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Trade in goods and services has historically resisted territorial confinement, but trademark protection remains territorial, albeit within an increasingly important framework of multilateral treaties. Trademark law therefore demands that practitioners, policy-makers and academics understand principles of international and comparative law. This handbook assists in that endeavour, with chapters describing and critically analyzing international and regional frameworks, and providing comparative perspectives on the substantive issues in trademark law and related fields, such as geographic indications, advertising law, and domain names. Chapters contrast common law and civil law approaches while focusing on the US and EU trademark systems in light of the role these systems have played in the development of trademark laws. Additionally, this handbook covers other jurisdictions, both common law and civil law, on the Asia-Pacific, African, and South American continents. This work should be read by anyone seeking a better understanding of trademark law around the world.
Competition policy debates on digital platform markets are often premised on the idea that market fragmentation and the standard forces of competition and entry may provide a potential solution to excessive concentration and market power. In this work, Francesco Ducci provides readers with a different perspective based on the theoretical lens of natural monopoly. Ducci explores this framework through the development of three case studies on horizontal search, e-commerce marketplaces, and ride-hailing platforms, investigating the strength and limit of potential (and often heterogeneous) sources of natural monopoly at play in each industry. Building on these case studies, the book then derives from the application of the natural monopoly framework general policy implications for digital industries by identifying the respective institutional flaws and shortcomings of ex ante and ex post approaches to market power as one of the central challenges in digital platform markets.
Competition law damages actions are often characterized by the uncertainty of the causal connection between the infringement and the harm. The damage consists in a pure economic loss flowing from an anticompetitive conduct. In such cases, the complexity of the markets structures, combined with the interdependence of individuals' assets, fuel this causal uncertainty. In this work, Claudio Lombardi elucidates the concept of causation in competition law damages actions and outlines its practical implications in competition litigation through the comparative analysis of the relevant statutory and case law, primarily in the European Union. This book should be read by practitioners, scholars, and graduate students with experience in competition law, as well as those interested in analyzing economic torts and causation in general.
Technical standards like USB, Wi-Fi, and Bluetooth are ubiquitous in the modern networked economy. They allow products made and sold by different vendors to interoperate with little to no consumer effort and enable new market entrants to innovate on top of established technology platforms. This groundbreaking volume, edited by Jorge L. Contreras, assesses and analyzes legal aspects of technical standards and standardization beyond those covered in its companion volume (patents, competition, and antitrust). Bringing together leading international experts, advocates, and policymakers, it focuses on key areas of technical standardization law including administrative, trade, copyright, trademark, and certification law. This comprehensive, detailed examination sheds new light on the standards that shape the global technology marketplace and will serve as an indispensable tool for scholars, practitioners, judges, and policymakers everywhere.
Copyright is territorial, but the same cannot be said of the internet, whose borderless nature has changed the way we consume copyright-protected material. Nevertheless, territorial segmentation of online content remains a reality in the 28 member states of the European Union. Licensing and access practices do not reflect this digital reality, in which end-users demand ubiquitous access to content. For this reason, the territorial nature of copyright and traditional business models based on national exploitation prevent the completion of the Digital Single Market. Sebastian Felix Schwemer provides a unique analysis of the dynamic licensing and access arrangements for audiovisual works and music and shows how they are being addressed by sector regulation and competition law in the Digital Single Market. His analysis, which includes case law of the Court of Justice, the Commission's competition proceedings, and various legislative tools, reveals the overlapping nature of legislative and non-legislative regulatory solutions.
Due to the growing influence of economics and economists in competition law and policy discourse and the internationalization of antitrust, the equity versus efficiency trade-off debate has played a defining role in the transformation of the dominant paradigm governing competition law enforcement since at least the 1970s. The debate remains crucial today as issues of economic inequality and its interaction with efficiency become of central concern to policy and decision-makers in competition law, as well as in other spheres of public policy. Despite their central role in the grammar of competition law on the global plane, the intellectual underpinnings of the interactions between 'equity' and 'efficiency' in the context of competition law have never been examined in-depth. This book aims precisely to fill this gap by discussing new approaches in understanding the role of efficiency and equity concerns in competition law.
Florence Thépot provides the first systematic account of the interaction between competition law and corporate governance. She challenges the 'black box' conception of the firm- or 'undertaking' - in competition law, as applied to increasingly complex corporate relations. The book opens the 'black box' of the firm to understand the internal drivers of collusive behaviour, and proposes a unified approach to cartel enforcement, based on the agency theory. It explores key issues including corporate compliance programmes, the attribution of liability in corporate groups, and structural links between competitors, and should be read by anyone interested in how the evolution of the corporate landscape impacts competition law.
Based on a unique and comprehensive database, The Shaping of EU Competition Law combines qualitative and quantitative approaches to shed light on the evolution of EU competition law. It brings a new perspective to some of the most topical issues in the field including due process and the intensity of judicial review. The author's main purpose is to examine how the institutional structure influences the substance of EU competition law provisions. He seeks to identify patterns in the behaviour of the European Commission and the EU Courts and how they interact with each other. In particular, his analysis considers how the European Commission reacts to the case law and whether, and in what instances, the EU courts defer to the analysis of the administrative authority. The analysis is supported by the database and an unprecedented array of statistics and figures free to view online.
Laws prohibiting unilateral anticompetitive conduct have been the subject of vigorous international debate for decades, as policymakers, antitrust scholars and agencies continue to disagree over how best to regulate the market conduct of a single firm with substantial market power. Katharine Kemp describes the controversy over Australia's misuse of market power laws in recent years, which mirrored the international debate in this sphere, and culminated in the fundamental reform of the misuse of market power prohibition under the Competition and Consumer Act 2010 (Cth) in 2017. Misuse of Market Power: Rationale and Reform explains Australia's new misuse of market power law, which adopts an 'effects-based test' for unilateral conduct, and makes a comparative analysis between Australian tests for unilateral anticompetitive conduct and tests from the US and the EU. This text also illuminates the frequently mentioned, but little understood, concept of 'purpose' and its role in framing unilateral conduct standards.
This edited volume of essays examines a wide range of issues related to the regionalisation of competition policy in South East Asia, where the ten member states of ASEAN have launched the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC). Written by a diverse group of academics, practitioners and policy-makers, this book explore issues such as the role of competition policy in facilitating the market-integration ambitions of the ASEAN member states, the challenges arising from divergences in the national competition law regimes of the ASEAN member states, and the absence of a supranational legal framework and the future of competition policy in light of the AEC Blueprint 2025. Given the nexus between regional competition policy and regional market integration, this book will be of particular interest to lawyers, economists and policymakers working in the fields of competition law and regional trade law.
The most controversial area in competition policy is that of exclusionary practices, where actions are taken by dominant firms to deter competitors from challenging their market positions. Economists have been struggling to explain such conduct and to guide policy-makers in designing sensible enforcement rules. In this book, authors Chiara Fumagalli, Massimo Motta, and Claudio Calcagno explore predatory pricing, rebates, exclusive dealing, tying, and vertical foreclosure, through a blend of theory and practice. They develop a general framework which builds on and extends existing economic theories, drawing upon case law, discussions of cases and other practical considerations to identify workable criteria that can guide competition authorities to assess exclusionary practices. Along with analyses of policy implications and insights applied to case studies, the book provides practitioners with non-technical discussions of the issues at hand, while guiding economics students with dedicated technical sections with rigorous formal models.
The Political Economy of Competition Law in China provides a unique perspective of China's competition law that is situated within its legal, institutional, economic, and political contexts. Adopting a framework that focuses on key stakeholders and the relevant governance and policy environment, and drawing upon stakeholder interviews, case studies, and doctrinal analysis, this book examines China's anti-monopoly law in the context of the political economy from which it emerged and in which it is now enforced. It explains the legal and economic reasoning used by Chinese competition authorities in interpreting and applying the anti-monopoly law, and offers valuable and novel insights into the processes and dynamics of law- and decision-making under that law. This book will interest scholars of competition law and professionals advising clients that operate in China, as well as scholars of Chinese law, Asian law, comparative law, and political and social science.
Technical standards are ubiquitous in the modern networked economy. They allow products made and sold by different vendors to interoperate with little to no consumer effort and enable new market entrants to innovate on top of established technology platforms. This groundbreaking volume, edited by Jorge L. Contreras, assesses and analyzes the legal aspects of technical standards and standardization. Bringing together more than thirty leading international scholars, advocates, and policymakers, it focuses on two of the most contentious and critical areas pertaining to standards today in key jurisdictions around the world: antitrust/competition law and patent law. (A subsequent volume will focus on international trade, copyright, and administrative law.) This comprehensive, detailed examination sheds new light on the standards that shape the global technology marketplace and will serve as an indispensable tool for scholars, practitioners, judges, and policymakers everywhere.
This Cambridge Handbook, edited by Roger D. Blair and D. Daniel Sokol, brings together a group of world-renowned professors in the fields of law and economics to assess the theory and practice of antitrust, intellectual property, and high tech. With the increased globalization of antitrust, a better understanding of how law and economics shape this interface will help academics, policymakers, and practitioners to understand the existing state of academic literature, its limits, and its relevance to real-world antitrust. The book will be an essential resource for anyone seeking to understand academic and policy considerations shaping the world of antitrust, intellectual property, and high tech.
With the rise of internet marketing and e-commerce around the world, international and cross-border conflicts in trademark and unfair competition law have become increasingly important. In this groundbreaking work, Tim Dornis - who, in addition to his scholarly pursuits, has worked as an attorney, a public prosecutor, and a judge, giving him experience in both civil and common-law jurisdictions - presents the historical-comparative, doctrinal, and economic aspects of trademark and unfair competition conflicts law. The book should be read by any scholar or practitioner interested in the international aspects of intellectual property generally, and trademark and unfair competition law specifically. This title is available as Open Access.
Patent assertion entities (commonly known as 'patent trolls') hurt competition and innovation. This book, the first to analyze the most salient issues related to patent assertion entities around the world, integrates economic theory with economic and legal reality to examine how the entities function and their impact on competition. It also offers legal and policy solutions that might be used to combat them. Edited by D. Daniel Sokol, the volume collects chapters from an array of leading scholars who describe patent assertion entities in the United States, Europe, Korea, Taiwan, Japan, and China, while offering empirical accounts of the entities' economic consequences and their use of litigation as a means of legal extortion against many of the most innovative companies in the world, from startups to multinationals. It should be read by anyone interested in how patent assertion entities operate and how they might be stopped.
This book on the EU Private Damages Directive (PDD) offers an in-depth discussion of selected issues of interpretation of the PDD. The Directive sets out certain rules necessary to ensure that anyone who has suffered harm caused by an infringement of competition law by an undertaking or by an association of undertakings, can effectively claim full compensation for that harm from that undertaking or association. Each section corresponds with a chapter of the PDD and commences with a description of the general context within which the specific questions must be placed and understood. The outcome of the actual discussion is then provided in a Q&A format. The chapters are the result of a Closed Workshop organised on 21 May 2015 in Brussels, Belgium and which was attended by a group of competition law specialists from the majority of the EU Member States.
The use of economic theory and economic evidence in competition cases, their appropriate interpretation, meaning, impact, usefulness and validity are among the most challenging issues that judges and legal practitioners are facing in their daily decision-making. Notorious questions of, for example, how courts, practitioners and other decision-making bodies should employ economic evidence and what weight (and credibility) should be attached to such evidence where different experts offer different suggestions are among the most complex ones. This book, while addressing such questions, provides tools for judges, scholars and legal practitioners to employ economic evidence in a more effective, optimal and predictable way so as to overcome the identified, EU-wide obstacles in enforcing current EU competition law. This edited volume addresses the importance, implications, practices, problems and the role of economic evidence in EU competition law. It includes contributions on the use of the economic approach in the application and enforcement of EU competition law in different EU countries, candidate member states and third countries. The book features scholars who are experts in the field of competition law and economics as well as several of the most prominent European judges who provide first-hand information on the use of economic evidence in practice. The book is not limited to a particular subfield of competition law, but covers the area of competition law at large, including state aid. This reflects the fact that also the European Commission has gradually expanded the application of the economic approach to all areas of competition law. 'What role does economics play in cases of competition law? What role could it play? And what role should it play? But do scholarly experts and judges agree on these viewpoints? In this book an impressive variety of topics is covered and surprising insights are gained. Thus it really covers recent and partly controversial developments in the EU regarding the handling of competition law cases on a national as well as an EU level - something experts in the field must not miss. 'Wolfgang Weigel, Chair, The Joseph von Sonnenfels Center for the Study of Public Law and Economics and Department of Economics, University of Vienna' Economics is the study of scarcity. Law is the study of rights. Unfortunately, law and economics scholarship that is practical and focused on problems from the courtroom is scarce. This volume makes it right. It combines the legal experience of experts and judges in several European countries and the rigor of economics. The result is an indispensable tool for anyone interested in EU competition law. 'Shai Dothan, Associate Professor of International and Public Law, iCourts -the Centre of Excellence for International Courts, Faculty of Law, University of Copenhagen. 'The rapid growth and increasing importance of EU Competition Law have thrown up, in a context of decentralised interpretation and enforcement, questions of the extent to which economic theory and evidence should be employed by national authorities. This rich collection of essays provides diverse but also fascinating answers to those questions, ranging from the practical and pragmatic to the speculative and theoretical. It is all the more valuable because the authors are drawn from the judiciary as well as the academic world. Clearly the book is essential reading for all concerned with EU Competition Law. 'Anthony Ogus, Emeritus Professor of Law, Universities of Manchester and Rotterdam
The Federal Trade Commission, a US agency created in 1914 to police the problem of 'bigness', has evolved into the most important regulator of information privacy - and thus innovation policy - in the world. Its policies profoundly affect business practices and serve to regulate most of the consumer economy. In short, it now regulates our technological future. Despite its stature, however, the agency is often poorly understood by observers and even those who practice before it. This volume by Chris Jay Hoofnagle - an internationally recognized scholar with more than fifteen years of experience interacting with the FTC - is designed to redress this confusion by explaining how the FTC arrived at its current position of power. It will be essential reading for lawyers, legal academics, political scientists, historians and anyone else interested in understanding the FTC's privacy activities and how they fit in the context of the agency's broader consumer protection mission.