms them and analyzing the strategic game states play on the bilateral and multilateral level. It then considers the costs and benefits of co-operation and competition in terms of efficiency and justice.
This two-volume set offers an in-depth analysis of the leading tax treaty disputes in the G20 and beyond within the first century of international tax law. Including country-by-country and thematic analyses, the study is structured around a novel global taxonomy of tax treaty disputes and includes an unprecedented dataset with over 1500 leading tax treaty cases. By adopting a contextual approach the local expertise of the contributors allows for a thorough and transparent analysis. This set is an important reference tool for anyone implementing or studying international tax regulations and will facilitate the work of courts, tax administrations and practitioners around the world. It is designed to complement model conventions such as the OECD Model Tax Convention on Income and on Capital. Together with Resolving Transfer Pricing Disputes (2012), it is a comprehensive addition to current debate on the international tax law regime.
This book explores one of the most significant trends in the evolution of global tax systems by asking how, within less than half a century, the value-added tax (VAT) has risen from relative obscurity to become one of the world's most dominant revenue instruments. Despite its significance, very little is known about why so many countries have adopted the VAT and, in particular, why different countries adopt the types of VAT that they do. The popular mythology provides that the merits of the VAT have underpinned its global spread; however, this book contends that much scholarship confuses the question of why the VAT has risen to dominance with the issue of what makes a good VAT. This book combines policy and legal analysis to propose a new way of understanding the rise of this important revenue instrument so as to better reflect the realities of the VATs that are actually implemented.
This book integrates legal, economic, and administrative materials about the value added tax (VAT) to present the only comparative approach to the study of VAT law. The comparative presentation of this volume offers an analysis of policy issues relating to tax structure and tax base as well as insights into how cases arising out of VAT disputes have been resolved. Its principal purpose is to provide comprehensive teaching tools - laws, cases, analytical exercises, and questions drawn from the experience of countries and organizations around the world. This second edition includes new VAT-related developments in Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia and adds new chapters on VAT avoidance and evasion and on China's VAT. Designed to illustrate, analyze, and explain the principal theoretical and operating features of value added taxes, including their adoption and implementation, this book will be an invaluable resource for tax practitioners and government officials.
How does EU law affect Member State corporate tax systems and the cross-border activities of companies? This unique study traces the historical development of EU corporate tax law and provides an in-depth analysis of a number of issues affecting companies, groups of companies and permanent establishments. Existing legislation, soft-law and the case-law of the Court of Justice are examined. The proposed CCCTB Directive and its potential application through enhanced co-operation are also considered. In addition to the tax issues pertaining to direct investment, the author examines the taxation of passive investment income, corporate reorganisations, exit taxes and the restrictive effect of domestic anti-abuse regimes. By doing so, the convergences and divergences arising from the interplay of EU corporate tax law and international tax law, especially the OECD model, are uncovered and highlighted.
Many corporate tax systems lack structure. Focusing on structural defects and how they are addressed in practice, this comprehensive and comparative analysis of corporate tax systems uses a conceptual framework to illustrate and analyse the many difficult issues corporations pose. This framework is enhanced by the examination of a large body of legal rules and practical considerations which demonstrate how corporate tax systems work in practice. While adopting a broad comparative approach, the analysis also drills down into the detail of influential corporate tax systems in order to illustrate the major issues they face and the options available to them.
A tax expenditure is a 'tax break' allowed to a taxpayer or group of taxpayers, for example, by way of concession, deduction, deferral or exemption. The tax expenditure concept, as it was first identified, was designed to demonstrate the similarity between direct government spending on the one hand and spending through the tax system on the other. The identification of benefits provided through the tax system as tax expenditures allows analysts to consider the fiscal significance of those parts of the tax system which do not contribute to the primary purpose of raising revenue. Although a seemingly simple concept, it has generated a range of complex definitional and practical issues, and this book identifies and critically assesses the controversial aspects of tax expenditure and tax expenditure management.
The rise of corporate groups in the last century dictates a shift in the income tax law: instead of treating each company as a separate taxpayer, the tax consolidation regime is increasingly common. Antony Ting presents the first comprehensive comparative study of eight consolidation regimes in Australia, France, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Spain and the USA. In the study, he critically analyses and compares alternative policy options with respect to ten key structural elements. The study improves understanding of the design and implementation of consolidation regimes and sets the stage for the search for a model. It provides valuable information with respect to the best practices, as well as the pitfalls, in the design of a consolidation regime. The book is essential to countries contemplating the introduction of a new consolidation regime and offers important insights into the management of such a complex structure through careful policy-orientated choices.