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The National Capital Region of Delhi is a diverse and unequal space. Its more than 30 million people are sharply differentiated by economic class, religion and caste, education, language, and migration status. Its 45,000 square kilometres is a tapestry of spaces - ghettoes, slums, enclaves, institutional areas, planned and unplanned and authorized and unauthorized colonies, forests and agricultural fields. In some ways it is a dynamic society aspiring to global city grandeur; in other ways it is a bastion of tradition, sectarianism and hierarchy. Colossus details these realities and paradoxes under three themes: social change, community and state, and inequality. From the material condition of the metropolis - its housing, services, crime and pollution - to its social organization - of who marries whom, who eats with whom, and who votes for whom - this book unpacks the complex reality of a metropolitan region that is emblematic of India's aspirations and contradictions.
Providing adequate housing in an increasingly urbanised world is a major challenge of current times. This book puts together a compelling story based on fine-grained analysis of housing processes, as lived by slum-dwellers and their voice-bearers. It situates the lived experience of claiming adequate housing within informal transactions and negotiations of patronage networks vis-à-vis the formal institutional opportunities and closures of Indian democracy. In doing so, this research extends an innovative array of conceptual and methodological tools to grasp the context in which housing claims succeed and fail. This book contributes by responding to critical areas of social movement scholarship and by displaying community engagements and tactical strategies to bring about transformative change to claim adequate housing and resist co-opting forces for socially sustainable housing futures.
Liverpool Beyond the Brink is a fascinating commentary on the economic decline that caused the physical, social and political fragmentation of the imperial city during the1970s and the efforts since then to revive and reconnect it. It charts Liverpool's fall in the 1980s, its gradual normalisation in the 1990s, its staggering achievements and, as a European city in the first part of this century, its efforts to be ambitious in an age of austerity. This thought-provoking work asks: how far has Liverpool come and where does it now stand in comparison with thirty years ago and alongside other cities in the UK? What were the most important forces driving change? Who helped the most and who helped the least? Who and where gained the most and who and where gained the least? Finally, the author asks what is next for Liverpool: what are the current challenges for the city? Liverpool Beyond the Brink identifies the key economic, social and political challenges facing the city today to ensure there is increased productivity, future development is high quality and that the benefits of the city's renaissance are experienced by all the people in Liverpool in all parts of the city. [Cover image: Liverpool Waterfront 2017? McCoy Wynne (mccoywynne.co.uk)]
Population, cars and motorbikes have increased at higher than expected rates in Ho Chi Minh City, leading to increased congestion and strain on existing transportation infrastructure. While the city has a transportation infrastructure plan, it lacks adequate funds and is reliant on official development assistance (ODA) and foreign direct investment (FDI) to finance it. Amidst the backdrop of an opaque regulatory environment and intense competition among global ODA institutions, city officials speculate on multiple and contradictory transportation projects simultaneously. Conflicting interests between Bus Rapid Transit and Metro projects in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City exemplify the state's speculative forms of governance in capturing transnational flows of ODA capital to finance infrastructure and call into question dominant framings of infrastructure as rational processes and technologies that work against the so-called irrational and unplanned structure of the city.
The Forest City project in Johor, Malaysia is part of a larger plan to elevate Johor to development success, similar to Shenzhen's evolution from Hong Kong's backwaters to being a modern metropolis. However the project was embroiled in controversy from the beginning. The mixed development was meant to create sustainable homes, recreational areas, schools and business infrastructure that would house about 700,000 people, generate annual revenues of about RM30 million for the state, and create more than 60,000 jobs, including a substantial number for locals through a quota. Sudden capital controls imposed by China on its citizens in early 2017 put a spanner in the works. Middle-class Chinese struggling to afford homes in China's big cities were Forest City's prime clientele and the new regulations preventing the transfer of funds for property purchase and the use of credit cards for investment transactions have brought future sales and the completion of signed commitments into question. Forest City will now have to focus on other markets in order to meet its sales targets. While the project has its merits, the economic benefits might be overstated as a number of socio-economic and environmental impacts have not been fully taken into account.
This book challenges the conventional (modernist-inspired) understanding of urbanization as a universal process tied to the ideal-typical model of the modern metropolis with its origins in the grand Western experience of city-building. At the start of the twenty-first century, the familiar idea of the 'city' - or 'urbanism' as we know it - has experienced such profound mutations in both structure and form that the customary epistemological categories and prevailing conceptual frameworks that predominate in conventional urban theory are no longer capable of explaining the evolving patterns of city-making. Global urbanism has increasingly taken shape as vast, distended city-regions, where urbanizing landscapes are increasingly fragmented into discontinuous assemblages of enclosed enclaves characterized by global connectivity and concentrated wealth, on the one side, and distressed zones of neglect and impoverishment, on the other. These emergent patterns of what might be called enclave urbanism have gone hand-in-hand with the new modes of urban governance, where the crystallization of privatized regulatory regimes has effectively shielded wealthy enclaves from public oversight and interference.
The focus of the first half of the book is largely on the current engagement with cycling, challenges faced by existing and would-be cyclists and the issues cycling might address. The second half of the book is concerned with strategies and processes of change. Contributors working from different ontological positions reflect on changing socio-spatial relations to enable the broadest possible participation in cycling.
As the dynamo of South Africa’s economy, Johannesburg commands a central position in the nation’s imagination, and scholars throughout the world monitor the city as an exemplar of urbanity in the global South. This richly illustrated study offers detailed empirical analyses of changes in the city’s physical space, as well as a host of chapters on the character of specific neighbourhoods and the social identities being forged within them. Informing all of these is a consideration of underlying economic, social and political processes shaping the wider Gauteng region. A mix of respected academics, practising urban planners and experienced policymakers offer compelling overviews of the rapid and complex spatial developments that have taken place in Johannesburg since the end of apartheid, along with tantalising glimpses into life on the streets and behind the high walls of this diverse city. The book has three sections. Section A provides an overview of macro spatial trends and the policies that have infl uenced them. Section B explores the shaping of the city at district and suburban level, revealing the peculiarity of processes in different areas. This analysis elucidates thelarger trends, while identifying shifts that are not easily detected at the macro level. Section C is an assembly of chapters and short vignettes that focus on the interweaving of place and identity at a micro level.With empirical data supported by new data sets including the 2011 Census, the city’s Development Planning and Urban Management Department’s information system, and Gauteng City-Region Observatory’s substantial archive, the book is an essential reference for planning practitioners, urban geographers, sociologists, and social anthropologists, among others.
This concise yet comprehensive overview of the political and economic development of the world's cities offers a unique emphasis on its cultural impacts. The book emphasizes the transition from modern (industrial) to post-modern (post-industrial) eras and its effect on established and developing global cities, and arguments are supported with case studies for each of the main concepts of urban theory and research. Mark Abrahamson analyzes contemporary global cities - ranging from Lagos to Los Angeles, Paris to Beijing - helping students relate concepts to concrete places and understand the global nature of contemporary urban development. Rigorous yet accessible, this textbook includes key learning features designed to enrich student understanding and engagement, including chapter-by-chapter glossaries, summaries, and suggestions for further reading.
Urbanization occurs in tandem with development. Countries in Southeast Asia need to build - individually and collectively - the capacity of their cities and towns to promote economic growth and development, to make urban development more sustainable, to mitigate and adapt to climate change, and to ensure that all groups in society share in the development. This book is a result of a series of regional discussions by experts and practitioners involved in the urban development and planning of their countries. It highlights urbanization issues that have implications for regional - including ASEAN - cooperation, and provides practical recommendations for policymakers. It is a first step towards assisting governments in the region to take advantage of existing collaborative partnerships to address the urban transformation that Southeast Asia is experiencing today."Urbanization in Southeast Asia: Issues and Impacts is a landmark study on the increasingly urbanized condition of Southeast Asia. It is important because it presents a powerful argument for the role of regional action in developing policy and practical responses to the challenges of urbanization. Thus it offers important lessons for other parts of the world. This study, written by expert authors from within the region, outlines the challenges of urban sustainability, liveability and economic growth that Southeast Asia faces in the 21st century. Thus it provides a valuable roadmap for all concerned with the future of urbanization in Southeast Asia."—Professor Terry McGee, Professor Emeritus, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., Canada
This book distils thirty years of research on the impacts of jail and prison environments. The research program began with evaluations of new jails that were created by the US Bureau of Prisons, which had a novel design intended to provide a non-traditional and safe environment for pre-trial inmates and documented the stunning success of these jails in reducing tension and violence. This book uses assessments of this new model as a basis for considering the nature of environment and behavior in correctional settings and more broadly in all human settings. It provides a critical review of research on jail environments and of specific issues critical to the way they are experienced and places them in historical and theoretical context. It presents a contextual model for the way environment influences the chance of violence.
Planning Australia provides a comprehensive introduction to the major issues and activities that constitute urban and regional planning in Australia today. Incorporating contemporary theory and practice, it contextualises planning in terms of its theoretical, ideological and professional foundations. The book adopts an interdisciplinary approach to the subject, underpinned by the principles of sustainability and social equity. It canvasses the history of the discipline, its relationship to broader governance structures and its legislative framework. Fully revised and updated, this edition features new chapters on healthy planning and transport planning. Written in an accessible style and richly illustrated with instructive case study examples, Planning Australia is an indispensable resource for students, practitioners and decision-makers, as well as anyone interested in the history and future of planning in Australia.
Has anyone ever pushed in front of you in a queue? Stolen your parking space? Talked on their mobile phone during a film at the cinema? In our everyday lives we all encounter rude and inconsiderate people. This unique book provides the first ever systematic investigation of typical encounters with rudeness. Through a meticulous analysis of over 500 events, it maps out what people experience as rude, where and when this happens and what takes place in the exchange between the participants. The inquiry further charts the emotional and social consequences of rudeness and victimization, with the results challenging the widespread assumption that bad behaviour is toxic to community life. In conclusion the study draws upon its findings and surveys a range of strategies for reducing the level of incivility in everyday life, identifying some simple and innovative solutions. Incivility will appeal to criminologists, sociologists and scholars of urban studies.
'Sufi City: Urban Design and Archetypes in Touba' is a geographical study of the modern Muslim holy city of Touba in Senegal, capital of the Mouride Sufi order. Touba was founded in 1887 by a Sufi shaykh in a moment of mystic illumination. Since the death of the founder in 1927, the Mouride order has designed and built the entire city. Touba is named for Tûbâ, the 'Tree of Paradise' of Islamic tradition. This archetypal tree articulates Islamic conceptions of righteous life on earth, divine judgment, and access to the Hereafter; the city of Touba actualizes this spiritual construct. Important aspects of its configuration, such as the vertical and horizontal alignment of its monumental central shrine complex, its radiating avenues and encircling ring roads, and the actual trees that mark its landscape relate directly to the archetypal tree of Sufi theosophy. The relationship between the spiritual archetype and its earthly actualization as a city is explained by recourse to Sufi methodology. The book employs a semiotic analysis of urban form, cartography, hermeneutics, field investigation and analysis of satellite imagery in order to relate contemporary urban design issues to overarching metaphysical concepts. 'Sufi City' also explores the history of urban networks in Senegal since the emergence of autonomous Muslim towns in the seventeenth century. Finally, the layout of Senegal's modern Sufi cities is related to the monumental palaver trees that marked that country's historic settlements. Eric S. Ross is a cultural and urban geographer who holds a degree in Islamic Studies. Since 1998 he has been assistant professor of Geography at Al Akhawayn University in Ifrane, Morocco. Apart from research on Sufi orders and Muslim towns in Senegal, he has studied cultural tourism and urban planning in Morocco.
The Dignity of Resistance chronicles the four decade history of Chicago's Wentworth Gardens public housing residents' grassroots activism. This comprehensive case study explores why and how these African-American women creatively and effectively engaged in organizing efforts to resist increasing government disinvestment in public housing and the threat of demolition. Roberta M. Feldman and Susan Stall, utilizing a multi-disciplinary lens, explore the complexity and resourcefulness of Wentworth women's grassroots, organizing the ways in which their identities as poor African-American women and mothers both circumscribe their lives and shape their resistance. Through the inspirational voices of the activists, Feldman and Stall challenge portrayals of public housing residents as passive, alienated victims of despair. We learn instead how women residents collectively have built a cohesive, vital community, cultivated outside technical assistance, organizational and institutional supports, and have attracted funding - all to support the local facilities, services and programs necessary for the everyday needs for survival, and ultimately to save their home from demolition.
‘The City’ has always been a strong focal point for critical social enquiry given its undisputed centrality for human life in the modern era. More recently, there has been a surge of interest in the postmodern city, the most popular subject being Los Angeles and the ‘global city’ – the New Yorks, Londons and Tokyos of the world – cities linked together through flows of finance. This book seeks to redress the balance using Liverpool, a city neither recognised as a ‘global’ or ‘postmodern’, as its focus. Although Liverpool is the central theme of the book, it gives an informed comparative overview of the city in a worldwide context. The introductory chapter sets the scene for the various contributions by re-examining the postmodern global city thesis, surveying various attempts at regenerating cities like Liverpool and critically examining attempts and prospects for transforming the city. The following chapters examine in detail the cultural, social, and economic legacy of the city. Particular emphasis is placed on the people of Liverpool young and old, and how they envisage the city developing.
The story of the making and eventual implementation of a city and regional plan for the Londonderry area makes fascinating reading. Published in 1968, just before the outbreak of the recent 'troubles', it became the basis for subsequent plans implemented by officials of the Northern Ireland Department of the Environment, the Northern Ireland Housing Executive and dedicated community leaders. Their often heroic commitment to the future of the city and its environs transcends even the worst days of civil strife. The author was one of a small team that made the plan and he places it in context, explains how it came to be made and records the difficulties of planners working in the political circumstances that prevailed. Against the background of the general social, economic and physical conditions of the city and region, he focuses on the housing crisis before elaborating on the making of the plan in particular. Professor McSheffrey stresses that although the story may be of interest to planners and development professionals, it is not an academic study of the planning process. He hopes it will introduce general readers to the importance of planning and the complex social and ethical issues inherent in the process. Planning Derry for example, involved value judgements concerning people and political and religious views in Northern Ireland at the time, but he has tried to be objective and avoid bias or the espousal of a particular political viewpoint. The book is, above all, about the dedication of individuals who believed their planning efforts could make a difference and provide better living conditions and choices for the people of the area. McSheffrey concludes on an optimistic note concerning the future place of Derry in Ireland. As the peace process unfolds, he hopes that perhaps the people of Derry, as they continue to develop and rebuild their city, might become a symbol of liberation from the past and of expectations of a peaceful and prosperous future for all Irish people.
The story of the making and eventual implementation of a city and regional plan for the Londonderry area makes fascinating reading. Published in 1968, just before the outbreak of the recent 'troubles', it became the basis for subsequent plans implemented by officials of the Northern Ireland Department of the Environment, the Northern Ireland Housing Executive and dedicated community leaders. Their often heroic commitment to the future of the city and its environs transcends even the worst days of civil strife.The author was one of a small team that made the plan and he places it in context, explains how it came to be made and records the difficulties of planners working in the political circumstances that prevailed. Against the background of the general social, economic and physical conditions of the city and region, he focuses on the housing crisis before elaborating on the making of the plan in particular.Professor McSheffrey stresses that although the story may be of interest to planners and development professionals, it is not an academic study of the planning process. He hopes it will introduce general readers to the importance of planning and the complex social and ethical issues inherent in the process. Planning Derry for example, involved value judgements concerning people and political and religious views in Northern Ireland at the time, but he has tried to be objective and avoid bias or the espousal of a particular political viewpoint. The book is, above all, about the dedication of individuals who believed their planning efforts could make a difference and provide better living conditions and choices for the people of the area.McSheffrey concludes on an optimistic note concerning the future place of Derry in Ireland. As the peace process unfolds, he hopes that perhaps the people of Derry, as they continue to develop and rebuild their city, might become a symbol of liberation from the past and of expectations of a peaceful and prosperous future for all Irish people.
Following the devastation of the war in Bosnia, the European Union formed the European Union Administration of Mostar (EUAM) and John Yarwood a widely experienced architect, town planner and project manager worked as Director of Reconstruction for EUAM for the whole of the period of its mandate, from 1994 to 1996. On behalf of the international community, the EU formed a city administration in Mostar with the goal of reconciling the former warring parties; building security and creating a unified police force; establishing freedom of movement; holding democratic elections; and establishing a City Council. It also spent DM170 million on repairing 6000 houses, 30 public buildings, 25 schools, 18 health buildings, 70 water projects, 5 bridges, a construction equipment pool and a technical training centre. Ninety buildings were de-mined and an urban planning system was established. This was a project of unique historical significance from many points of view. In a book extensively illustrated with photographs and plans, Yarwood and his collaborators describe reconstruction from a general technical standpoint. The book shows what was done; explains how it was done; and considers the problems, issues, failures and successes. It analyses what lessons were learned and points out the relevance for similar future projects. The analysis is firmly grounded in the context of Bosnian and European politics.
This book is a study of design initiatives and policies in five US West Coast cities Seattle (including Bellevue), Portland, San Francisco, Irvine and San Diegoall of which have had particularly interesting urban design experience of relevance to practice in Britain and other countries. Although these cities are not a representative sample of all American design practice, they provide a rich vein of ideas about recent policy development and current initiatives which will stimulate thought about the formulation of effective design controls. The presentation of substantial extracts from key documents that underpin design controls in the five cities will be of interest, inspiration and practical use to academics and practitioners who want to know more about American practice and who want to contribute to improvements in the standards and quality of urban design policies and design control. The opening chapter provides a national context and a comparative framework for the study, with a focus on international perspectives, American planning systems and the development of criteria for comparison and evaluation. The five subsequent chapters take each city in turn, briefly reviewing the salient characteristics of each one before presenting an account of how planning and design policy have evolved in the last twenty-five years; key features of the contemporary systems of design control are highlighted and a summary evaluation is made. The focus in the case studies is on how policy and guidance have been formulated, structured and presented in the various documents that make up the policy framework, how the process of control operates, and how both respond to the criticisms commonly made of design and control. This final chapter draws general conclusions about the experience of the studied cities of wider relevance to American design review practice, but which are of interest to those engaged in design review and policy formulation everywhere.