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This is an introductory textbook on spatial analysis and spatial statistics through GIS. Each chapter presents methods and metrics, explains how to interpret results, and provides worked examples. Topics include: describing and mapping data through exploratory spatial data analysis; analyzing geographic distributions and point patterns; spatial autocorrelation; spatial clustering; geographically weighted regression and OLS regression; and spatial econometrics. The worked examples link theory to practice through a single real-world case study, with software and illustrated guidance. Exercises are solved twice: first through ArcGIS, and then GeoDa. Through a simple methodological framework the book describes the dataset, explores spatial relations and associations, and builds models. Results are critically interpreted, and the advantages and pitfalls of using various spatial analysis methods are discussed. This is a valuable resource for graduate students and researchers analyzing geospatial data through a spatial analysis lens, including those using GIS in the environmental sciences, geography, and social sciences.
Plant leaves collectively represent the largest above-ground surface area of plant material in virtually all environments. Their optical properties determine where and how energy and gas exchange occurs, which in turn drives the energy budget of the planet, and defines its ecology and habitability. This book reviews the state-of-the-art research on leaf optics. Topics covered include leaf traits, the anatomy and structure of leaves, leaf colour, biophysics and spectroscopy, radiometry, radiative transfer models, and remote and proximal sensing. A physical approach is emphasised throughout, providing the necessary foundations in physics, chemistry and biology to make the context accessible to readers from various subject backgrounds. It is a valuable resource for advanced students, researchers and government agency practitioners in remote sensing, plant physiology, ecology, resource management and conservation.
Written in an easy-to-follow approach, the text will help the readers to understand the techniques and applications of image fusion for remotely sensed multi-spectral images. It covers important multi-resolution fusion concepts along with the state-of-the-art methods including super resolution and multi stage guided filters. It includes in depth analysis on degradation estimation, Gabor Prior and Markov Random Field (MRF) Prior. Concepts such as guided filter and difference of Gaussian are discussed comprehensively. Novel techniques in multi-resolution fusion by making use of regularization are explained in detail. It also includes different quality assessment measures used in testing the quality of fusion. Real-life applications and plenty of multi-resolution images are provided in the text for enhanced learning.
Satellite remote sensing presents an amazing opportunity to inform biodiversity conservation by inexpensively gathering repeated monitoring information for vast areas of the Earth. However, these observations first need processing and interpretation if they are to inform conservation action. Through a series of case studies, this book presents detailed examples of the application of satellite remote sensing, covering both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, to conservation. The authors describe how collaboration between the remote sensing and conservation communities makes satellite data functional for operational conservation, and provide concrete examples of the lessons learned in addition to the scientific details. The editors, one at NASA and the other at a conservation NGO, have brought together leading researchers in conservation remote sensing to share their experiences from project development through to application, and emphasise the human side of these projects.
Introducing planetary photometry as a quantitative remote sensing tool, this handbook demonstrates how reflected light can be measured and used to investigate the physical properties of bodies in our Solar System. The author explains how data gathered from telescopes and spacecraft are processed and used to infer properties such as the size, shape, albedo, and composition of celestial objects including planets, moons, asteroids, and comets. Beginning with an overview of the history and background theory of photometry, later chapters delve into the physical principles behind commonly used photometric models and the mechanics of observation, data reduction, and analysis. Real-world examples, problems, and case studies are included, all at an introductory level suitable for new graduate students, planetary scientists, amateur astronomers and researchers looking for an overview of this field.
At the convergence of the land and sea, coastal environments are some of the most dynamic and populated places on Earth. This book explains how the many varied forms of spatial analysis, including mapping, monitoring and modelling, can be applied to a range of coastal environments such as estuaries, mangroves, seagrass beds and coral reefs. Presenting empirical geographical approaches to modelling, which draw on recent developments in remote sensing technology, geographical information science and spatial statistics, it provides the analytical tools to map, monitor and explain or predict coastal features. With detailed case studies and accompanying online practical exercises, it is an ideal resource for undergraduate courses in spatial science. Taking a broad view of spatial analysis and covering basic and advanced analytical areas such as spatial data and geostatistics, it is also a useful reference for ecologists, geomorphologists, geographers and modellers interested in understanding coastal environments.
A practical and self-contained guide to the principles, techniques, models and tools of imaging spectroscopy. Bringing together material from essential physics and digital signal processing, it covers key topics such as sensor design and calibration, atmospheric inversion and model techniques, and processing and exploitation algorithms. Readers will learn how to apply the main algorithms to practical problems, how to choose the best algorithm for a particular application, and how to process and interpret hyperspectral imaging data. A wealth of additional materials accompany the book online, including example projects and data for students, and problem solutions and viewgraphs for instructors. This is an essential text for senior undergraduate and graduate students looking to learn the fundamentals of imaging spectroscopy, and an invaluable reference for scientists and engineers working in the field.
This research volume outlines the scientific foundations that are central to our current understanding of light scattering, absorption and polarization processes involving ice crystals. It also demonstrates how data from satellite remote sensing of cirrus clouds can be combined with radiation parameterizations in climate models to estimate the role of these clouds in temperature and precipitation responses to climate change. Providing a balanced treatment of the fundamentals and applications, this book synthesizes the authors' own work, as well as that of other leading researchers in this area. Numerous illustrations are included, including three-dimensional schematics, to provide a concise discussion of the subject and enable easy visualization of the key concepts. This book is intended for active researchers and advanced graduate students in atmospheric science, climatology, and remote sensing, as well as scholars in related fields such as ice microphysics, electromagnetic wave propagation, geometric optics, radiative transfer and cloud-climate interactions.
Fully updated, with significant new coverage of advances in satellite oceanography and results from new satellite missions, the second edition of this popular textbook introduces students to how remote sensing works, how to understand observations from Earth-observing systems, and the observations' importance to physical and biological oceanography. It provides full explanations of radiative transfer, ocean surface properties, satellite orbits, instruments and methods, visible remote sensing of biogeochemical properties, infrared and microwave retrieval of sea surface temperature, sea surface salinity retrieval, passive microwave measurements, scatterometer wind retrieval, altimetry and SAR. Also included are descriptions of the online archives where data can be obtained, and readers can obtain online tools for working with the data - enabling hands-on engagement with real-world observations. This is an ideal textbook for graduate and advanced undergraduate students in oceanography, remote sensing and environmental science, and a practical resource for researchers and professionals working with oceanographic satellite data.
Encapsulating over one hundred years of research developments, this book is a comprehensive manual for measurements of Earth surface temperatures and heat fluxes, enabling better detection and measurement of volcanic activity. With a particular focus on volcanic hot spots, the book explores methodologies and principles used with satellite-, radiometer- and thermal-camera data. It presents traditional applications using satellite and ground based sensors as well as modern applications that have evolved for use with hand-held thermal cameras and is fully illustrated with case studies, databases and worked examples. Chapter topics include techniques for thermal mixture modelling and heat flux derivation, and methods for data collection, mapping and time-series generation. Appendices and online supplements present additional specific notes on areas of sensor application and data processing, supported by an extensive reference list. This book is an invaluable resource for academic researchers and graduate students in thermal remote sensing, volcanology, geophysics and planetary studies.
Fully updated and containing significant new material on photography, laser profiling and image processing, the third edition of this popular textbook covers a broad range of remote sensing applications and techniques across the Earth, environmental and planetary sciences. It focuses on physical principles, giving students a deeper understanding of remote sensing systems and their possibilities, while remaining accessible to those with less mathematical training by providing a step-by-step approach to quantitative topics. Boxed examples, additional photos and numerous colour images engage students and show them how the theory relates to the many real-world applications. Chapter summaries, review questions and additional problems allow students to check their understanding of key concepts and practise handling real data for themselves. Supplementary online material includes links to freely available software, animations, computer programs, colour images and other web-based resources of interest.
Reflectance and emittance spectroscopy are increasingly important tools in remote sensing and have been employed in most recent planetary spacecraft missions. They are primarily used to measure properties of disordered materials, especially in the interpretation of remote observations of the surfaces of the Earth and other terrestrial planets. This book gives a quantitative treatment of the physics of the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with particulate media, such as powders and soils. Subjects covered include electromagnetic wave propagation, single particle scattering, diffuse reflectance, thermal emittance and polarisation. This new edition has been updated to include a quantitative treatment of the effects of porosity, a detailed discussion of the coherent backscatter opposition effect, a quantitative treatment of simultaneous transport of energy within the medium by conduction and radiation, and lists of relevant databases and software. This is an essential reference for research scientists, engineers and advanced students of planetary remote sensing.
Image registration employs digital image processing in order to bring two or more digital images into precise alignment for analysis and comparison. Accurate registration algorithms are essential for creating mosaics of satellite images and tracking changes on the planet's surface over time. Bringing together invited contributions from thirty-six distinguished researchers, the book presents a detailed overview of current research and practice in the application of image registration to remote sensing imagery. Chapters cover the problem definition, theoretical issues in accuracy and efficiency, fundamental algorithms, and real-world case studies of image registration software applied to imagery from operational satellite systems. This book provides a comprehensive and practical overview for Earth and space scientists, presents image processing researchers with a summary of current research, and can be used for specialised graduate courses.
Remote Sensing of Landscapes with Spectral Images describes how to process and interpret spectral images using physical models to bridge the gap between the engineering and theoretical sides of remote-sensing and the world that we encounter when we venture outdoors. The emphasis is on the practical use of images rather than on theory and mathematical derivations. Examples are drawn from a variety of landscapes and interpretations are tested against the reality seen on the ground. The reader is led through analysis of real images (using figures and explanations); the examples are chosen to illustrate important aspects of the analytic framework. This textbook will form a valuable reference for graduate students and professionals in a variety of disciplines including ecology, forestry, geology, geography, urban planning, archaeology and civil engineering. It is supplemented by a website hosting digital colour versions of figures in the book as well as ancillary images: www.cambridge.org/9780521662214.
This book was first published in 2004. In many applications, images, such as ultrasonic or X-ray signals, are recorded and then analyzed with digital or optical processors in order to extract information. Such processing requires the development of algorithms of great precision and sophistication. This book presents a unified treatment of the mathematical methods that underpin the various algorithms used in remote image formation. The author begins with a review of transform and filter theory. He then discusses two- and three-dimensional Fourier transform theory, the ambiguity function, image construction and reconstruction, tomography, baseband surveillance systems, and passive systems (where the signal source might be an earthquake or a galaxy). Information-theoretic methods in image formation are also covered, as are phase errors and phase noise. Throughout the book, practical applications illustrate theoretical concepts, and there are many homework problems. The book is aimed at graduate students of electrical engineering and computer science, and practitioners in industry.
This new edition textbook explains remote sensing of the Earth's surface and atmosphere from space using electromagnetic radiation. It covers topics such as overviews of electromagnetic propagation in free space and in matter, surface and volume scattering, the interaction of radiation with the atmosphere, the main classes of sensor, satellite orbits for remote sensing, and an introduction to image processing. Extensively revised and expanded, the second edition contains completely new material, including a discussion of the radiative transfer equation, atmospheric sounding techniques and interferometric radar and a discussion of GPS. Also including numerous problems with solutions, this book forms the basis of an introductory course for students in remote sensing, geography, cartography, surveying, meteorology, earth sciences and environmental sciences. It will also be an essential reference for researchers and a useful supplementary text in some physics, mathematics and engineering courses.
This book describes the scattering of waves, both scalar and electromagnetic, from impenetrable and penetrable spheres. Although the scattering of plane waves from spheres is an old subject, there is little doubt that it is still maturing as a broad range of new applications demands an understanding of finer details. In this book attention is focused primarily on spherical radii much larger than incident wavelengths, along with the asymptotic techniques required for physical analysis of the scattering mechanisms involved. Applications to atmospheric phenomena such as the rainbow and glory are included, as well as a detailed analysis of optical resonances. Extensions of the theory to inhomogeneous and nonspherical particles, collections of spheres, and bubbles are also discussed. This book will be of primary interest to graduate students and researchers in physics (particularly in the fields of optics, the atmospheric sciences and astrophysics), electrical engineering, physical chemistry and some areas of biology.
This book is aimed at students and researchers who wish to use reflectance and emittance as quantitative tools to measure the properties of surfaces and materials. It is intended primarily for use in the interpretation of remote observations of the surfaces of the Earth and other planets, and it will also be useful to chemists, physicists, geologists, engineers and others who deal with particulate media. Topics include propagation and absorption of light in continuous media, reflection by smooth surfaces, scattering by spheres and irregular particles, reflectances and emissivities of particulate media, reflectance and emittance spectroscopy, and the polarization of light scattered by particulate media. Many examples of applications are given.
Berlin offers an in-depth look into all the engineering aspects of geostationary satellite design, construction, and launch. Geostationary satellites have opened new doors for the peaceful use of outer space. From vantage points 22,000 miles above the equator, they permit people anywhere on land, at sea, or in the air to communicate with each other, and they provide meteorologists, geologists, and other scientists with photographs of the earth. This book gives equal emphasis to the explanation of launch vehicles, orbital mechanics, the space environment, spacecraft structures, mechanisms, thermal control, telemetry tracking and command, communications technology, meterological payloads, product assurance and testing.
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