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This book addresses a growing problem in international law: overlapping claims before national and international jurisdictions. Its contribution is, first, to revisit two pillars of investment arbitration, i.e., shareholders' standing to claim for harm to the company's assets and the contract/treaty claims distinction. These two ideas advance interrelated (and questionable) notions of independence: firstly, independence of shareholder treaty rights in respect of the local company's national law rights and, secondly, independence of treaty claims in respect of national law claims. By uncritically endorsing shareholder standing in indirect claims and the distinctiveness of treaty claims, investment tribunals have overlooked substantive overlaps between contract and treaty claims. The book also proposes specific admissibility criteria. As opposed to strictly jurisdictional approaches to claim overlap, the admissibility approach allows consideration of a broader range of legal reasons, such as risks of multiple recovery and prejudice to third parties.
The book examines the twofold 'boundaries' of the concept of the European Union's internal market – the geographical and the substantive – through the prism of expanding the internal market to third countries without enlarging the Union. The book offers a comprehensive analysis of the conditions under which the internal market can effectively be extended to third countries by exporting EU acquis via international agreements without sacrificing its defining characteristics. Theoretical rather than empirical in approach, the book scrutinises and meticulously questions the required level of uniformity within flexible integration relating to the substantive scope of the internal market, the role of foundational principles in the European Union's market edifice, and the institutional framework necessary for granting third country actors full participation in the internal market while safeguarding the autonomy of the Union's legal order.
International investment law and arbitration is its own 'galaxy', made up of thousands of treaties to be read in relation to hundreds of awards. It is also diverse, as treaty and arbitration practices display nuances and differences on a number of issues. While it has been expanding over the past few decades in quantitative terms, this galaxy is now developing new traits as a reaction to the criticisms formulated across civil society in relation to public interests' protection. This textbook enables readers to master and make sense of this galaxy in motion. It offers an up-to-date, comprehensive and detailed analysis of the rules and practices which form international investment law and arbitration, covering its substantive, institutional and procedural aspects. Using analytical and practice-oriented approaches, it provides analyses accessible to readers discovering this field anew, while it offers a wealth of in-depth studies to those who are already familiar with it.
The nature and content of intellectual property (IP) law, which is heavily contingent on the state of technology and on social and market developments, has always been subject to ongoing transitions. How those transitions are effected and the shape they take is crucial to the ability of IP to achieve its stated goals and provide the necessary climate for investment in creativity, innovation and brand differentiation. Yet the need for change can run headlong into a desire for coherence. A search for coherence tests the limits of the concept of “intellectual property,” is imperiled by overlaps between different IP regimes, and calls for a unifying normative theme. This volume assembles contributors from across IP and the globe to explore these questions, including whether coherence is desirable. It should be read by anyone interested in understanding the conceptual underpinnings of one of the most important and dynamic areas of the law.
This is an accessible guide to the vocabulary used in trade negotiations. It explains about 3,000 terms and concepts in simple language. Its main emphasis is on the multilateral trading system represented by the agreements under the World Trade Organization (WTO). In addition it covers many of the trade-related activities, outcomes and terms used in other international organizations, such as the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The last decade has seen considerable attention to trade and investment facilitation as well as a rapid spread in the formation of free-trade areas in all parts of the world. This dictionary allocates generous space to the vocabulary associated with such agreements. Additional areas covered include emerging trade issues and issues based particularly on developing-country concerns.
GATT Dispute Settlement Reports compiles all dispute settlement reports issued under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT 1947), including its Tokyo Round plurilateral codes, from 1948 to 1995. This compilation includes both adopted and unadopted reports.The GATT documents containing the reports are reproduced in English in their original form and without any modifications. They are presented in chronological order based on the initiation date of the dispute, with each case identified by a unique GATT dispute (GD) number. A cover page for each dispute provides the report's adoption status, the date it was issued and any GATT or WTO disputes directly related to the dispute in question. At the end of each volume, there is a list of all GATT dispute settlement reports contained within the series, with references to the relevant volume and page numbers.
In recent years, investor-state tribunals have often permitted shareholders' claims for reflective loss despite the well-established principle of no reflective loss applied consistently in domestic regimes and in other fields of international law. Investment tribunals have justified their decisions by relying on definitions of 'investment' in investment agreements that often include 'shares', while the no-reflective-loss principle is generally justified on the basis of policy considerations pertaining to the preservation of the efficiency of the adjudicatory process and to the protection of other stakeholders, such as creditors. Although these policy considerations militating for the prohibition of shareholders' claims for reflective loss also apply in investor-state arbitration, they are curable in that context and must be balanced with policy considerations specific to the field of international investment law that weigh in favor of such claims: the protection of foreign investors in order to promote trade and investment liberalization.
Recent trends suggest that international economic law may be witnessing a renaissance of convergence – both parallel and intersectional. The adjudicative process also reveals signs of convergence. These diverse claims of convergence are of legal, empirical and normative interest. Yet, convergence discourse also warrants scepticism. This volume contributes to both the general debate on the fragmentation of international law and the narrower discourse concerning the interplay between international trade and investment, focusing on dispute settlement. It moves beyond broad observations or singular case studies to provide an informed and wide-reaching assessment by investigating multiple standards, processes, mechanisms and behaviours. Methodologically, a normative stance is largely eschewed in favour of a range of 'doctrinal,' quantitative and qualitative methods that are used to address the research questions. Furthermore, in determining the extent of convergence or divergence, it is important to recognize that there is no bright line or clear yardstick for determining its nature or degree.
The United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples is seen primarily as an international human rights instrument. However, the Declaration also encompasses cultural, social and economic rights. Taken in the context of international trade and investment, the UN Declaration is a valuable tool to support economic self-determination of Indigenous peoples. This volume explores the emergence of Indigenous peoples' participation in international trade and investment, as well as how it is shaping legal instruments in environment and trade, intellectual property and traditional knowledge. One theme that is explored is agency. From amicus interventions at the World Trade Organization to developing a future precedent for a 'Trade and Indigenous Peoples Chapter', Indigenous peoples are asserting their right to patriciate in decision-making. The authors, both Indigenous and non-Indigenous experts on trade and investment legal, provide needed ideas and recommendations for governments, academia and policy thinkers to achieve economic reconciliation.
Transparency of trade regulations by all WTO Members is essential for open, fair and predictable trade relations. A myriad of different regulations apply in all WTO Members and have the potential for affecting international trade. The Agreements on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary measures and on Technical Barriers to Trade provide the most comprehensive frameworks in the WTO to address the costs arising from such regulatory diversity, through obligations on regulatory transparency and co-operation. This book gives a detailed account of the legal disciplines of the two Agreements, an in-depth presentation of discussions between WTO Members, and an overview of the few cases that end up in formal dispute settlement. It shows that the strength of the WTO legal and institutional system goes well beyond its dispute settlement system, with transparency enabling implementation of WTO obligations through better information sharing and co-operation among Members themselves, through non-judicial means.
In this work, Amrita Narlikar argues that, contrary to common assumption, modern-day politics displays a surprising paradox: poverty - and the powerlessness with which it is associated - has emerged as a political tool and a formidable weapon in international negotiation. The success of poverty narratives, however, means that their use has not been limited to the neediest. Focusing on behaviours and outcomes in a particularly polarising area of bargaining - international trade - and illustrating wider applications of the argument, Narlikar shows how these narratives have been effectively used. Yet, she also sheds light on how indiscriminate overuse and misuse increasingly run the risk of adverse consequences for the system at large, and devastating repercussions for the weakest members of society. Narlikar advances a theory of agency and empowerment by focusing on the life-cycles of narratives, and concludes by offering policy-relevant insights on how to construct winning and sustainable narratives.
In Digital Data Collection and Information Privacy Law, Mark Burdon argues for the reformulation of information privacy law to regulate new power consequences of ubiquitous data collection. Examining developing business models, based on collections of sensor data - with a focus on the 'smart home' - Burdon demonstrates the challenges that are arising for information privacy's control-model and its application of principled protections of personal information exchange. By reformulating information privacy's primary role of individual control as an interrupter of modulated power, Burdon provides a foundation for future law reform and calls for stronger information privacy law protections. This book should be read by anyone interested in the role of privacy in a world of ubiquitous and pervasive data collection.
How should copyright exceptions be drafted? This is a question of ongoing concern in scholarly and law reform debates. In Drafting Copyright Exceptions, Emily Hudson assesses drafting options using insights from the standards and rules literature, and case studies from cultural institutions in Australia, Canada, the UK and the US. Drawing on thousands of hours of fieldwork conducted over fourteen years, the book describes how staff engage with and interpret the law. Whilst some practices are guided strongly by copyright doctrine, others are influenced by the factors such as ethical views, risk assessment, and prosaic matters related to collection management. This work should be read by anyone interested in a detailed account of interpretative practices related to the drafting of copyright exceptions, but it also speaks to broader debates about the relationship between the 'law in books' and the 'law in action'.
This book explores how dissimilar patent systems remain distinctive despite international efforts towards harmonization. The dominant historical account describes harmonization as ever-growing, with familiar milestones such as the Paris Convention (1883), the World Intellectual Property Organization's founding (1967), and the formation of current global institutions of patent governance. Yet throughout the modern period, countries fashioned their own mechanisms for fostering technological invention. Notwithstanding the harmonization project, diversity in patent cultures remains stubbornly persistent. No single comprehensive volume describes the comparative historical development of patent practices. Patent Cultures: Diversity and Harmonization in Historical Perspective seeks to fill this gap. Tracing national patenting from imperial expansion in the early nineteenth century to our time, this work asks fundamental questions about the limits of globalization, innovation's cultural dimension, and how historical context shapes patent policy. It is essential reading for anyone seeking to understand the contested role of patents in the modern world.
The Dispute Settlement Reports are the WTO authorized and paginated reports in English. They are an essential addition to the library of all practicing and academic trade lawyers and needed by students worldwide taking courses in international economic or trade law. DSR 2018: Volume 4 reports on European Union - Countervailing Measures on Certain Polyethylene Terephthalate from Pakistan (WT/DS486).
The Dispute Settlement Reports are the WTO authorized and paginated reports in English. They are an essential addition to the library of all practicing and academic trade lawyers and needed by students worldwide taking courses in international economic or trade law. DSR 2018: Volume 9 reports on Australia - Certain Measures Concerning Trademarks, Geographical Indications and Other Plain Packaging Requirements Applicable to Tobacco Products and Packaging (WT/DS435, WT/DS441, WT/DS458, WT/DS467).
Using as a starting point the work of internationally-renowned Australian scholar Sam Ricketson, whose contributions to intellectual property (IP) law and practice have been extensive and richly diverse, this volume examines topical and fundamental issues from across IP law. With authors from the US, UK, Europe, Asia, Australia and New Zealand, the book is structured in four parts, which move across IP regimes, jurisdictions, disciplines and professions, addressing issues that include what exactly is protected by IP regimes; regime differences, overlaps and transplants; copyright authorship and artificial intelligence; internationalization of IP through public and private international law; IP intersections with historical and empirical research, human rights, privacy, personality and cultural identity; IP scholars and universities, and the influence of treatises and textbooks. This work should be read by anyone interested in understanding the central issues in the evolving field of IP law.