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Economic activity is more globally integrated than ever before, but so is the scope of corporate misconduct. As more and more people across the world are affected by such malfeasance, the differences in legal redress have become increasingly visible. This transparency has resulted in a growing convergence towards an American model of robust private enforcement of the law, including the class-action lawsuit. This handbook brings together scholars from nearly two dozen countries to describe and assess the class-action procedure (or its equivalent) in their respective countries and, where possible, to offer empirical data on these systems. At the same time, the work presents a variety of multidisciplinary perspectives on class actions, from economics to philosophy, making this handbook an essential resource to academics, lawyers, and policymakers alike.
This collection critically discusses the increasing significance of Asian States in the field of international investment law and policy. Consisting of contributions authored by a leading team of scholars and practitioners of international investment law, this volume contains analyses of both national and multilateral investment law rule-making in Asia, including a critical discussion of certain States' approaches to balancing the different tension between investment protection and the preservation of States' regulatory sovereignty. It also contains thematic chapters on cutting-edge developments which are of relevance to Asia as well as the global community, such as investors' obligations of due diligence, additional transparency in treaty-based investment arbitration responses by ASEAN member States to transboundary haze pollution, and the relevance of human rights obligations in international investment law. It also contemplates future possibilities for investor-State dispute settlement, including the use of investor-State mediation in view of the Singapore Convention on Mediation.
A unique collaboration between academic scholars, legal practitioners, and arbitrators, this handbook focuses on the intersection of arbitration - as an alternative to litigation - and the court systems to which arbitration is ultimately beholden. The first three parts analyze issues relating to the interpretation of the scope of arbitration agreements, arbitrator bias and conflicts of interest, arbitrator misconduct during the proceedings, enforceability of arbitral awards, and the grounds for vacating awards. The next section features fifteen country-specific reviews, which demonstrate that, despite the commonality of principles at the international level, there is a significant amount of differences in the application of those principles at the national level. This work should be read by anyone interested in the general rules and principles of the enforceability of foreign arbitral awards and the grounds for courts to vacate or annul such awards.
Everyone condemns what they perceive as 'abuse of rights', and some would elevate it to a general principle of law. But the notion seldom suffices to be applied as a rule of decision. When adjudicators purport to do so they expose themselves to charges of unpredictability, if not arbitrariness. After examining the dissimilar origins and justification of the notion in national and international doctrine, and the difficulty of its application in both comparative and international law, this book concludes that except when given context as part of a lex specialis, it is too nebulous to serve as a general principle of international law.
This book outlines the protection standards typically contained in international investment agreements as they are actually applied and interpreted by investment tribunals. It thus provides a basis for analysis, criticism, and stocktaking of the existing system of investment arbitration. It covers all main protection standards, such as expropriation, fair and equitable treatment, full protection and security, the non-discrimination standards of national treatment and MFN, the prohibition of unreasonable and discriminatory measures, umbrella clauses and transfer guarantees. These standards are covered in separate chapters providing an overview of textual variations, explaining the origin of the standards and analysing the main conceptual issues as developed by investment tribunals. Relevant cases with quotations that illustrate how tribunals have relied upon the standards are presented in depth. An extensive bibliography guides the reader to more specific aspects of each investment standard permitting the book's use as a commentary of the main investment protection standards.
This wide-ranging study considers the primary forms of decision-making – negotiation, mediation, umpiring, as well as the processes of avoidance and violence – in the context of rapidly changing discourses and practices of civil justice across a range of jurisdictions. Many contemporary discussions in this field–and associated projects of institutional design–are taking place under the broad but imprecise label of Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR). The book brings together and analyses a wide range of materials dealing with dispute processes, and the current debates on and developments in civil justice. With the help of analysis of materials beyond those ordinarily found in the ADR literature, it provides a comprehensive and comparative perspective on modes of handling civil disputes. The new edition is thoroughly revised and is extended to include new chapters on avoidance and self-help, the ombuds, Online Dispute Resolution and pressures of institutionalisation.
Recent trends suggest that international economic law may be witnessing a renaissance of convergence – both parallel and intersectional. The adjudicative process also reveals signs of convergence. These diverse claims of convergence are of legal, empirical and normative interest. Yet, convergence discourse also warrants scepticism. This volume contributes to both the general debate on the fragmentation of international law and the narrower discourse concerning the interplay between international trade and investment, focusing on dispute settlement. It moves beyond broad observations or singular case studies to provide an informed and wide-reaching assessment by investigating multiple standards, processes, mechanisms and behaviours. Methodologically, a normative stance is largely eschewed in favour of a range of 'doctrinal,' quantitative and qualitative methods that are used to address the research questions. Furthermore, in determining the extent of convergence or divergence, it is important to recognize that there is no bright line or clear yardstick for determining its nature or degree.
As in its first edition, this book traces the contours of select US common law doctrinal developments concerning international commercial arbitration. This new edition supplements the foundational work contained in the first edition in order to produce a broader and deeper work. The author explores how the US common law may help bridge cross-cultural legal differences by focusing on the need to address these contrasting approaches through the nomenclature and goal of securing equality between party-autonomy and arbitrator discretion in international commercial arbitration. This book thus focuses on the common law development of arbitrator immunity, as well as the precepts of party-initiative and –autonomy forming part of the US common law discovery rubric that may contribute to promoting expediency, efficiency and transparency in international commercial arbitration proceedings. It does so by carefully analyzing, among other things, the International Bar Association (IBA) Rules on Evidence Gathering, the Prague Rules, and the role of 28 USC. §1782 in international arbitration.
This book provides a comprehensive commentary on the UNCITRAL Model Law on International Arbitration. Combining both theory and practice, it is written by leading academics and practitioners from Europe, Asia and the Americas to ensure the book has a balanced international coverage. The book not only provides an article-by-article critical analysis, but also incorporates information on the reality of legal practice in UNCITRAL jurisdictions, ensuring it is more than a recitation of case law and variations in legal text. This is not a handbook for practitioners needing a supportive citation, but rather a guide for practitioners, legislators and academics to the reasons the Model Law was structured as it was, and the reasons variations have been adopted.
This book investigates the concept of procedural autonomy of Member States in the light of EU law. Does procedural autonomy still adequately describe the powers of national lawmakers and courts to design their civil procedural systems or is it misleading? For the last few decades, Europe has been in a period of increasing Europeanisation of civil procedure. Increased powers of the EU have resulted in hard law, case law and soft law that regulate many types of domestic and cross-border civil cases. These rules have both direct and indirect implications for national procedural law. Gaining insights from selected European jurisdictions (Belgium, England and Wales, Finland, Germany, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Slovenia, Spain, and Sweden), this book explores the concept of procedural autonomy from different angles: Is procedural autonomy an adequate term? How is procedural autonomy understood nationally, and is there variation among the Member States? Do some types of EU law or specific characteristics of EU civil procedural law restrain procedural autonomy more than other? How can these differences be explained and is it possible to identify the sources causing such discrepancies? Procedural Autonomy across Europe is a stimulating discussion for lawyers with an interest in civil procedure.
The vitality or, alternatively, vitiation of the international arbitral process remains a pressing subject. The explosion of inter-State, investor-State, and international commercial arbitration in recent years magnifies the importance of the subject. This second edition combines the historical analysis of the first edition with a survey of the continued salience and contemporary developments for each of the three problems identified: (i) the severability of the arbitration agreement; (ii) denial of justice (and now other possible breaches of international law) by governmental negation of arbitration; and (iii) the authority of truncated international arbitral tribunals. The international arbitral process continues to be fortified against unilateral attempts to derail it and, to that end, this book will be a valuable guide for practitioners and scholars alike.
In Third Party Funding, Gian Marco Solas, for the first time, describes third party funding (TPF) as stand-alone practice within the wider litigation and legal services' markets. The book reports on legal issues related to TPF in both common law and civil law jurisdictions, and in the international context. It then discusses the incentives and economics of TPF transactions in different legal contexts while explaining how the practice emerged and how it is likely to develop. In addition, the book offers practical insights into TPF transactions and analyzes a number of regulatory proposals that could affect its use and desirability. This work should be read by scholars, practitioners, policymakers, and anyone else interested in how TPF is changing the practice of law.
Several Member States of the European Union have concluded treaties and conventions with Third States dealing with questions of succession law in cross-border matters. Some of these treaties originate from the beginning of the 20th century and are outdated. The European legislator, however, cannot supersede these treaties and conventions unilaterally with its regulations, in fact they enjoy priority over the European Succession Regulation. The harmonizing effect of European private international law is hence endangered, the more so, as these treaties and conventions often cover large groups of third State nationals in the respective Member State. This book analyzes the background, scope and practical impact of bilateral treaties and multilateral conventions concluded by selected Member States of the European Union with third States, both from the European and the third State perspective. It evaluates the impact of these treaties and conventions on the functioning of the European Succession Regulation and the possibilities to facilitate the interplay between these instruments and European private international law. Anatol Dutta holds a Chair of Private Law, Private International Law and Comparative Law at the Ludwig Maximilians University Munich. Wolfgang Wurmnest holds the Chair of Private Law, Commercial Law, Private International and Comparative Law at the University of Augsburg.
This book evaluates the core of the concept of legitimate expectations from first principles in moral philosophy. It adopts an unconventional approach by examining this topic from a deep, philosophical perspective and delves into the debates on the binding nature of promise in moral philosophy. It then develops a doctrinal structure for the standard of protection. The author places the key premise of the book on the possibility of deriving firm conclusions from the debate and on creating a set of precise and prescriptive 'guidelines of the application of legitimate expectations'. The features of this book are threefold: first, a significant body of literature on moral philosophy is assimilated; second, core philosophical principles are extracted and expressed as a normative framework to resolve concrete cases; third, the author analysed a vast number of investment treaty awards against the underlying framework.
One of the most challenging aspects of climate change has been the increased pressure on water resources limited by droughts and new rain patterns, which has been exacerbated by rapid modernization. Due to these realities, disputes across national borders over use and access to water have now become more commonplace. This study analyzes the history and adjudication of transboundary water disputes in five international courts and tribunals, two US Supreme Court cases, and boundary water disputes between the United States and Canada and the United States and Mexico. Explaining the circumstances and outcomes of these cases, Kornfeld asks how effective the courts and tribunals have been in adjudicating them. What kind of remedies have they fashioned and how have they dealt with polycentric and sovereignty issues? This timely work examines the doctrine of equitable allocation of transboundary water resources and how this norm can be incorporated into international law.
This book brings together foreign investment and investment arbitration in Asia, the fastest growing economic region in the world. It provides a critical analysis of foreign investment, its benefits and the legal regimes of the jurisdictions studied at a time when investor-state disputes are on the rise and investment arbitration is under growing scrutiny. Governments are under greater pressure to balance the promotion of investment with public policy development and interests and calls for a permanent court for investment arbitration are getting louder. To assess future possibilities, this book takes stock of, brings together and analyses the legal regimes on foreign investment in 12 major Asian jurisdictions, namely China, Hong-Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam. These constitute paradigmatic examples of what is happening in the legal framework of Asian foreign investment and the impact that the current system of investment arbitration has in all of them. The analysis shows the existence of changing positions and degrees of openness towards foreign investment in the region, as well as a distinct level of exposure to and involvement in investment arbitration. Predictably, their situation will change in the near future, at least in relation to investment arbitration. Proposals for reform have already been made and international institutions are working on the development of an alternative to the proceedings of investment arbitration as it is currently constructed and understood. Consequently, the last two chapters of this book are devoted to the analysis of these developments that will most probably affect the existing situation in the region.
This book advances the idea that in order to address some of the criticisms against investor-state dispute settlement, a large majority of states have taken a 'normative' strategy, negotiating or amending investment treaties with provisions that potentially give more control and greater involvement to the contracting parties, and notably the home state. This is particularly true of agreements concluded in the past fifteen years. At the same time, there is a potential revival of the 'remnants' of diplomatic protection that are embedded in investment treaties since the beginning of the system. But why is the home state being brought back into a domain from which it was expressly excluded several decades ago? Why would a home state be interested in intervening in these conflicts? Is this 'new' role of the home state in foreign investment disputes a 'return' to diplomatic protection of its nationals, or are we witnessing something different?
This edited volume aims at examining China's role in the field of international governance and the rule of law under the Belt and Road Initiative from a holistic manner. It seeks alternative analytical frameworks that not only take into account legal ideologies and legal ideals, but also local demand and socio-political circumstances, to explain and understand China's legal interactions with countries along the Road, so that more useful insights can be produced in predicting and analysing China's as well as other emerging Asian countries' legal future. Authors from Germany, Korea, Singapore, Mainland China, Taiwan and Hong Kong have contributed to this edited volume, which produces academic dialogues and conducts intellectual exchanges in specific sub-themes.
In the Asia-Pacific, thirty-eight jurisdictions have adopted the UNCITRAL Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration. This book looks at how the text and the principles of the Model Law have been implemented (or not) in key Asian jurisdictions. Most of the jurisdictions covered in this book have declared that they have adopted the Model Law but often with significant modifications. Even when jurisdictions adopt some provisions of the Model Law verbatim, their courts may have interpreted these provisions in a manner inconsistent with their goals and with how they are interpreted internationally. When a jurisdiction has not adopted the Model Law, the chapter compares its legislation to the Model Law to determine whether it is consistent with its principles. Each chapter follows the structure of the Model Law allowing the reader to easily compare the arbitration laws of different jurisdictions on each topic.
Arbitration in the Digital Age analyses how technology can be efficiently and legitimately used to further sound arbitration proceedings. The contributions, from a variety of arbitration scholars, report on current developments, predict future trends, and assesses their impact from a practical, legal, and technical point of view. The book also discusses the relationship between arbitration and the Internet and analyses how social media can affect arbitrators and counsel's behaviour. Furthermore, it analyses the validity of electronic arbitration and awards, as well as Online Arbitration (OArb). The volume establishes, on a very practical level, how technology could be used by arbitration institutions, arbitrators, parties to an arbitration and counsel. This book will be of special interest to arbitrators and lawyers involved in international commercial arbitration.