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This book covers in-depth discussion of design principles, synthesis and thermal behavior of all types of liquid crystal (LC) dimers. The text presents recent advances in the field of LC dimers consisting of different mesogenic units such as calamitic, discotic and bent-core molecules. It starts with a chapter on the introduction of liquid crystal dimers, including their odd-even behavior, basic classification of dimers and common mesophases in dimers. The text shows how the molecular architectures are being used to develop new materials to study a range of interesting phenomena such as the biaxial nematic phase containing rod-like and disc-like mesogenic units. Finally, the text presents perspectives related to technological relevance of these dimers such as dopants in LC display mixtures exhibiting faster relaxation time, strong flexoelectric coupling and others to effect control over the properties of these materials.
Clusters can be viewed as solids at the nano-scale, yet molecular cluster chemistry and solid state chemistry have traditionally been considered as separate topics. This treatment has made it conceptually difficult to appreciate commonalities of structure and bonding between the two. Using analogous models, this is the first book to form a connecting bridge. Although the focus is on clusters, sufficient attention is paid to solid-state compounds at each stage of the development to establish the interrelationship between the two topics. Comprehensive coverage of cluster types by composition, size and ligation, is provided, as is a synopsis of selected research. Written in an accessible style and highly illustrated to aid understanding, this book is suitable for researchers in inorganic chemistry, physical chemistry, materials science, and condensed matter physics.
This graduate level text presents the first comprehensive overview of modern chemical valency and bonding theory, written by internationally recognised experts in the field. The authors build on the foundation of Lewis- and Pauling-like localized structural and hybridization concepts to present a book that is directly based on current ab-initio computational technology. The presentation is highly visual and intuitive throughout, based on the recognizable and transferable graphical forms of natural bond orbitals (NBOs) and their spatial overlaps in the molecular environment. The book shows applications to a broad range of molecular and supramolecular species of organic, inorganic and bioorganic interest. Hundreds of orbital illustrations help to convey the essence of modern NBO concepts for those with no extensive background in the mathematical machinery of the Schrödinger equation. This book will appeal to those studying chemical bonding in relation to chemistry, chemical engineering, biochemistry and physics.
One of the motivating questions in materials research today is, how can elements be combined to produce a solid with specified properties? This book is intended to acquaint the reader with established principles of crystallography and cohesive forces that are needed to address the fundamental relationship between the composition, structure and bonding. Starting with an introduction to periodic trends, the book discusses crystal structures and the various primary and secondary bonding types, and finishes by describing a number of models for predicting phase stability and structure. Containing a large number of worked examples, exercises, and detailed descriptions of numerous crystal structures, this book is primarily intended as an advanced undergraduate or graduate level textbook for students of materials science. It will also be useful to scientists and engineers who work with solid materials.
This book describes for the first time in a modern text the fundamental principles on which solid state chemistry is based. In this sense it differs from other books on the subject, which tend to concentrate only on a description of materials.Topics include solid (ceramic) electrolytes, glasses, polymer electrolytes, intercalation electrodes, interfaces and applications. The different nature of ionic conductivity in ceramic, glassy and polymer electrolytes is described, as are the thermodynamics and kinetics of intercalation reactions. The interface between solid electrolytes and electrodes is discussed and contrasted with more conventional liquid state electrochemistry.The text provides an essential foundation for postgraduates and others entering the field for the first time and will also be of value in advanced undergraduate courses.
Acid-base cements have been known since the mid-nineteenth century and offer an alternative to polymerization as a route for forming solid substances. They are quick setting materials and some have unusual properties for cements, such as adhesion and translucency. They find diverse applications ranging from the biomedical to the industrial. Despite this there has been a failure to recognize them as constituting a single, well defined class of material. This book attempts to remedy this situation by unifying the subject and treating this range of materials as a single class. Following a brief historical overview, an introductory chapter defines these cements as materials that are formed by reacting a basic powder with an acidic liquid to yield a salt-like matrix. The nature of the cementation process and the cement-forming acids and bases are discussed. Other chapters are devoted to the methods of study, the structure of water and simple polyelectrolyte theory. In the remaining chapters the various types of cements classified according the anionic constituent of the matrix, are described. Thus, there are chapters on polyalkenoate, phosphate, oxychloride, oxysulphate and the non-aqueous phenolate cements. A chapter is devoted to miscellaneous aqueous cements which include the recently discovered polyphosphonate cements.
Protonic conduction in liquid electrolytes is commonplace but is relatively rare in solids. There is much interest worldwide in proton conducting solids, both from the scientific aspect, as materials with novel properties, but also for their possible applications in high-density solid-state batteries, sensors and other electrochemical devices. This book gives a comprehensive review of proton conductors, including theory, techniques, the materials themselves and applications.
Inorganic Substances is complementary in its approach to conventional inorganic chemistry textbooks. Written with the undergraduate in mind, it gives an introduction to descriptive inorganic chemistry, a systematic survey of the chemistry of the elements according to the Periodic Classification. In this way, the reader acquires a firm grasp of the principles which underlie which inorganic substances can be made, their preparations, structures, chemical reactions and physical properties. The book presents theory as a background to the facts of inorganic chemistry, rather than as an end in itself. It does not concentrate on structural detail or reaction mechanisms but stresses the interplay between thermodynamic and kinetic considerations in understanding stability. The ways in which the various theories of structure and bonding are related are thoroughly dealt with throughout. The approach of this book makes it a useful companion to any intermediate inorganic chemistry course. It should also be useful to other science students, especially earth and material scientists who need a good grounding in modern inorganic chemistry.
This book contains an overview of complex formation by macrocyclic ligand systems. The study of macrocyclic chemistry represents a major area of activity which impinges on a range of other areas in both chemistry and biochemistry. The field has characteristically yielded many interesting and unusual compounds. The text discusses the structures and properties of macrocyclic compounds; the synthesis of macrocycles; polyether crown and related systems; metal-ion and molecular recognition (host-guest chemistry); as well as kinetic, thermodynamic and electrochemical aspects of a range of macrocyclic systems. A discussion of the different categories of naturally occurring macrocycles is also included. Specialist and non-specialist alike will find this a useful text. Apart from serving as a convenient reference for established workers in the field, it should also prove useful to new graduate students as well as to researchers from other areas who seek a general introduction to the subject. The topics discussed also provide a suitable basis for a senior undergraduate or graduate course in macrocyclic chemistry and inorganic complexes.
Jeans's primary aim with the first edition of his book, originally published in 1904, was to 'develop the theory of gases upon as exact a mathematical basis as possible'. Twenty years later and those theories were being revolutionised by Quantum Theory. In this fourth edition, Jeans does not attempt to avoid the discoveries of this topical science, but rather exposes the many difficulties that classical theory was experiencing, and how those problems disappeared with Quantum Theory. This edition therefore offers a fascinating insight into a field of physics in transition between two great models of physical science.
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