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Persian served as the primary language of historical writing over the period of the early modern Islamic empires of the Ottomans, Safavids and Mughals. Historians writing under these empires read and cited each other's work, some moving from one empire to another, writing under different rival dynasties at various points in time. Emphasising the importance of looking beyond the confines of political boundaries in studying this phenomenon, Sholeh A. Quinn employs a variety of historiographical approaches to draw attention to the importance of placing these histories not only within their historical context, but also historiographical context. This first comparative study of Persian historiography from the 16th-17th centuries presents in-depth case analyses alongside a wide array of primary sources written under the Ottomans, Safavids and Mughals to illustrate that Persian historiography during this era was part of an extensive universe of literary-historical writing.
A companion volume to the third edition of the author's popular Middle Egyptian, this book contains eight literary works from the Middle Kingdom, the golden age of Middle Egyptian literature. Included are the compositions widely regarded as the pinnacle of Egyptian literary arts, by the Egyptians themselves as well as by modern readers. The works are presented in hieroglyphic transcription, transliteration and translation, accompanied by notes cross-referenced to the third edition of Middle Egyptian. These are designed to give students of Middle Egyptian access to original texts and the tools to practise and perfect their knowledge of the language. The principles of ancient Egyptian verse, in which all the works are written, are discussed, and the transliterations and translations are versified, giving students practice in this aspect of Egyptian literature as well. Consecutive translations are also included for reference and for readers more concerned with Middle Egyptian literature than language.
The decipherment of the ancient cuneiform scripts was one of the major breakthroughs in nineteenth-century archaeology and linguistics. Among the scholars working on Old Persian was Christian Lassen (1800–76), professor of Sanskrit at Bonn. Lassen's book on cuneiform inscriptions from Persepolis appeared in 1836, a month before his friend Eugène Burnouf independently published very similar conclusions. Lassen's account gives vivid insights into the detective work involved, as he painstakingly compares individual words and grammatical forms with their Avestan and Sanskrit equivalents, and proposes sounds for the symbols. The book uses a specially designed cuneiform font, and credits the printer, Georgi of Bonn. This Cambridge Library Collection volume also includes a short monograph on Old Persian phonology published in Berlin in 1847 by the Assyriologist Julius Oppert (1825–1905). Oppert revisits Lassen's conclusions in the light of Henry Creswicke Rawlinson's important 1846 memoir on the trilingual Behistun inscription.
The son of an Italian historian, Paul-Émile Botta (1802–70) served France as a diplomat and archaeologist. While posted as consul to Mosul in Ottoman Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq), he excavated several sites, becoming in 1843 the first archaeologist to uncover an Assyrian palace at Khorsabad, where Sargon II had ruled in the eighth century BCE. As nobody could yet read the cuneiform inscriptions, Botta thought he had discovered Nineveh, and an enthused French government financed the recording and collecting of numerous artefacts. Many of the marvellous sculptures were put on display in the Louvre. Botta devoted himself to studying the inscriptions, and this 1848 publication, a contribution towards the later deciphering of the Akkadian language, presents a tentative catalogue of cuneiform characters that appear to be used interchangeably. Of related interest, Henry Rawlinson's Commentary on the Cuneiform Inscriptions of Babylonia and Assyria (1850) is also reissued in this series.
Middle Egyptian introduces the reader to the writing system of ancient Egypt and the language of hieroglyphic texts. It contains twenty-six lessons, exercises (with answers), a list of hieroglyphic signs, and a dictionary. It also includes a series of twenty-six essays on the most important aspects of ancient Egyptian history, society, religion, literature, and language. Grammar lessons and cultural essays allows users not only to read hieroglyphic texts but also to understand them, providing the foundation for understanding texts on monuments and reading great works of ancient Egyptian literature. This third edition is revised and reorganized, particularly in its approach to the verbal system, based on recent advances in understanding the language. Illustrations enhance the discussions, and an index of references has been added. These changes and additions provide a complete and up-to-date grammatical description of the classical language of ancient Egypt for specialists in linguistics and other fields.
Historical sociolinguistics is a comparatively new area of research, investigating difficult questions about language varieties and choices in speech and writing. Jewish historical sociolinguistics is rich in unanswered questions: when does a language become 'Jewish'? What was the origin of Yiddish? How much Hebrew did the average Jew know over the centuries? How was Hebrew re-established as a vernacular and a dominant language? This book explores these and other questions, and shows the extent of scholarly disagreement over the answers. It shows the value of adding a sociolinguistic perspective to issues commonly ignored in standard histories. A vivid commentary on Jewish survival and Jewish speech communities that will be enjoyed by the general reader, and is essential reading for students and researchers interested in the study of Middle Eastern languages, Jewish studies, and sociolinguistics.
This lively introduction to the linguistics of Arabic provides students with a concise overview of the language's structure and its various components: its phonology, morphology and syntax. Through exercises, discussion points and assignments built into every chapter, the book presents the Arabic language in vivid and engaging terms, encouraging students to grasp the complexity of its linguistic situation. It presents key linguistic concepts and theories related to Arabic in a coherent way, helping to build students' analytical and critical skills. Key features:Study questions, exercises, and discussion topics in every chapter encourage students to engage with the material and undertake specific assignments Suggestions for further reading in every chapter allow readers to engage in more extensive research on relevant topicsTechnical terminology is explained in a helpful glossary
The pre-modern period saw a background of inter-ethnic strife among Arabs and non-Arabs, mainly Persians. Starting from the symbolic and cognitive roles of language, Yasir Suleiman shows how discussions about the inimitability and (un)translatability of the Qur’an in this period were, at some deep level, concerned with issues of ethnic election. In this respect, theology and ethnicity emerge as partners in theorising language. Staying within the symbolic role of language, Suleiman goes on to investigate the role of paratexts and literary production in disseminating language ideologies and in cultural contestation. He shows how language symbolism is relevant to ideological debates about hybrid and cross-national literary production in the Arab milieu. In fact, language ideology appears to be everywhere, and a whole chapter is devoted to discussions of the cognitive role of language in linking thought to reality.
This book, the first of its kind, examines how the phonology and grammar of the ancient Egyptian language changed over more than three thousand years of its history, from the first appearance of written documents, c.3250 BC, to the Coptic dialects of the second century AD and later. Part One discusses phonology, working backward from the vowels and consonants of Coptic to those that can be deduced for earlier stages of the language. Part Two is devoted to grammar, including both basic components such as nouns and the complex history of the verbal system. The book thus provides both a synchronic description of the five major historical stages of ancient Egyptian and a diachronic analysis of their development and relationship.
A native of Baghdad, Abd-Allatif (1162–1231) was a versatile scholar and scientist of vast erudition. This prolific author travelled widely throughout the Muslim world and wrote an account of Egypt at a time when the country was rarely visited by Europeans. The book covers matters ranging from natural history and medicine to culture and domestic economy. It also includes a vivid description of the terrible famine that Abd-Allatif witnessed in 1200 and 1201 when the Nile failed to flood. The text was widely known in Europe at the end of the eighteenth century thanks to Latin and German translations. Orientalist Antoine Isaac Silvestre de Sacy (1758–1838) translated and edited this version, first published in French in 1810. Complementing this invaluable account are excerpts from several other Arab writers, a detailed biography of Abd-Allatif, and a general overview of the provinces and villages of Egypt in the fourteenth century.
Published between 1880 and 1897 as part of Max Müller's Sacred Books of the East series, this five-volume translation of Pahlavi texts was the work of Edward William West (1824–1905). Largely self-taught, West developed his knowledge of ancient oriental languages in India, where he worked as a civil engineer. After returning to Europe, West focused on the study of sacred Zoroastrian texts and prepared these translations of Pahlavi manuscripts. His writings and editions are still referenced today in Indo-Iranian studies. Volume 2 contains the ninth-century Dâdistân-î Dînîk and Epistles of Mânûskîhar. The former are religious judgments or decisions given by Mânûskîhar, a high priest of Iran, in answer to ninety-two queries put to him by fellow Zoroastrians. Along with the Epistles, relating to complaints made to Mânûskîhar about his brother Zâd-sparam, these texts give the reader an insight into the Zoroastrianism of the period, its tenets, and its relationship with the developing Islamic faith.
Published between 1880 and 1897 as part of Max Müller's Sacred Books of the East series, this five-volume translation of Pahlavi texts was the work of Edward William West (1824–1905). Largely self-taught, West developed his knowledge of ancient oriental languages in India, where he worked as a civil engineer. After returning to Europe, West focused on the study of sacred Zoroastrian texts and prepared these translations of Pahlavi manuscripts, cementing his reputation for pioneering scholarship. His writings and editions are still referenced today in Indo-Iranian studies. Volume 1 includes the Bundahis (Zoroastrian traditions about the creation of the world), the Bahman Yast (a prophetic text detailing thousands of years of history, including the downfall and rebirth of Zoroastrianism) and the Shayâst Lâ-Shâyast (detailing ritual impurity and sin, and purification rituals, such as those used for dead bodies). In his introduction, West compares these texts to the biblical books of Genesis, Revelation, and Leviticus.
Published between 1880 and 1897 as part of Max Müller's Sacred Books of the East series, this five-volume translation of Pahlavi texts was the work of Edward William West (1824–1905). Largely self-taught, West developed his knowledge of ancient oriental languages in India, where he worked as a civil engineer. After returning to Europe, West focused on the study of sacred Zoroastrian texts and prepared these translations of Pahlavi manuscripts. His writings and editions are still referenced today in Indo-Iranian studies. Volume 5 contains translations of the Dînkard (books 7 and 5) and Selections of Zâd-sparam. Some parts of these texts are prophetic, and West's introductory analysis provides an insight into the chronology of Zoroastrianism, which suggests that Zoroaster was born in 660 BCE and that the world will come to an end in 2398 CE.
Published between 1880 and 1897 as part of Max Müller's Sacred Books of the East series, this five-volume translation of Pahlavi texts was the work of Edward William West (1824–1905). Largely self-taught, West developed his knowledge of ancient oriental languages in India, where he worked as a civil engineer. After returning to Europe, West focused on the study of sacred Zoroastrian texts and prepared these translations of Pahlavi manuscripts. His writings and editions are still referenced today in Indo-Iranian studies. The Nasks are the focus of Volume 4, wherein West collects, translates and analyses fragments such as names, summaries, digests and stray quotes from other books in order to present all that is known of the twenty-one original treatises containing Sassanid Zoroastrian literature. The treatises were themselves records of what was legendarily lost after Alexander the Great's conquest of Persia in the fourth century BCE.
A Student Grammar of Turkish is a concise introduction to Turkish grammar, designed specifically for English-speaking students and professionals. Written with the needs of the learner very much in mind, it sets out the grammar of the language in a clear and jargon-free style. The book not only explains the fundamentals of the grammar, but also tests students' understanding in an interactive way with more than 200 exercises. Key grammar points are summarised in tables and there are numerous illustrative examples. A list of grammatical terms used in the book and a key to all the exercises are also provided. This essential grammar and exercise book can be used as a supplement for students studying the language, with a dual function as a reference guide to look up grammar points, and as a resource from which exercises can be set and language skills practised.
Middle Egyptian introduces the reader to the writing system of ancient Egypt and the language of hieroglyphic texts. It contains twenty-six lessons, exercises (with answers), a list of hieroglyphic signs, and a dictionary. It also includes a series of twenty-five essays on the most important aspects of ancient Egyptian history, society, religion and literature. The combination of grammar lessons and cultural essays allows users to not only read hieroglyphic texts but also to understand them, providing readers with the foundation to understand texts on monuments and to read great works of ancient Egyptian literature in the original text. This second edition contains revised exercises and essays, providing an up to date account of current research and discoveries. New illustrations enhance discussions and examples. These additions combine with the previous edition to create a complete grammatical description of the classical language of ancient Egypt for specialists in linguistics and other fields.
The first introduction to the field of Arabic sociolinguistics, this book discusses major trends in research on diglossia, code-switching, gendered discourse, language variation and change, and language policies in relation to Arabic. In doing so, it introduces and evaluates the various theoretical approaches, and illustrates the usefulness and the limitations of these approaches with empirical data. The book shows how sociolinguistic theories can be applied to Arabic and, conversely, what the study of Arabic can contribute to our understanding of the function of language in society. Key features:*Introduces current theories and methods of sociolinguistics, with a special focus on Arabic*Topics include: language variation and change, gender, religion and politics*Aimed at students and scholars of Arabic with an interest in linguistics and students and scholars of linguistics with an interest in Arabic
A Reference Grammar of Modern Standard Arabic is a comprehensive handbook on the structure of Arabic. Keeping technical terminology to a minimum, it provides a detailed yet accessible overview of Modern Standard Arabic in which the essential aspects of its phonology, morphology and syntax can be readily looked up and understood. Accompanied by extensive carefully-chosen examples, it will prove invaluable as a practical guide for supporting students' textbooks, classroom work or self-study, and will also be a useful resource for scholars and professionals wishing to develop an understanding of the key features of the language. Grammar notes are numbered for ease of reference, and a section is included on how to use an Arabic dictionary, as well as helpful glossaries of Arabic and English linguistic terms and a useful bibliography. Clearly structured and systematically organised, this book is set to become the standard guide to the grammar of contemporary Arabic.
Using Arabic is a guide to Arabic usage for students who have already acquired the basics of the language and wish to extend their knowledge. Focusing mainly on Modern Standard Arabic, it is divided into three clear sections on varieties of Arabic, grammar, and vocabulary. 'Varieties of Arabic' describes the linguistic situation in the Arab world, showing students variations in register through the use of authentic texts. The vocabulary section is designed not only to expand students' knowledge of Arabic words, but also to show them which words are most current, and which are appropriate to different registers. The final chapter provides an overview of Arabic grammar, giving many modern-day examples, and highlighting common errors. Clear, readable and easy to consult, Using Arabic will prove an invaluable reference for students seeking to improve their fluency and confidence in Arabic.