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In 1876 the South Kensington Museum held a major international exhibition of scientific instruments and equipment, both historical and contemporary. Many of the items eventually formed the basis of collections now held at London's Science Museum. In May 1876, organisers arranged a series of conferences at which leading British and European scientists explained and demonstrated some of the items on display. The purpose was to emphasise the exhibition's goal not merely to preserve archaic treasures (such as Galileo's telescopes or Janssen's microscope) but to juxtapose them with current technology and so inspire future scientific developments. Volume 2 of the proceedings covers chemistry, biology, and earth sciences including geology, mining, meteorology and hydrography. The contributors include Joseph Dalton Hooker, William Thiselton-Dyer, Andrew Crombie Ramsay and John Rae, all of whom have other works reissued in the Cambridge Library Collection, which also includes the full catalogue of the exhibition itself.
The physician and author John Ayrton Paris (1785–1856), several of whose other medical and popular works have been reissued in the Cambridge Library Collection, published the first edition of his Pharmacologia in 1812. It was immediately successful, and went into eight further editions until 1843. The third edition, of 1820, has been reissued in this series. This book, published in 1825, was intended as a companion volume, providing a 'grammar' of chemistry for the medical student. After an imaginary dialogue on the importance of chemistry, between a provincial physician and 'the author', to whom the former is entrusting his son for his medical education, the book moves systematically from the general application of chemistry to medicine, through topics such as gravity, crystallization and electricity, to the detail of the actions of specific elements, and tables of relevant weights and measures, providing fascinating insights into the history of medical education.
By the late eighteenth century, scientists had discovered certain types of gas, such as 'fixed air' (carbon dioxide), but their composition was little understood. Relatively few investigations into gases had taken place, and so the polymath Joseph Priestley (1733–1804) was able to make major breakthroughs in the field using a range of experimental techniques. While living near a brewery, he found that it was possible to outline the shape of the gas above fermenting beer with smoke, and that fire would burn with varying strength depending on the composition of the air. This three-volume collection first appeared between 1774 and 1777. Following the international interest and new discoveries prompted by the publication of its predecessor, Volume 2 - reissued here in its corrected 1776 second edition - includes accounts of further experiments, Priestley's paper on the conducting power of charcoal, and, most significantly, notes on what he calls 'dephlogisticated air' (oxygen).
By the late eighteenth century, scientists had discovered certain types of gas, such as 'fixed air' (carbon dioxide), but their composition was little understood. Relatively few investigations into gases had taken place, and so the polymath Joseph Priestley (1733–1804) was able to make major breakthroughs in the field using a range of experimental techniques. While living near a brewery, he found that it was possible to outline the shape of the gas above fermenting beer with smoke, and that fire would burn with varying strength depending on the composition of the air. This three-volume collection first appeared between 1774 and 1777. Priestley acknowledges that Volume 3 (1777) would more greatly interest those with technical training in the physical sciences as compared with general scholars. It also highlights some new and important inferences, notably on the function of blood in respiration.
By the late eighteenth century, scientists had discovered certain types of gas, such as 'fixed air' (carbon dioxide), but their composition was little understood. Relatively few investigations into gases had taken place, and so the polymath Joseph Priestley (1733–1804) was able to make major breakthroughs in the field using a range of experimental techniques. While living near a brewery, he found that it was possible to outline the shape of the gas above fermenting beer with smoke, and that fire would burn with varying strength depending on the composition of the air. This three-volume collection first appeared between 1774 and 1777. Primarily an account of Priestley's early experiments, with details of apparatus including candles and live mice, Volume 1 is reissued here in its corrected 1775 second edition and also incorporates a brief history of the field of inquiry.
Molecular simulation is a powerful tool in materials science, physics, chemistry and biomolecular fields. This updated edition provides a pragmatic introduction to a wide range of techniques for the simulation of molecular systems at the atomic level. The first part concentrates on methods for calculating the potential energy of a molecular system, with new chapters on quantum chemical, molecular mechanical and hybrid potential techniques. The second part describes methods examining conformational, dynamical and thermodynamical properties of systems, covering techniques including geometry-optimization, normal-mode analysis, molecular dynamics, and Monte Carlo simulation. Using Python, the second edition includes numerous examples and program modules for each simulation technique, allowing the reader to perform the calculations and appreciate the inherent difficulties involved in each. This is a valuable resource for researchers and graduate students wanting to know how to use atomic-scale molecular simulations. Supplementary material, including the program library and technical information, available through www.cambridge.org/9780521852524.
Using classical and quantum methods with a strong emphasis on symmetry principles, this book, a reissue of the 2004 second edition, develops the theory of a variety of optical activity and related phenomena from the perspective of molecular scattering of polarised light. In addition to the traditional topic of optical rotation and circular dichroism in the visible and near-ultraviolet associated with electronic transitions, the newer topic of optical activity associated with vibrational transitions, which may be studied using both infrared and Raman techniques, is also treated. Ranging from the physics of elementary particles to the structure of viruses, the subject matter of the book reflects the importance of optical activity and chirality in much of modern science and will be of interest to a wide range of physical and life scientists.
Muons are unstable elementary particles that are found in space, which can also be produced in particle accelerators to an intensity a billion times greater than that occurring naturally. This book describes the various applications of muons across the spectrum of the sciences and engineering. Scientific research using muons relies both on their basic properties as well as the microscopic interaction between them and surrounding particles such as nuclei, electrons, atoms and molecules. Examples of research that can be carried out using muons include muon catalysis for nuclear fusion, the application of muon spin probes to study microscopic magnetic properties of advanced materials, electron labelling to help in the understanding of electron transfer in proteins, and non-destructive element analysis of the human body. Cosmic ray muons can also be used to study the inner structure of volcanoes.
Because of their intuitive layout, extensive mathematical capabilities, and convenient graphics, spreadsheets provide an easy, straightforward route to scientific computing. This textbook for undergraduate and entry-level graduate chemistry and chemical engineering students uses Excel, the most powerful available spreadsheet, to explore and solve problems in general and chemical data analysis. This is the only up-to-date text on the use of spreadsheets in chemistry. The book discusses topics including statistics, chemical equilibria, pH calculations, titrations, and instrumental methods such as chromatography, spectrometry, and electroanalysis. It contains many examples of data analysis, and uses spreadsheets for numerical simulations, and testing analytical procedures. It also treats modern data analysis methods such as linear and non-linear least squares in great detail, as well as methods based on Fourier transformation. The book shows how matrix methods can be powerful tools in data analysis, and how easily these are implemented on a spreadsheet and describes in detail how to simulate chemical kinetics on a spreadsheet. It also introduces the reader to the use of VBA, the macro language of Microsoft Office, which lets the user import higher-level computer programs into the spreadsheet.
This book deals with biomimetic sensors that can quantify taste and smell - the electronic tongue and nose. Of all sensor technologies, these have been widely considered as the most difficult to realise and the development of these sensors significantly contributes to the understanding of the reception mechanisms in gustatory and olfactory systems. The author begins by dealing with the basic principles of measurement and multivariate analysis. Reception mechanisms in biological systems are briefly reviewed. Several types of biosensor, including enzyme-immobilized membranes, SPR, the quartz resonance oscillator and IC technologies are explained in detail. This book is the first to focus on artificial taste and smell sensors and also reviews conventional biosensors, such as enzyme sensors, in detail.
This 2000 book provides an introduction to the nature, occurrence, physical properties, propagation and uses of surfactants in the petroleum industry. It is aimed principally at scientists and engineers who may encounter or use surfactants, whether in process design, petroleum production, or research and development. The primary focus is on applications of the principles of colloid and interface science to surfactant applications in the petroleum industry, and includes attention to practical processes and problems. Applications of surfactants in the petroleum industry are of great practical importance and are also quite diverse, since surfactants may be applied to advantage throughout the petroleum production process: in reservoirs, in oil and gas wells, in surface processing operations, and in environmental, health and safety applications. In each case appropriate knowledge and practices determine the economic and technical successes of the industrial process concerned. The book includes a comprehensive glossary, indexed and fully cross-referenced.
This text presents a rigorous mathematical account of the principles of quantum mechanics, in particular as applied to chemistry and chemical physics. Applications are used as illustrations of the basic theory. The first two chapters serve as an introduction to quantum theory, although it is assumed that the reader has been exposed to elementary quantum mechanics as part of an undergraduate physical chemistry or atomic physics course. Following a discussion of wave motion leading to Schrödinger's wave mechanics, the postulates of quantum mechanics are presented along with essential mathematical concepts and techniques. The postulates are rigorously applied to the harmonic oscillator, angular momentum, the hydrogen atom, the variation method, perturbation theory, and nuclear motion. Modern theoretical concepts such as hermitian operators, Hilbert space, Dirac notation, and ladder operators are introduced and used throughout. This text is appropriate for beginning graduate students in chemistry, chemical physics, molecular physics and materials science.
This text is suitable for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students in chemistry and biochemistry studying amino acids and peptides. The authors concentrate on amino acids and peptides without detailed discussions of proteins, although the book gives all the essential background chemistry, including sequence determination, synthesis and spectroscopic methods, to enable the reader to appreciate protein behaviour at the molecular level. The approach is intended to encourage the reader to cross classical boundaries, as in the later chapters on the biological roles of amino acids and the design of peptide-based drugs. For example, there is a section on the enzyme-catalysed synthesis of peptides, with suitable examples, an area often neglected in texts describing peptide synthesis. This modern text will be of value in the amino acid, peptide and protein field, to advanced undergraduates, graduate students and research workers.
The third edition of this text has been completely rewritten and revised. It is intended for first- and second-year undergraduates in chemistry taking physical chemistry courses, and for undergraduates in other science and engineering subjects that require an understanding of chemistry. The author gives more attention to the solid and liquid states than is found in other texts on this subject, and introduces topics such as computer simulation and quasicrystals. Each chapter concludes with a set of problems, to which there are solution notes, designed to lead the reader to familiarity with the subject and its application in new situations. Computer programs designed to assist the reader are downloadable from the World Wide Web, from the time of publication. Detailed solutions to the problems will also be available via the World Wide Web. See http://www.cup.cam.ac.uk/stm/laddsolutions.htm. This modern text on physical chemistry will be of interest to undergraduate students in chemistry and also students in other areas of science and engineering requiring a familiarity with the subject.
This book describes the full range of mass spectrometry techniques and applications. This versatile technique is in ubiquitous use in universities and industry laboratories because of its ability to identify and quantify materials quickly and, if necessary, in minute amounts, and solve analytical problems in a huge variety of fields. The authors adopt an instructional approach and make use of recent examples to illustrate important points. This second edition includes new methods and applications that have developed in the last ten years. Powerful methods combining mass spectrometry with newer separation techniques, the increased use of computers, and analysis of once difficult polar and large-mass compounds such as proteins using new ionisation methods are all discussed. Requiring no previous knowledge of mass spectrometry, this is an ideal teaching text at both undergraduate and postgraduate level, and will also be of considerable interest to research workers.
This book provides the first systematic treatment of the thermodynamic theory of site-specific effects in biological macromolecules. It describes the phenomenological and conceptual bases required to allow a mechanistic understanding of these effects from analysis of experimental data. The thermodynamic theory also results in novel experimental strategies that enable the derivation of information on local, site-specific properties of a macromolecular system from analysis of perturbed global properties. The treatment focuses on binding phenomena, but is amenable to extension both conceptually and formally to the analysis of other cooperative processes, such as folding and helix–coil transitions. This book will interest any scientist involved in structure–function studies of biological macromolecules, or as a text for graduate students in biochemistry and biophysics.
This volume surveys the chemistry, biochemistry, biosynthesis, metabolism and pharmacological properties of lectins. Lectins, which are most commonly found in plants, are widespread natural products with striking biological activities. Their specific ability to recognise and bind to simple or complex saccharides facilitates their role as effective information protein molecules. As agents of cell-to-cell recognition, lectins promote symbiosis between plants and specific nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria. As natural defensive molecules, they can protect plants against predators such as bacteria, fungi and insects. As part of our diet, lectins are powerful exogenous growth factors in the small intestine and influence our health, the digestive function and the bacterial ecology of the alimentary tract. Lectins are also important research tools in preparative biochemistry and cell science.
This is the fourth edition of an established textbook of chemical thermodynamics used by university and technical college students of chemistry and chemical engineering. The text covers the same ground as previous editions, presenting the general theory of chemical equilibrium, including its statistical development, and illustrating its many applications in the laboratory and industry. This edition has been extensively revised in the light of recent contributions to the literature. Many new references have been added; the re-writing of certain passages, especially of those concerning the statistical interpretation of entropy and the present understanding of order-disorder transitions, also reflects changes of emphasis.
Gay-Lussac is best known for his chemical work but also made important contributions to other physical sciences and technology. This is the first work to examine critically both the scientific work and the man behind it. Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac (1778–1850) lived through three revolutions in France and his life reflected the social transformations taking place around him. His education and early progress in science depended on the Revolution of 1789 and on the patronage of the chemist Berthollet, a close associate of Napoleon Bonaparte. Gay-Lussac may be seen as the first 'professional' scientist and indeed, throughout the book, Professor Crosland emphasises that he knew how to use his science to solve practical problems and was able to profit considerably from this application.
In his autobiography, Goethe half-apologetically admits the youthful enthusiasm he experienced for alchemical and mystical readings: Georg von Welling's obscure Opus Mago-Cabbalisticum et Theosophicum and the anonymously published Aurea Catena Homeri, as well as works by Paracelsus, Basilis Valentinus and van Helmont. Originally published in 1952, this study shows how the symbols and concepts of alchemy played a key role in the genesis of Goethe's later works, both scientific and literary. Author of, among other books on German literature, Goethe: A Critical Introduction (1967) and An Introduction to German Poetry (1965), Ronald D. Gray details Goethe's alchemical readings, and shows how these influences were processed and transformed into a unique blend of scientific and poetic accounts of reality. Unprecedented in its approach, this study will be of interest to readers of German literature, as well as to anyone interested in the history and evolution of mysticism.