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This is an introductory text intended to give the non-specialist a comprehensive insight into the science of biotransformations. The book traces the history of biotransformations, clearly spells out the pros and cons of conducting enzyme-mediated versus whole-cell bioconversions, and gives a variety of examples wherein the bio-reaction is a key element in a reaction sequence leading from cheap starting materials to valuable end-products (such as pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals, fragrances and flavours). Biotransformations involving the hydrolysis of esters, amides and nitriles, the synthesis of esters and amides, reduction and oxidation reactions and carbon–carbon bond-forming systems are discussed. The book finishes with a discussion of some industrially important large-scale bioconversions.
This book outlines the basic science underlying the prediction of stress and velocity distributions in granular materials. It takes the form of a textbook suitable for postgraduate courses, research workers and for use in design offices. The nature of a rigid-plastic material is discussed and a comparison is made between the Coulomb and conical (extended Von Mises) models. The methods of measuring material properties are described and an interpretation of the experimental results is considered in the context of the Critical State Theory. The book will be an invaluable text for all those working with or doing research into granular materials. Exercises and solutions are provided which will be particularly useful for the student.
This book is about radioactive gases and particles which are dispersed in the environment, either from natural causes, or following nuclear test and accidental emissions. In the first five chapters of this book, the formation and properties of radioactive aerosols are described. Radon, which is of natural origin, is treated at some length, because its contribution to background radiation dose is important. Chapters describe the release of fission products, tritium and plutonium, in bomb tests and nuclear accidents. Particular reference is made to the pathways leading via agricultural products to man. The emphasis then changes to cover experimental aspects of radioactive aerosols. For example, problems in micrometeorology, the study of mass transfer, the mechanics of the human lung and uptake of lead from motor exhausts. Arthur Chamberlain has worked at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment at Harwell for thirty years as the leader of the Aerosol Group. It is a unique exposition and will be used by chemists, geographers, environmentalists as well as governments and other agencies involved in the nuclear debate.
First published in 1875, this book describes the history and science of photography, with an emphasis on the practical processes involved and their relation to the physical and chemical properties of light. Hermann Vogel (1834–1898), who pioneered the technology for colour photography, was Professor of Photography at the Royal Industrial Academy of Berlin. Here he explains the science of photography simply and concisely for a popular readership. The book has 100 illustrations, including both woodcuts and 'specimens of the latest discoveries in photography', intended to demonstrate the value of the technology to society. It traces the history of photography from its beginnings in experiments conducted by Davy and Wedgwood and the invention of the Daguerreotype to the most recent developments of Vogel's day. It was regarded as the most comprehensive guide to photography then available, and ran to several editions. This reissue is of the fourth edition of 1883.
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