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Shipping is responsible for transporting 90% of the world's trade. This book provides a comprehensive review of the impact shipping has on the environment. Topics covered include pollutant discharges such as atmospheric emissions, oil, chemical waste, sewage and biocides; as well as non-pollutant impacts including invasive species, wildlife collisions, noise, physical damage, and the environmental effects associated with shipwrecks and shipbreaking. The history of relevant international legislation is also covered. With chapters written by eminent international authors, this book provides a global perspective on the environmental impact of ships, making it a useful reference for advanced students and researchers of environmental science, as well as practitioners of maritime law and policy, and marine business.
All Earth Science students need to understand the origins, environments, and basic processes that produce igneous and metamorphic rocks. This concise introductory textbook provides students with the essential knowledge needed to understand how petrology relates to other topics in the geologic sciences, and has been written specifically for one-semester courses. Throughout, the emphasis is on interpreting the mineralogy and petrology of rock suites in terms of origin and environment, with the first half of the book concentrating on igneous rocks, and the second half on metamorphic rocks. This Second Edition has been thoroughly revised and brought completely up-to-date. It now includes a new chapter on the application of stable and radiogenic isotopes in petrology, introducing students to the concept of isotopic fractionation and describing the process of radioactive decay. The discussions of phase diagrams, connections between igneous and metamorphic rock suites, and convergent margin magmatism have also been expanded. There is a new glossary of terms, updated end-of-chapter exercises, and updated further readings.
Carbon is one of the most important elements of our planet, and ninety percent of it resides inside Earth's interior. This book summarizes ten years of research by scientists involved in the Deep Carbon Observatory, a global community of 1200 scientists. It is a comprehensive guide to carbon inside Earth, including its quantities, movements, forms, origins, changes over time, and impact on planetary processes. Leading experts from a variety of fields, including geoscience, biology, chemistry, and physics, provide exciting new insights into the interconnected nature of the global carbon cycle, and explain why it matters to the past, present, and future of our planet. With end-of-chapter problems, illustrative infographics, full-color images, and access to online models and datasets, it is a valuable reference for graduate students, researchers, and professional scientists interested in carbon cycling and Earth system science. This title is also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core.
The 2011 disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station led to serious radioactive contamination of the environment. Due to transportation by seasonal wind and ocean currents, these radioactive materials have now been observed in many places in the Northern Hemisphere. This book provides a unique summary of the environmental impact of the unprecedented accident. It covers how radioactive materials were transported through the atmosphere, oceans and land. The techniques used to investigate the deposition and migration processes are also discussed including atmospheric observation, soil mapping, forest and ecosystem investigations, and numerical simulations. With chapters written by international experts, this is a crucial resource for researchers working on the dispersion and impact of radionuclides in the environment. It also provides essential knowledge for nuclear engineers, social scientists and policymakers to help develop suitable mitigation measures to prepare for similar large-scale natural hazards in the future.
Geomicrobiology is the study of microbes and microbial processes and their role in driving environmental and geological processes at scales ranging from the nano, micron, to meter scale. This growing field has seen major advances in recent years, largely due to the development of new analytical tools and improvements to existing techniques, which allow us to better understand the complex interactions between microbes and their surroundings. In this comprehensive handbook, expert authors outline the state-of-the-art and emerging analytical techniques used in geomicrobiology. Readers are guided through each technique including background theory, sample preparation, standard methodology, data collection and analysis, best practices and common pitfalls, and examples of how and where the technique has been applied. The book provides a practical go-to reference for advanced students, researchers and professional scientists looking to employ techniques commonly used in geomicrobiology.
The third edition of Radiogenic Isotope Geology examines revolutionary changes in geochemical thinking that have occurred over the past fifteen years. Extinct-nuclide studies on meteorites have called into question fundamental geochemical models of the Earth, while new dating methods have challenged conventional views of Earth history. At the same time, the problem of global warming has raised new questions about the causes of past and present climate change. In the new edition, these and other recent issues are evaluated in their scholarly and historical context, so readers can understand the development of current ideas. Controversial theories, new analytical techniques, classic papers, and illustrative case studies all come under scrutiny in this book, providing an accessible introduction for students and critical commentary for researchers.
Mathematical modeling of atmospheric composition is a formidable scientific and computational challenge. This comprehensive presentation of the modeling methods used in atmospheric chemistry focuses on both theory and practice, from the fundamental principles behind models, through to their applications in interpreting observations. An encyclopaedic coverage of methods used in atmospheric modeling, including their advantages and disadvantages, makes this a one-stop resource with a large scope. Particular emphasis is given to the mathematical formulation of chemical, radiative, and aerosol processes; advection and turbulent transport; emission and deposition processes; as well as major chapters on model evaluation and inverse modeling. The modeling of atmospheric chemistry is an intrinsically interdisciplinary endeavour, bringing together meteorology, radiative transfer, physical chemistry and biogeochemistry, making the book of value to a broad readership. Introductory chapters and a review of the relevant mathematics make this book instantly accessible to graduate students and researchers in the atmospheric sciences.
Thermodynamics deals with energy levels and energy transfers between states of matter, and is therefore fundamental to all branches of science. This new edition provides an accessible introduction to the subject, specifically tailored to the interests of Earth and environmental science students. Beginning at an elementary level, the first four chapters explain all necessary concepts via a simple graphical approach. Throughout the rest of the book, the author emphasizes the importance of field observations and demonstrates that, despite being derived from idealized circumstances, thermodynamics is crucial to understanding ore formation, acid mine drainage, and other real-world geochemical and geophysical problems. Exercises now follow each chapter, with answers provided at the end of the book. An associated website includes extra chapters and password-protected answers to additional problems. This textbook is ideal for undergraduate and graduate students studying geochemistry and environmental science.
The time-dependent decay of naturally occurring radioactive isotopes or in-growth of their radioactive or stable daughter products form the basis of radiometric dating of several natural processes. Developed in the beginning of the last century mainly to determine the absolute ages of rocks and minerals, radiometric chronology now plays a central role in a broad range of Earth and planetary sciences - from extra-solar-system processes to environmental geoscience. With the prerequisite of only college-level knowledge in physics, chemistry and mathematics, this concise book focuses on the essential principles of radiometric dating in order to enable students and teachers belonging to diverse fields of studies to select, understand and interpret radiometric dating results generated and published by professionals.
The diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT) technique is a means of measuring the concentration and speciation of metals in natural waters. Edited by one of the pioneers of the technique, this unique volume provides a complete and authoritative guide to the theory and applications of DGT. The book includes explanations of the fundamental principles of DGT, accessible to readers with a modest background in chemistry, as well as more advanced chapters that provide a thorough treatment of the physical and chemical dynamics of this technique and evaluate how well it mimics the biological uptake process. Chapters on natural waters, soils and sediments illustrate the applications of DGT, and detailed instructions are included on how to use DGT in practice. Combining the fundamentals of DGT with more advanced principles, this is an indispensable text for students, researchers and professional scientists interested in the chemistry of natural waters, soils and sediments.
Isotopes provide important information on many geological processes, with key relevance to the mining and petroleum industries, yet the techniques to obtain, process and interpret the data can be complex to master. This accessible book provides broad coverage of radiogenic isotopes in geochronology and geochemistry, explaining the basic principles and state-of-the-art techniques used to study them, with an emphasis on industry applications. The major isotopic systems are fully summarised with relation to real-world applications, enabling readers to decide which technique is most relevant for the problem they want to solve, and then to rigorously evaluate existing data, or recalculate and reassess datasets to avoid duplication of effort. A comprehensive glossary clarifies the numerous acronyms used in the field. Written at a level appropriate for advanced undergraduate students, the book also includes detail which allows more experienced practitioners to maximise the potential value of isotopic datasets.
This is the first comprehensive text on the theory and practice of aquatic organic matter fluorescence analysis, written by the experts who pioneered the research area. This book covers the topic in the broadest possible terms, providing a common reference for making measurements that are comparable across disciplines, and allowing consistent interpretation of data and results. The book includes the fundamental physics and chemistry of organic matter fluorescence, as well as the effects of environmental factors. All aspects of sample handling, data processing, and the operation of both field and laboratory instrumentation are included, providing the practical advice required for successful fluorescence analyses. Advanced methods for data interpretation and modeling, including parallel factor analysis, are also discussed. The book will interest those establishing field, laboratory, or industrial applications of fluorescence, including advanced students and researchers in environmental chemistry, marine science, environmental geosciences, environmental engineering, soil science, and physical geography.
The Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action (NAMA) is the new kid on the block in the battle against climate change. The NAMA is the most decisive instrument devised to address the fact that today the only source of growing emissions are the world's developing countries. But as it is based purely on voluntarism it crucially depends on financing models that can lift the concept off the ground. This book provides the first insights as to how this concept can deliver on its promise - and challenges some of the fundamental mantras in international climate change collaboration.
This well-organised, comprehensive reference and textbook describes rate models developed from fundamental kinetic theory and presents models using consistent terminology and notation. Major topics include rate equations, reactor theory, transition state theory, surface reactivity, advective and diffusive transport, aggregation kinetics, nucleation kinetics and solid-solid transformation rates. The theoretical basis and mathematical derivation of each model is presented in detail and illustrated with worked examples from real-world applications to geochemical problems. The book is also supported by online resources: self-study problems put students' new learning into practice, and spreadsheets provide the full data used in figures and examples, enabling students to manipulate the data for themselves. This is an ideal overview for graduate students, providing a solid understanding of geochemical kinetics. It will also provide researchers and professional geochemists with a valuable reference for solving scientific and engineering problems.
This volume provides a state-of-the-art summary of biogeochemical dynamics at major river-coastal interfaces for advanced students and researchers. River systems play an important role (via the carbon cycle) in the natural self-regulation of Earth's surface conditions by serving as a major sink for anthropogenic CO2. Approximately 90 percent of global carbon burial occurs in ocean margins, with the majority of this thought to be buried in large delta-front estuaries (LDEs). This book provides information on how humans have altered carbon cycling, sediment dynamics, CO2 budgets, wetland dynamics, and nutrients and trace element cycling at the land-margin interface. Many of the globally important LDEs are discussed across a range of latitudes, elevation and climate in the drainage basin, coastal oceanographic setting, and nature and degree of human alteration. It is this breadth of examination that provides the reader with a comprehensive understanding of the overarching controls on major river biogeochemistry.
Mapping closely to how ore deposit geology is now taught, this textbook systematically describes and illustrates the major ore deposit types, linking this to their settings in the crust and the geological factors behind their formation. Written for advanced undergraduate and graduate students with a basic background in the geosciences, it provides a balance of practical information and coverage of the relevant geological sciences, including petrological, geochemical, hydrological and tectonic processes. Important theory is summarized without unnecessary detail and integrated with students' learning in other topics, including magmatic processes and sedimentary geology, enabling students to make links across the geosciences. Students are supported by further reading, a comprehensive glossary, and problems and review questions that test the application of theoretical approaches and encourage students to use what they have learnt. A website includes visual resources and combines with the book to provide students and instructors with a complete learning package.
Fully updated and expanded, this new edition provides students with an accessible introduction to marine chemistry. It highlights geochemical interactions between the ocean, solid earth, atmosphere and climate, enabling students to appreciate the interconnectedness of Earth's processes and systems and elucidates the huge variations in the oceans' chemical environment, from surface waters to deep water. Written in a clear, engaging way, the book provides students in oceanography, marine chemistry and biogeochemistry with the fundamental tools they need for a strong understanding of ocean chemistry. Appendices present information on seawater properties, key equations and constants for calculating oceanographic processes. New to this edition are end-of-chapter problems for students to put theory into practice, summaries to allow easy review of material and a comprehensive glossary. Supporting online resources include solutions to problems and figures from the book.
This textbook presents the chemistry of the environment using the full strength of physical, inorganic and organic chemistry, in addition to the necessary mathematics and physics. It provides a broad yet thorough description of the environment and the environmental impact of human activity using scientific principles. It gives an accessible account while paying attention to the fundamental basis of the science, showing derivations of formulas and giving primary references and historical insight. The authors make consistent use of professionally accepted nomenclature (IUPAC and SI), allowing transparent access to the material by students and scientists from other fields. This textbook has been developed through many years of feedback from students and colleagues. It includes more than 400 online student exercises that have been class tested and refined. The book will be invaluable in environmental chemistry courses for advanced undergraduate and graduate students and professionals in chemistry and allied fields.
A clear understanding of the Earth's past evolution can provide the key to its possible future development. The Earth: Its Birth and Growth explores the evolution of the Earth over 4.6 billion years using basic reasoning and simple illustrations to help explain the underlying physical and chemical principles and major processes involved. Fully updated and revised, this rigorous but accessible second edition includes three completely new chapters. It incorporates exciting developments in isotope geology, placing results within a wider framework of Earth evolution and plate tectonics. Some background in physics and chemistry is assumed, but basic theories and processes are explained concisely in self-contained sections. Key research papers and review articles are fully referenced. This book is ideal as supplementary reading for undergraduate and graduate students in isotope geochemistry, geodynamics, plate tectonics and planetary science. It also provides an enjoyable overview of Earth's evolution for professional scientists and general readers.
Pigments act as tracers to elucidate the fate of phytoplankton in the world's oceans and are often associated with important biogeochemical cycles related to carbon dynamics in the oceans. They are increasingly used in in situ and remote-sensing applications, detecting algal biomass and major taxa through changes in water colour. This book is a follow-up to the 1997 volume Phytoplankton Pigments in Oceanography (UNESCO Press). Since then, there have been many advances concerning phytoplankton pigments. This book includes recent discoveries on several new algal classes particularly for the picoplankton, and on new pigments. It also includes many advances in methodologies, including liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and developments and updates on the mathematical methods used to exploit pigment information and extract the composition of phytoplankton communities. The book is invaluable primarily as a reference for students, researchers and professionals in aquatic science, biogeochemistry and remote sensing.