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This is the first comprehensive text on the theory and practice of aquatic organic matter fluorescence analysis, written by the experts who pioneered the research area. This book covers the topic in the broadest possible terms, providing a common reference for making measurements that are comparable across disciplines, and allowing consistent interpretation of data and results. The book includes the fundamental physics and chemistry of organic matter fluorescence, as well as the effects of environmental factors. All aspects of sample handling, data processing, and the operation of both field and laboratory instrumentation are included, providing the practical advice required for successful fluorescence analyses. Advanced methods for data interpretation and modeling, including parallel factor analysis, are also discussed. The book will interest those establishing field, laboratory, or industrial applications of fluorescence, including advanced students and researchers in environmental chemistry, marine science, environmental geosciences, environmental engineering, soil science, and physical geography.
This textbook presents the chemistry of the environment using the full strength of physical, inorganic and organic chemistry, in addition to the necessary mathematics and physics. It provides a broad yet thorough description of the environment and the environmental impact of human activity using scientific principles. It gives an accessible account while paying attention to the fundamental basis of the science, showing derivations of formulas and giving primary references and historical insight. The authors make consistent use of professionally accepted nomenclature (IUPAC and SI), allowing transparent access to the material by students and scientists from other fields. This textbook has been developed through many years of feedback from students and colleagues. It includes more than 400 online student exercises that have been class tested and refined. The book will be invaluable in environmental chemistry courses for advanced undergraduate and graduate students and professionals in chemistry and allied fields.
This new edition of Mark Z. Jacobson's textbook provides a comprehensive introduction to the history and science of the major air pollution and climate problems that face the world today, as well as the energy and policy solutions to those problems. Every chapter has been brought completely up to date with new data, figures and text. There is a new additional chapter on large-scale solutions to climate and air pollution problems. Many more color photographs and diagrams, and many additional examples and homework problems have been added. This is an ideal introductory textbook on air pollution for students taking courses in atmospheric chemistry and physics, meteorology, environmental science, Earth science, civil and environmental engineering, chemistry, environmental law and politics, and city planning and regulation. It will also form a valuable reference text for researchers and an introduction to the subject for general audiences.
Pigments act as tracers to elucidate the fate of phytoplankton in the world's oceans and are often associated with important biogeochemical cycles related to carbon dynamics in the oceans. They are increasingly used in in situ and remote-sensing applications, detecting algal biomass and major taxa through changes in water colour. This book is a follow-up to the 1997 volume Phytoplankton Pigments in Oceanography (UNESCO Press). Since then, there have been many advances concerning phytoplankton pigments. This book includes recent discoveries on several new algal classes particularly for the picoplankton, and on new pigments. It also includes many advances in methodologies, including liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and developments and updates on the mathematical methods used to exploit pigment information and extract the composition of phytoplankton communities. The book is invaluable primarily as a reference for students, researchers and professionals in aquatic science, biogeochemistry and remote sensing.
The third edition of this well-received textbook delivers a concise overview of global and individual environmental pollution for undergraduate courses, presenting students with the tools to assess environmental issues. With more than thirty percent new material, Hill assesses pollution from an international perspective, including air and water pollution, global warming, energy, solid and hazardous waste, and pollution at home. Both the sources and impacts of pollution are addressed, as well as governmental, corporate, and personal responsibility for pollution, and pollution prevention is emphasized throughout. Non-technical language encourages greater understanding of these often complex issues, and thought-provoking 'Delving Deeper' exercises are included, increasing engagement with the text and enabling students to apply what they have learned. A new chapter on the chemistry basics of pollution links to sections on toxicology and risk assessment, helping students understand concerns over chemicals and their regulation. An essential review of environmental pollution for environmental science students.
Introducing the essentials of modern geochemistry for students across the Earth and environmental sciences, this new edition emphasises the general principles of this central discipline. Focusing on inorganic chemistry, Francis Albarède's refreshing approach is brought to topics that range from measuring geological time to the understanding of climate change. The author leads the student through the necessary mathematics to understand the quantitative aspects of the subject in an easily understandable manner. The early chapters cover the principles and methods of physics and chemistry that underlie geochemistry, to build the students' understanding of concepts such as isotopes, fractionation, and mixing. These are then applied across many of the environments on Earth, including the solid Earth, rivers, and climate, and then extended to processes on other planets. Three new chapters have been added – on stable isotopes, biogeochemistry, and environmental geochemistry. End-of-chapter student exercises, with solutions available online, are also included.
This book provides a comprehensive overview of reaction processes in the Earth's crust and on its surface, both in the laboratory and in the field. A clear exposition of the underlying equations and calculation techniques is balanced by a large number of fully worked examples. The book uses The Geochemist's Workbench® modeling software, developed by the author and already installed at over 1000 universities and research facilities worldwide. Since publication of the first edition, the field of reaction modeling has continued to grow and find increasingly broad application. In particular, the description of microbial activity, surface chemistry, and redox chemistry within reaction models has become broader and more rigorous. These areas are covered in detail in this new edition, which was originally published in 2007. This text is written for graduate students and academic researchers in the fields of geochemistry, environmental engineering, contaminant hydrology, geomicrobiology, and numerical modeling.
Safeguarding economic prosperity, whilst protecting human health and the environment, is at the forefront of scientific and public interest. This book provides a practical and balanced view on toxicology, control, risk assessment and risk management, addressing the interplay between science and public health policy. This revised edition provides a detailed analysis on chemical and by-product exposure, how they enter the body and the suitability of imposed safety limits. Chapters on dose, with particular emphasis on children and vulnerable subpopulations, reproductive and developmental toxicants and toxicity testing are included. With updated and comprehensive coverage of international developments of risk management and safety, this will have broad appeal to researchers and professionals involved in chemical safety and regulation as well as the general reader interested in environmental pollution and public health.
There is growing awareness that important environmental transformations are catalysed, mediated and influenced by microorganisms, and geomicrobiology can be defined as the influence of microorganisms on geologic processes. This is probably the most rapidly growing area of microbiology at present, combining environmental and molecular microbiology together with significant areas of mineralogy, geochemistry and hydrology. This volume focuses on the function of microorganisms in the environment and their influence on 'global' processes. It will include state-of-the art approaches to visualisation, culture and identification, community interactions and gene transfer, and diversity studies in relation to key processes. This overview for researchers and graduate students will represent environmental microbiology in its broadest sense and help to promote exciting collaborations between microbiologists and those in complementary physical and chemical disciplines.
Understanding Environmental Pollution systematically introduces pollution issues to students and others with little scientific background. The first edition received excellent reviews, and the newedition has been completely refined and updated. The book moves from the definition of pollution and how pollutants behave, to air and water pollution basics, pollution and global change, solid waste, and pollution in the home. It also discusses persistent and bioaccumulative chemicals, and pesticides, and it places greater stress on global pollutants. The relationship between energy generation and use, and pollution is stressed, as well as the importance of going beyond pollution control, to pollution prevention. Impacts on human and environmental health are emphasized throughout. Students are often invited to come to their own conclusions after having been presented with a variety of opinions. This textbook provides the basic concepts of pollution, toxicology and risk assessment for non-science majors as well as environmental science students.
From measuring geological time, through unravelling the evolution of continents, ocean and mantle, to understanding climate change, modern geochemistry is a discipline which pervades nearly all of the Earth Sciences. Geochemistry provides a broad introduction to the subject, which concentrates on the inorganic chemistry of the condensed part of our planet. This new textbook is written by the author of the authoritative and widely acclaimed Introduction to Geochemical Modelling (Cambridge, 1995). Emphasizing general principles rather than specific observations, Professor Albarède leads the reader through the simplest concepts of physics and chemistry behind geochemical processes. He covers fields central to geochemistry, such as crystal chemistry, mass balance and element transport, and geochemical dynamics. A broad range of applications is introduced, in natural water systems, the deep Earth and planetary processes. Geochemistry is an ideal textbook for undergraduate students, and will also provide an accessible introduction for researchers working in related fields.
Atmospheric Pollution: History, Science, and Regulation provides a comprehensive introduction to the history and science of major air pollution issues. The book begins with an introduction to the basic atmospheric chemistry and the history of discovery of chemicals in the atmosphere, and then moves on to a discussion of the evolution of the earth's atmosphere, and the structure and composition of the present-day atmosphere. It then provides a comprehensive and accessible discussion of the five major atmospheric pollution topics: urban outdoor air pollution, indoor air pollution, acid deposition, stratospheric ozone reduction, and global climate change. The book contains numerous student examples and problems, over 200 color illustrations, and will form an ideal introductory textbook for a wide range of undergraduate and graduate courses on atmospheric pollution. It will also form a valuable reference text for researchers, and an introduction to the subject for general audiences.
The critical role of trace gases in global atmospheric change makes an improved understanding of these gases imperative. Measurements of the distributions of these gases in space and time provide important information, but the interpretation of this information often involves ill-conditioned model inversions. A variety of techniques have therefore been developed to analyze these problems. Inverse Problems in Atmospheric Constituent Transport is the first book to give comprehensive coverage of work on this topic. The trace gas inversion problem is presented in general terms and the various different approaches are unified by treating the inversion problem as one of statistical estimation. Later chapters demonstrate the application of these methods to studies of carbon dioxide, methane, halocarbons and other gases implicated in global climate change. This book is aimed at graduate students and researchers embarking upon studies of global atmospheric change, biogeochemical cycles and Earth systems science.
Humic substances are highly-abundant organic compounds formed in soils and sediments by the decay of dead plants, microbes and animals. This book focuses on the important binding properties of these compounds which regulate the chemical reactivity and bioavailability of hydrogen and metal ions in the natural environment. Topics covered include the physico-chemical properties of humic matter and interactions of protons and metal cations with weak acids and macromolecules. Experimental laboratory methods are also discussed, together with mathematical modelling. Finally the author looks at how the results of this research can be used to interpret environmental phenomena in soils, waters and sediments. This comprehensive account of cation binding by humic matter is a valuable resource for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, environmental scientists, ecologists and geochemists.
Geochemical modeling is a powerful tool for characterizing environmental site contaminations and predicting environmental impacts. This book discusses the application of geochemical models to environmental practice and studies, through the use of numerous case studies of real-world environmental problems, such as acid mine drainage, pit lake chemistry, nuclear waste disposal, and landfill leachates. In each example the authors clearly define the environmental threat in question; explain how geochemical modeling may help solve the problem posed; and advise the reader how to prepare input files for geochemical modeling codes and interpret the results in terms of meeting regulatory requirements. Support material for the book, including input files, is available on the Internet. Environmental Applications of Geochemical Modeling will serve as an advanced textbook for courses in environmental geochemistry, and as an indispensable reference for professional hydrogeologists, geochemists, engineers, and regulators, working within the environmental spheres.
Environmental Toxicology is a comprehensive introductory textbook dealing with most aspects of the subject, from the molecular to the ecosystem level. Early chapters deal with basic and advanced concepts, methods and approaches. The next tier discusses the environmental toxicology of individual or groups of substances. The third part addresses complex issues, in which many of the concepts, approaches and substances covered in earlier tiers are incorporated. The fourth part includes chapters on risk assessment, rehabilitation and regulatory toxicology. The book concludes with a summary of present and future areas of emphasis. Each chapter contains a comprehensive list of references and further reading, case studies from different jurisdictions, and student exercises. Environmental Toxicology is primarily a textbook for undergraduate and graduate students in environmental toxicology, environmental chemistry, ecotoxicology, applied ecology, environmental management, and risk assessment. It will also be valuable for specialists in ecology, environmental science, and chemistry.
Introduction to Atmospheric Chemistry is a concise, clear review of the fundamental aspects of atmospheric chemistry. In ten succinct chapters, it reviews our basic understanding of the chemistry of the Earth's atmosphere and discusses current environmental issues, including air pollution, acid rain, the ozone hole, and global change. Written by a well-known atmospheric science teacher, researcher, and author of several established textbooks, this book is an introductory textbook for beginning university courses in atmospheric chemistry. Also suitable for self instruction, numerous exercises and solutions make this textbook accessible to students covering atmospheric chemistry as a part of courses in atmospheric science, meteorology, environmental science, geophysics and chemistry. Together with its companion volume, Basic Physical Chemistry for the Atmospheric Sciences (second edition 2000; Cambridge University Press), Introduction to Atmospheric Chemistry provides a solid introduction to atmospheric chemistry.
Revised and updated in 2000, Basic Physical Chemistry for the Atmospheric Sciences provides a clear, concise grounding in the basic chemical principles required for studies of atmospheres, oceans, and earth and planetary systems. Undergraduate and graduate students with little formal training in chemistry can work through the chapters and the numerous exercises within this book before accessing the standard texts in the atmospheric chemistry, geochemistry, and the environmental sciences. The book covers the fundamental concepts of chemical equilibria, chemical thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, solution chemistry, acid and base chemistry, oxidation-reduction reactions, and photochemistry. In a companion volume entitled Introduction to Atmospheric Chemistry (2000, Cambridge University Press) Peter Hobbs provides an introduction to atmospheric chemistry itself, including its applications to air pollution, acid rain, the ozone hole, and climate change. Together these two books provide an ideal introduction to atmospheric chemistry for a variety of disciplines.
This book, first published in 2000, provides a comprehensive review of UV radiation effects in the marine environment. A multidisciplinary approach is adopted to discuss all aspects from a physical, chemical and biological perspective. The book begins by describing the attenuation of UV radiation in the atmosphere and sea water, outlining the photochemical reactions involved and highlighting the role that such chemistry can play in influencing the biogeochemical cycling of various elements. The deleterious consequences of such radiation on organisms and strategies adopted to mitigate these harmful repercussions are discussed. The organisms considered range from virus and bacteria through phytoplankton and zooplankton to fish and mammals. The book is aimed at researchers and graduate students in photobiology, photochemistry and environmental science. It will also be useful as a supplementary text for courses in oceanography, climatology and ecology.
The environment has become exposed to a range of damaging contaminants from a wide variety of sources. Regulation of and legislation against offending parties has frequently been hampered because of the difficulty of co-operation between disparate disciplines in the natural, social and political sciences. This volume forms the conclusion of five years' collaboration between toxicologists, economists and lawyers in the understanding and solution of the problem of accumulative chemicals. As well as a case study of the accumulation of pesticides in groundwater in one particular region (the European Union), the book forms a general study of the value of interdisciplinary approaches in environmental policy making. The volume will be a valuable resource for a broad group of academics and researchers in the area of environmental science and environmental policy. It will also form a useful supplementary reference text for courses in environmental policy, science, economics and toxicology.