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Much has been written in charity law on the type of benefits that charities can provide - charitable purposes - and towards whom such benefits must be directed - the public benefit question. Almost nothing has been written about when benefits must be provided. However, accumulation of assets by charities raises profound ethical, economic and social considerations that are highlighted by the present retreat of the welfare state and the impact of the Global Financial Crisis and COVID-19. This book analyses the issue through a normative, doctrinal and comparative analysis of the legal constraints upon accumulation by charities. It reveals that the legal restraints contain significant gaps in relation to the intergenerational distribution of benefits and to the balance of decision-making between generations. In particular, the book asserts that there is room for law reform to better identify and incorporate principles of intergenerational justice into the regulation of charities.
This book offers an updated article-by-article commentary of the Rome I Regulation, applicable in the courts of nearly all European countries to identify the law applicable to international contracts. The commentary is authored by an international group of academics and practitioners, who all have practical experience with international contracts and, thus, were able to focus on the needs of practice. This volume will be not only a reference guide for judges and practitioners alike, but also a crucial resource for academics and researchers.
In 1956, ICJ judge Philip Jessup highlighted the gaps between private and public international law and the need to adapt the law to border-crossing problems. Today, sixty years later, we still ask what role transnational law can play in a deeply divided, post-colonial world, where multinationals hold more power and more assets than many nation states. In searching for suitable answers to pressing legal problems such as climate change law, security, poverty and inequality, questions of representation, enforcement, accountability and legitimacy become newly entangled. As public and private, domestic and international actors compete for regulatory authority, spaces for political legitimacy have become fragmented and the state's exclusivist claim to be law's harbinger and place of origin under attack. Against this background, transnational law emerges as a conceptual framework and method laboratory for a critical reflection on the forms, fora and processes of law making and law contestation today.
Systematic analysis of fiduciaries and trust is rare. The aim of this volume is to help fill this gap. The chapters explore the interactions of fiduciary law and trust, drawing on literatures on trust that have been generated in a variety of disciplines. They do so with an eye to the full scope of extension claimed for the fiduciary principle, from its heartland in private law, to its frontiers in public law and government more broadly. Overall, the volume advances an integrated and wide-ranging understanding of the relation of fiduciaries and trust that illuminates key legal and political problems, and challenges and deepens our understanding of fiduciaries and trust themselves.
A decade after the Global Financial Crisis and Great Recession, developed economies continue to struggle under excessive household debt. While exacerbating inequality and political unrest, this debt - when combined with wage stagnation and a shrinking welfare state - has played a key role in maintaining economic growth and allowing households faced with rising costs of living to make ends meet. In Bankruptcy: The Case for Relief in an Economy of Debt, Joseph Spooner examines this economic model and finds it increasingly unsustainable. In a call to action to reduce debt burden, he turns to bankruptcy law, which is uniquely situated as a mechanism of social insurance against the risks of a debt-dependent economy. This book should be read by anyone interested in understanding the problem of consumer debt and how best to address it.
Global Securities Litigation and Enforcement provides a clear and exhaustive description of the national regime for the enforcement of securities legislation in cases of misrepresentation on financial markets. It covers 29 jurisdictions worldwide, some of them are important although their law is not well known. It will be an invaluable resource for academics and students of securities litigation, as well as for lawyers, policy-makers and regulators. The book also provides a comprehensive contribution debate on whether public or private enforcement is preferable in terms of development of securities markets. It will appeal to those interested in the legal origins theory and in comparative securities law, and shows that the classification of jurisdictions within legal families does not explain the differences in legal regimes. While US securities law often serves as a model for international convergence, some of its elements, such as securities class actions, have not been adopted worldwide.
This book deals with a key feature of globalization: the rise of regulation beyond the state. It examines the emergence of transnational regulatory cooperation between public and private actors and pursues an inquiry that is at once legal, empirical and theoretical. It asks why a private actor and an international organization would regulate cooperatively and what this tells us about the material meaning of concepts such as 'expertise', 'authority' and 'legitimacy' in specific domains of global governance. Additionally, the book addresses the structures and patterns in which cooperation evolves and how this affects the broader global order. It does so through an investigation of two public-private cooperative agreements: one between the International Standards Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the Global Compact and the International Labor Organization and one between the International Olympic Committee and the United Nations Environment Programme.
T. Leigh Anenson analyzes the scope of judicial authority and discretion to recognize the equitable doctrine of unclean hands as a bar to actions seeking damages in the United States. Bringing an American perspective to contentious conversation about law-equity fusion in other countries of the common law, Anenson provides a historical, doctrinal, and theoretical account of the integration, analyzes cases in the federal courts and across the fifty states, and places the issue of integration within a broader debate over the fusion of law and equity. Her analysis also includes descriptive and normative accounts of the equitable maxim of unclean hands. This groundbreaking work, which clarifies conflicting case law and advances the idea of a principled fusion of law and equity, should be read by anyone interested in the need for equity - its cultivation, preservation, and celebration.
The Politics of Justice in European Private Law intends to highlight the differences between the Member States' concepts of social justice, which have developed historically, and the distinct European concept of access justice. Contrary to the emerging critique of Europe's justice deficit in the aftermath of the Euro crisis, this book argues that beneath the larger picture of the Monetary Union, a more positive and more promising European concept of justice is developing. European access justice is thinner than national social justice, but access justice represents a distinct conception of justice nevertheless. Member States or nation states remain free to complement European access justice and bring to bear their own pattern of social justice.
When comparing the laws of different jurisdictions, one often sees only the forest or the trees. This is particularly problematic in comparative company law, where students hope both to understand the overall framework of the law and grasp its practical application. This text's structure, now in its second edition, solves that dilemma. Chapters open with discursive analyses of the law in each of Germany, the UK and the US (Delaware, the ABA Model Business Corporation Act, and federal securities laws) and set out the high-level governing framework, particularly for the EU and its member states. This analysis is succinct and pointed, with numerous references to both the law and leading scholarship. The whole text is arranged to highlight comparative aspects. Diagrams are used where helpful. Chapters close with edited judicial decisions from at least two of the jurisdictions discussed, which allows fresh exploration of comparison in more detail, and pointed questions to guide class discussion.
Trust law has grown and developed over recent years through the continued ingenuity of practitioners and the provision of innovative new trust laws by offshore jurisdictions. The wealth managed through the medium of trust law has also changed in recent years, as increasingly it has come from the newly rich of Asia. This brings distinctive issues to the fore: the role of settlors, family members and trusted advisors in trust administration; the position of trustees in relation to instructions coming from such persons; and an increased desire for confidentiality in trust administration and the settlement of trust disputes. This collection focuses on trusts which are deliberately created to manage wealth and the concomitant issues such trusts raise in other areas of law. Essays from leading members of the judiciary, practitioners and academics explore these developments and their implications for the users of trust law and for society in general.
Little attention has been paid to the development of Australian private law throughout the first half of the twentieth century. Using the law of tort as an example, Mark Lunney argues that Australian contributions to common law development need to be viewed in the context of the British race patriotism that characterised the intellectual and cultural milieu of Australian legal practitioners. Using not only primary legal materials but also newspapers and other secondary sources, he traces Australian developments to what Australian lawyers viewed as British common law. The interaction between formal legal doctrine and the wider Australian contexts in which that doctrine applied provided considerable opportunities for nuanced innovation in both the legal rules themselves and in their application. This book will be of interest to both lawyers and historians keen to see how notions of Australian identity have contributed to the development of an Australian law.
The transfer of immovables in Europe creates a series of challenges and questions in practice. The increase in cross-border transactions of immovable property within the European Union has created a demand for knowledge of the system of land registration across a range of jurisdictions. This volume compares and contrasts the different legal processes of seventeen countries and includes a comprehensive analysis of the transfer of immovables and the Land Register in Europe. With fifteen case studies, it provides both theoretical and practical information on the applicable contract and land law. This volume encourages the reader to evaluate legal issues by using the wider European legal sources available. For this very purpose, it is an important research tool for comparative study in the field.
Is there a distinctive Chinese model for law and economic development? In The Beijing Consensus scholars turn their collective attention to answer this basic but seemingly under-explored question as China rises higher in its global standing. Advancing debates on alternative development programs, with a particular focus on social and political contexts, this book demonstrates that essentially, no model exists. Engaging in comparative studies, the contributors create a new set of benchmarks to evaluate the conventional wisdom that the Beijing Consensus challenges and that of the Beijing Consensus itself. Has China demonstrated that the best model is in fact no model at all? Overall, this title equips the reader with an understanding of the conclusions derived from China's experience in its legal and economic development in recent decades.
The law relating to anti-doping changes rapidly. The World Anti-Doping Code was first adopted in 2003 to provide a common set of anti-doping rules applicable across all sport worldwide. The Code has evolved and changed significantly through two major processes of review. This third edition provides essential guidance and commentary on the 2015 Code which replaces the 2009 Code. The 2015 Code contains many significant changes in the core Articles of the Code, particularly in the regime on sanctions for anti-doping rule violations, and in the amended International Standards. The text outlines how the current law has developed from anti-doping rules and principles in operation before the Code and explains the central role of the Court of Arbitration for Sport in this development and in applying the current Code. This third edition will be an important single resource for any reader working or studying in the field.
This concise landmark in law and jurisprudence offers the first coherent, liberal account of contract law. The Choice Theory of Contracts answers the field's most pressing questions: what is the 'freedom' in 'freedom of contract'? What core values animate contract law and how do those values interrelate? How must the state act when it shapes contract law? Hanoch Dagan and Michael Heller - two of the world's leading private law theorists - show exactly why and how freedom matters to contract law. They start with the most appealing tenets of modern liberalism and end with their implications for contract law. This readable, engaging book gives contract scholars, teachers, and students a powerful normative vocabulary for understanding canonical cases, refining key doctrines, and solving long-standing puzzles in the law.
The taking of private property for development projects has caused controversy in many nations, where it has often been used to benefit powerful interests at the expense of the general public. This edited collection is the first to use a common framework to analyze the law and economics of eminent domain around the world. The authors show that seemingly disparate nations face a common set of problems in seeking to regulate the condemnation of private property by the state. They include the tendency to forcibly displace the poor and politically weak for the benefit of those with greater influence, disputes over compensation, and resort to condemnation in cases where it destroys more economic value than it creates. With contributions from leading scholars in the fields of property law and economics, the book offers a comparative perspective and considers a wide range of possible solutions to these problems.
Past research and literature suggest that legal institutions drive economic development. Yet China has grown for decades without the fundamental legal infrastructure that was once considered necessary. This is called the 'China puzzle' or the 'China myth'. By carefully comparing the four key branches of private law in China and Taiwan - a jurisdiction that grew with modest legal institutions and shares similar legal and non-legal culture - this collaborative and novel book demystifies the 'China puzzle'. Top scholars in the field use an economics-focused analytical approach to explain how and why the laws have taken such paths over the past four decades. Comparing property, contract, tort, and corporate laws in China and Taiwan, these authors delve deeply into key doctrines to provide a meaningful account of the evolution of private law in these two jurisdictions.