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With a machine learning approach and less focus on linguistic details, this gentle introduction to natural language processing develops fundamental mathematical and deep learning models for NLP under a unified framework. NLP problems are systematically organised by their machine learning nature, including classification, sequence labelling, and sequence-to-sequence problems. Topics covered include statistical machine learning and deep learning models, text classification and structured prediction models, generative and discriminative models, supervised and unsupervised learning with latent variables, neural networks, and transition-based methods. Rich connections are drawn between concepts throughout the book, equipping students with the tools needed to establish a deep understanding of NLP solutions, adapt existing models, and confidently develop innovative models of their own. Featuring a host of examples, intuition, and end of chapter exercises, plus sample code available as an online resource, this textbook is an invaluable tool for the upper undergraduate and graduate student.
Sentiment analysis is the computational study of people's opinions, sentiments, emotions, moods, and attitudes. This fascinating problem offers numerous research challenges, but promises insight useful to anyone interested in opinion analysis and social media analysis. This comprehensive introduction to the topic takes a natural-language-processing point of view to help readers understand the underlying structure of the problem and the language constructs commonly used to express opinions, sentiments, and emotions. The book covers core areas of sentiment analysis and also includes related topics such as debate analysis, intention mining, and fake-opinion detection. It will be a valuable resource for researchers and practitioners in natural language processing, computer science, management sciences, and the social sciences.In addition to traditional computational methods, this second edition includes recent deep learning methods to analyze and summarize sentiments and opinions, and also new material on emotion and mood analysis techniques, emotion-enhanced dialogues, and multimodal emotion analysis.
Deep learning is revolutionizing how machine translation systems are built today. This book introduces the challenge of machine translation and evaluation - including historical, linguistic, and applied context -- then develops the core deep learning methods used for natural language applications. Code examples in Python give readers a hands-on blueprint for understanding and implementing their own machine translation systems. The book also provides extensive coverage of machine learning tricks, issues involved in handling various forms of data, model enhancements, and current challenges and methods for analysis and visualization. Summaries of the current research in the field make this a state-of-the-art textbook for undergraduate and graduate classes, as well as an essential reference for researchers and developers interested in other applications of neural methods in the broader field of human language processing.
Specifically designed for linguists, this book provides an introduction to programming using Python for those with little to no experience of coding. Python is one of the most popular and widely-used programming languages as it's also available for free and runs on any operating system. All examples in the text involve language data and can be adapted or used directly for language research. The text focuses on key language-related issues: searching, text manipulation, text encoding and internet data, providing an excellent resource for language research. More experienced users of Python will also benefit from the advanced chapters on graphical user interfaces and functional programming.
Empirical translation studies is a rapidly evolving research area. This volume, written by world-leading researchers, demonstrates the integration of two new research paradigms: socially-oriented and data driven approaches to empirical translation studies. These two models expand current translation studies and stimulate reader debates around how development of quantitative research methods and integration with advances in translation technologies would significantly increase the research capacities of translation studies. Highly engaging, the volume pioneers the development of socially-oriented innovative research methods to enhance the current research capacities of theoretical (descriptive) translation studies in order to tackle real-life research issues, such as environmental protection and multicultural health promotion. Illustrative case studies are used, bringing insight into advanced research methodologies of designing, developing and analysing large scale digital databases for multilingual and/or translation research.
New perspectives on the use and acquisition of a minority language. The number of young people speaking Gaelic in Scotland is growing for the first time since Census records began but less than half of all Gaelic speakers use Gaelic in the home. This book sets out to explore why. Focusing on how people, communities and organisations are 'doing' Gaelic, this book explores the processes and patterns of Gaelic language acquisition, use and management across four key spaces of interaction: the family, the community, educational settings, and in organisations. The contributors adopt an experiential approach to give voice to speakers in a diverse range of communities, both geographically and socially, as the volume illustrates the ways in which the use of Gaelic is changing in the context of increasingly fragmented, networked communities. Gaelic in Contemporary Scotland provides a range of critical perspectives on existing models for minority language revitalisation and to introduce fresh ideas for language revitalisation theory. Through its analysis of the interconnections between, and differences within, Gaelic communities, this collection challenges old understandings of the Gaelic community as a single collective identity, making it an invaluable resource for students, lecturers and researchers interested in questions of linguistic diversity, linguistic minorities and language policy and planning.
How do infants learn a language? Why and how do languages evolve? How do we understand a sentence? This book explores these questions using recent computational models that shed new light on issues related to language and cognition. The chapters in this collection propose original analyses of specific problems and develop computational models that have been tested and evaluated on real data. Featuring contributions from a diverse group of experts, this interdisciplinary book bridges the gap between natural language processing and cognitive sciences. It is divided into three sections, focusing respectively on models of neural and cognitive processing, data driven methods, and social issues in language evolution. This book will be useful to any researcher and advanced student interested in the analysis of the links between the brain and the language faculty.
Hugh Craig and Brett Greatley-Hirsch extend the computational analysis introduced in Shakespeare, Computers, and the Mystery of Authorship (edited by Hugh Craig and Arthur F. Kinney; Cambridge, 2009) beyond problems of authorship attribution to address broader issues of literary history. Using new methods to answer long-standing questions and challenge traditional assumptions about the underlying patterns and contrasts in the plays of Shakespeare and his contemporaries, Style, Computers, and Early Modern Drama sheds light on, for example, different linguistic usages between plays written in verse and prose, company styles and different character types. As a shift from a canonical survey to a corpus-based literary history founded on a statistical analysis of language, this book represents a fundamentally new approach to the study of English Renaissance literature and proposes a new model and rationale for future computational scholarship in early modern literary studies.
Can you tell the difference between talking to a human and talking to a machine? Or, is it possible to create a machine which is able to converse like a human? In fact, what is it that even makes us human? Turing's Imitation Game, commonly known as the Turing Test, is fundamental to the science of artificial intelligence. Involving an interrogator conversing with hidden identities, both human and machine, the test strikes at the heart of any questions about the capacity of machines to behave as humans. While this subject area has shifted dramatically in the last few years, this book offers an up-to-date assessment of Turing's Imitation Game, its history, context and implications, all illustrated with practical Turing tests. The contemporary relevance of this topic and the strong emphasis on example transcripts makes this book an ideal companion for undergraduate courses in artificial intelligence, engineering or computer science.
Sentiment analysis is the computational study of people's opinions, sentiments, emotions, and attitudes. This fascinating problem is increasingly important in business and society. It offers numerous research challenges but promises insight useful to anyone interested in opinion analysis and social media analysis. This book gives a comprehensive introduction to the topic from a primarily natural-language-processing point of view to help readers understand the underlying structure of the problem and the language constructs that are commonly used to express opinions and sentiments. It covers all core areas of sentiment analysis, includes many emerging themes, such as debate analysis, intention mining, and fake-opinion detection, and presents computational methods to analyze and summarize opinions. It will be a valuable resource for researchers and practitioners in natural language processing, computer science, management sciences, and the social sciences.
Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is an approach to teaching and learning languages that uses computers and other technologies to present, reinforce, and assess material to be learned, or to create environments where teachers and learners can interact with one another and the outside world. This book provides a much-needed overview of the diverse approaches to research and practice in CALL. It differs from previous works in that it not only surveys the field, but also makes connections to actual practice and demonstrates the potential advantages and limitations of the diverse options available. These options are based squarely on existing research in the field, enabling readers to make informed decisions regarding their own research in CALL. This essential text helps readers to understand and embrace the diversity in the field, and helps to guide them in both research and practice.
Grammars of natural languages can be expressed as mathematical objects, similar to computer programs. Such a formal presentation of grammars facilitates mathematical reasoning with grammars (and the languages they denote), as well as computational implementation of grammar processors. This book presents one of the most commonly used grammatical formalisms, Unification Grammars, which underlies contemporary linguistic theories such as Lexical-Functional Grammar (LFG) and Head-driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG). The book provides a robust and rigorous exposition of the formalism that is both mathematically well-founded and linguistically motivated. While the material is presented formally, and much of the text is mathematically oriented, a core chapter of the book addresses linguistic applications and the implementation of several linguistic insights in unification grammars. Dozens of examples and numerous exercises (many with solutions) illustrate key points. Graduate students and researchers in both computer science and linguistics will find this book a valuable resource.
Computational semantics is the art and science of computing meaning in natural language. The meaning of a sentence is derived from the meanings of the individual words in it, and this process can be made so precise that it can be implemented on a computer. Designed for students of linguistics, computer science, logic and philosophy, this comprehensive text shows how to compute meaning using the functional programming language Haskell. It deals with both denotational meaning (where meaning comes from knowing the conditions of truth in situations), and operational meaning (where meaning is an instruction for performing cognitive action). Including a discussion of recent developments in logic, it will be invaluable to linguistics students wanting to apply logic to their studies, logic students wishing to learn how their subject can be applied to linguistics, and functional programmers interested in natural language processing as a new application area.
The relation between ontologies and language is currently at the forefront of natural language processing (NLP). Ontologies, as widely used models in semantic technologies, have much in common with the lexicon. A lexicon organizes words as a conventional inventory of concepts, while an ontology formalizes concepts and their logical relations. A shared lexicon is the prerequisite for knowledge-sharing through language, and a shared ontology is the prerequisite for knowledge-sharing through information technology. In building models of language, computational linguists must be able to accurately map the relations between words and the concepts that they can be linked to. This book focuses on the technology involved in enabling integration between lexical resources and semantic technologies. It will be of interest to researchers and graduate students in NLP, computational linguistics, and knowledge engineering, as well as in semantics, psycholinguistics, lexicology and morphology/syntax.
The problem of inducing, learning or inferring grammars has been studied for decades, but only in recent years has grammatical inference emerged as an independent field with connections to many scientific disciplines, including bio-informatics, computational linguistics and pattern recognition. This book meets the need for a comprehensive and unified summary of the basic techniques and results, suitable for researchers working in these various areas. In Part I, the objects of use for grammatical inference are studied in detail: strings and their topology, automata and grammars, whether probabilistic or not. Part II carefully explores the main questions in the field: What does learning mean? How can we associate complexity theory with learning? In Part III the author describes a number of techniques and algorithms that allow us to learn from text, from an informant, or through interaction with the environment. These concern automata, grammars, rewriting systems, pattern languages or transducers.
The dream of automatic language translation is now closer thanks to recent advances in the techniques that underpin statistical machine translation. This class-tested textbook from an active researcher in the field, provides a clear and careful introduction to the latest methods and explains how to build machine translation systems for any two languages. It introduces the subject's building blocks from linguistics and probability, then covers the major models for machine translation: word-based, phrase-based, and tree-based, as well as machine translation evaluation, language modeling, discriminative training and advanced methods to integrate linguistic annotation. The book also reports the latest research, presents the major outstanding challenges, and enables novices as well as experienced researchers to make novel contributions to this exciting area. Ideal for students at undergraduate and graduate level, or for anyone interested in the latest developments in machine translation.
Text-to-Speech Synthesis provides a complete, end-to-end account of the process of generating speech by computer. Giving an in-depth explanation of all aspects of current speech synthesis technology, it assumes no specialised prior knowledge. Introductory chapters on linguistics, phonetics, signal processing and speech signals lay the foundation, with subsequent material explaining how this knowledge is put to use in building practical systems that generate speech. Including coverage of the very latest techniques such as unit selection, hidden Markov model synthesis, and statistical text analysis, explanations of the more traditional techniques such as format synthesis and synthesis by rule are also provided. Weaving together the various strands of this multidisciplinary field, the book is designed for graduate students in electrical engineering, computer science, and linguistics. It is also an ideal reference for practitioners in the fields of human communication interaction and telephony.
Contemporary Indian Writers in English (CIWE) is a series that presents critical commentaries on some of the best-known names in the genre. With the high visibilty of Indian writing in English in academic, critical, pedagogic and reader circles, there is a perceivable demand for lucid yet rigorous introduction of several of its authors and genres. Mahesh Dattani is perhaps one of India`s most daring, innovative and important paywrights in English today. He blends conventional themes with some startingly new ones in his work. His plays combine the intimate with the social, the personal and the public, often exploring the boundaries between these realms. In this volume, Asha Kuthari Chaudhuri, explores Dattani`s central themes - the family, alternate sexualities, other genders, morality and identity - while also examining the dramaturgical innovations in his work.
More than forty years ago it was demonstrated that the African continent can be divided into four distinct language families. Research on African languages has accordingly been preoccupied with reconstructing and understanding similarities across these families. This has meant that an interest in other kinds of linguistic relationship, such as whether structural similarities and dissimilarities among African languages are the result of contact between these languages, has never been the subject of major research. This book shows that such similarities across African languages are more common than is widely believed. It provides a broad perspective on Africa as a linguistic area, as well as an analysis of specific linguistic regions. In order to have a better understanding of African languages, their structures, and their history, more information on these contact-induced relationships is essential to understanding Africa's linguistic geography, and to reconstructing its history and prehistory.