Skip to main content Accessibility help
Zoo Conservation Biology
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 27
  • Export citation
  • Recommend to librarian
  • Buy the print book

Book description

In the face of ever-declining biodiversity, zoos have a major role to play in species conservation. Written by professionals involved in in situ conservation and restoration projects internationally, this is a critical assessment of the contribution of zoos to species conservation through evidence amassed from a wide range of sources. The first part outlines the biodiversity context within which zoos should operate, introducing the origins and global spread of zoos and exploring animal collection composition. The second part focuses on the basic elements of keeping viable captive animal populations. It considers the consequences of captivity on animals, the genetics of captive populations and the performance of zoos in captive breeding. The final part examines ways in which zoos can make a significant difference to conservation now and in the future. Bridging the gap between pure science and applied conservation, this is an ideal resource for both conservation biologists and zoo professionals.


'… essential reading for anyone who wants to understand the role - and potential - of zoos in conservation. A critical, wide-ranging synthesis, this book sets out the potential of zoos as a component in conservation's toolkit, and addresses the challenges, biological and educational, for modern, integrated conservation. This book is the definitive text on the role of the progressive zoo in the modern world. It covers a broad range of topics from field conservation, to captive breeding, returning animals to the wild, and public education, and holds out the ultimate challenge of turning zoos into conservation centres. If you are interested in the role of zoos today, this book is a required reading.'

Source: WAZA News

Refine List

Actions for selected content:

Select all | Deselect all
  • View selected items
  • Export citations
  • Download PDF (zip)
  • Send to Kindle
  • Send to Dropbox
  • Send to Google Drive

Save Search

You can save your searches here and later view and run them again in "My saved searches".

Please provide a title, maximum of 40 characters.


Aegis Consulting Australia & Applied Economics 2009 20Contribution%20of%20Zoological%20Industry%20Report.pdf.aspx
Adams, J. 1996 Cost-benefit analysis: the problem, not the solutionThe Ecologist 26 2
Adams, W. M. 2004 Against Extinction: The Story of ConservationLondonEarthscan
Agapow, P.-M.Bininda-Edmonds, O. R. P.Crandall, K. A. 2004 The impact of species concept on biodiversityQuarterly Review of Biology 79 161
Akçakaya, H. R.Root, W. 2002 RAMAS Metapop: Viability Analysis for Stage-Structured MetapopulationsSetauket, NYApplied Biomathematics
Alberts, A. C. 2007 Behavioral considerations of headstarting as a conservation strategy for endangered Caribbean rock iguanasApplied Animal Behaviour Science 102 380
Albrechtsen, L.Macdonald, D. W.Johnson, P. J.Castelo, R.Fa, J. E. 2007 Faunal loss from bushmeat hunting: empirical evidence and policy implications in Bioko IslandEnvironmental Science & Policy 10 654
Allen, K. 1995 Putting the spin on animal ethics: Ethical parameters for marketing and public relationsEthics on the Ark: Zoos, Animal Welfare, and Wildlife ConservationNorton, B. G.Hutchins, M.Stevens, E. F.Maple, T. L.Washington, DCSmithsonian Institute Press289
Allen, K.Franzreb, E.Escano, R. E. 1993 Efficacy of translocation strategies for red-cockaded wood peckersWildlife Society Bulletin 21 155
Allendorf, F. W.Luikart, G. 2006 Conservation and the Genetics of PopulationsMalden, MA, USABlackwell Publishing
Allendorf, F. W. 1986 Genetic drift and the loss of alleles versus heterozygosityZoo Biology 5 181
Allendorf, F. W.Leary, R. F. 1986 Heterozygosity and fitness in natural populations of animalsConservation Bidogy: The Science of Scarcity and DiversitySoulé, M.Sunderland, MASinauer Assoc.57
ALVA 2010
Ames, E. 2009 Carl Hagenbeck's Empire of EntertainmentsSeattleUniversity of Washington Press
Andelman, S. J.Fagan, W. F. 2000 Umbrellas and flagships: efficient conservation surrogates, or expensive mistakesProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 97 5954
Andersen, L. L. 1992 Right enclosure design – before stories can be toldFourth International Symposium on Zoo Design and ConstructionStevens, P. M. C.PaigntonWhitley Wildlife Conservation Trust, pp71
Andersen, L. L. 2003 Zoo education: from formal school programmes to exhibit design and interpretationInternational Zoo Yearbook 38 75
Anderson, J. R.Chamove, A. S. 1984 Allowing captive primates to forageStandards in Laboratory Animals ManagementPotters Bar, UKUniversities Federation for Animal Welfare
Anderson, U. S.Kelling, A. S.Pressley-Keough, R.Bloomsmith, M. A.Maple, T. 2003 Enhancing the zoo visitor's experience by public animal training and oral interpretation at an otter exhibitEnvironment and Behaviour 35 826
Anderson, U. S.Kelling, A. S.Maple, T. L. 2008 Twenty-five years of : a publication analysisZoo Biology 27 444
Andrabi, S. M. H.Maxwell, W. M. C. 2007 A review on reproductive biotechnologies for conservation of endangered mammalian speciesAnimal Reproduction Science 99 223
Araki, H.Ardren, W. R.Olsen, E.Cooper, B.Blouin, M. S. 2007 Reproductive success of captive-bred steelhead trout in the wild: evaluation of three hatchery programs in the Hood RiverConservation Biology 21 181
Araki, H.Cooper, B.Blouin, M. S. 2007 Genetic effects of captive breeding cause a rapid, cumulative fitness decline in the wildScience 318 100
Arita, H.Robinson, J. G.Redford, K. H. 1990 Rarity in Neotropical forest mammals and its ecological correlatesConservation Biology 4 181
Armbruster, P.Reed, D. H. 2005 Inbreeding depression in benign and stressful environmentsHeredity 95 235
Armstrong, D. 2002 Focal and surrogate species: getting the language rightConservation Biology 16 285
Armstrong, D. P.Perrott, J. K. 2000 An experiment testing whether condition and survival are limited by food supply in a reintroduced Hihi populationConservation Biology 14 1171
Armstrong, D. P.Seddon, P. J. 2008 Directions in reintroduction biologyTrends in Ecology and Evolution 23 20
Asa, C. S.Porton, I. J. 2005 Wildlife Contraception: Issues, Methods, and ApplicationsBaltimore, USAJohns Hopkins University Press
Asfora, P. H.Rossano, A.Pontes, M. 2009 The small mammals of the highly impacted North-eastern Atlantic Forest of Brazil, Pernambuco Endemism CenterBiota Neotropica 9
Asquith, P. J. 1989 Provisioning and the study of free-ranging primates: history, effects, and prospectsYearbook of Physical Anthropology 32 129
Atkinson, I. 1989 Introduced animals and extinctionsConservation for the Twenty-First CenturyWestern, D.Pearl, M.New YorkOxford University Press54
Atkinson-Grosjean, J. 1992 Beyond hierarchy: Team-based management at the Vancouver aquariumProceedings of the American Association of Zoological Parks and Aquariums Annual ConferenceAmerican Association of Zoological Parks and Aquariums, WheelingWest Virginia151
Australian Bureau of Statistics 2008
AZA 2001
AZA 2009
AZA 2010
AZA 2010
AZA 2010
Babbitt, B. 1995 Science opening the next chapter of conservation historyScience 5206 1954
Bailey, N. W.Gray, B.Zuk, M. 2010 Acoustic experience shapes alternative mating tactics and reproductive investment in male field cricketsCurrent Biology 20 845
Baillie, J. E. M.Hilton-Taylor, C.Stuart, S. 2004
Bajomia, B.Pullin, A. S.Stewart, G. B.Takács-Sánta, A. 2010 Bias and dispersal in the animal reintroduction literatureOryx 44 358
Baker, A. 2007 Animal ambassadors: an analysis of the effectiveness and conservation impact of ex-situ breeding effortsZoos in the 21st Century: Catalysts for Conservation?Zimmerman, A.Hatchwell, M.Dickie, L. A.West, C.CambridgeCambridge University Press139
Balling, J.Falk, J. 1980 A perspective on field trips: environmental effects on learningCurator 23 229
Ballou, J. D. 1989 Capacity v. 2.11Washington, D.CNational Zoological Park
Ballou, J. D. 1992 Potential contribution of cryopreserved germ plasm to the preservation of genetic diversity and conservation of endangered species in captivityCryobiology 29 19
Ballou, J. D. 1997 Ancestral inbreeding only minimally affects inbreeding depression in mammalian populationsJournal of Heredity 88 169
Balmford, A. 2000 Priorities for captive breeding – which mammals should board the arkPriorities for the Conservation of Mammalian Diversity: Has the Panda had its Day?Entwistle, A.Dunstone, N.Cambridge, UKCambridge University Press291
Balmford, A. 2000 Separating fact from artefact in analysis of zoo visitor preferenceConservation Biology 14 1193
Balmford, A.Leader-Williams, N.Green, M. J. B. 1995 Parks or arks: where to conserve threatened mammalsBiodiversity and Conservation 4 595
Balmford, A.Mace, G. M.Leader-Williams, N. 1996 Designing the ark: setting priorities for captive breedingConservation Biology 10 719
Balmford, A.Gaston, K. J.Blyth, S.James, A.Kapos, V. 2003 Global variation in terrestrial conservation costs, conservation benefits, and unmet conservation needsProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 100 1046
Balmford, A.Leader-Williams, N.Mace, G. 2007 Message received? Quantifying the impact of informal conservation education on adults visiting UK zoosZoos in the 21st Century: Catalysts for Conservation?Zimmermann, A.Hatchwell, M.Dickie, L.West, C.Cambridge, UKCambridge University Press120
Baratay, E.Hardouin-Fugier, E. 2004 A History of Zoological Gardens in the WestLondonReaktion Books
Bar-David, S.Saltz, D.Dayan, T.Perelberg, A.Dolev, A. 2005 Demographic models and reality in reintroductions: Persian fallow deer in IsraelConservation Biology 19 131
Barnes, R. F. W. 2002 The bushmeat boom and bust in West and Central AfricaOryx 36 236
Barratt, E. M.Gurnell, J.Malarky, G.Deaville, R.Bruford, M. W. 1999 Genetic structure of fragmented populations of red squirrel () in the UKMolecular Ecology 8 S55
Barrowclough, G. F.Flesness, N. R. 1996 Species, subspecies, and races: the problem of units of management in conservationWild Mammals In Captivity: Principles and TechniquesKleiman, D. G.Allen, M. E.Thompson, K. V.Lumpkin, S.Harruis, W.ChicagoChicago University Press247
Basset, L.Buchanan-Smith, H. M. 2007 Effects of predictability on the welfare of captive animalsApplied Animal Behaviour Science 102 223
Bayne, K. 1989 Resolving issues of psychological well-being and management of laboratory non-human primatesHousing, Care and Psychological Wellbeing of Captive and Laboratory PrimatesSegal, E. F.New JerseyNoyes Publications34
Bearder, S. K.Martin, R. D. 1980 Acacia gum and its use by bushbabies ()International Journal of Primatology 1 103
Beattie, T. A. 1994 Now…we must be more businesslikeProceedings of the American Zoo and Aquarium Association Annual ConferenceWheeling, West VirginiaAmerican Zoo and Aquarium Association389
Beaumont, M. A.Bruford, M. W. 1999 Microsatellites in conservation geneticsMicrosatellites: Evolution and ApplicationsGoldstein, D. B.Schlotterer, C.Oxford: Oxford University Press165
Beck, B. 1995 Reintroduction, zoos, conservation, and animal welfareEthics on the Ark: Animal Welfare, and Wildlife ConservationNorton, B. G.Hutchins, M.Stevens, E. F.Maple, T. L.Washington and LondonSmithsonian Institution Press155
Beck, B. B.Kleiman, D. G.Dietz, J. M. 1991 Losses and reproduction in reintroduced golden lion tamarins, Dodo 27 50
Beck, B. B.Rapaport, L. G.Stanley Price, M. S.Wilson, A. C. 1994 Reintroduction of captive born animalsCreative Conservation: Interactive Management of Wild and Captive AnimalsOlney, P. J. S.Mace, G. M.Feistner, A. T. C.LondonChapman and Hall256
Beck, B.Walkup, K.Rodrigues, M.Unwin, S.Travis, D.Stoinski, T. 2007 Best Practice Guidelines for the Re-introduction of Great ApesGland, SwitzerlandSSC Primate Specialist Group of the World Conservation Union
Beckmann, E. 1991 Environmental Interpretation for Education and Management in Australia's National Parks and Other Protected AreasUnpublished PhD thesis, University of New England
Beinart, W.Coates, P. 1995 Environment and History: The Taming of Nature in the USA and South AfricaLondonRoutledge
Beissinger, S. R. 2000 Ecological mechanisms of extinctionProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 97 11688
Bélair, C.Ichikawa, K.Wong, B. Y. L.Mulongoy, K. J. 2010 Sustainable Use of Biological Diversity in Socio-Ecological Production Landscapes. Background to the ‘Satoyama Initiative for the Benefit of Biodiversity and Human Well-Being’MontrealSecretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity
Berejikian, B. A.Tezak, E. P.Riley, S. C.LaRae, A. L. 2001 Competitive ability and social behaviour of juvenile steelhead reared in enriched and conventional hatchery tanks and a stream environmentJournal of Fish Biology 59 1600
Berry, P. M.Dawson, T. P.Harrison, P. A.Pearson, R. G. 2002 Modelling potential impacts of climate change on the bioclimatic envelope of species in Britain and IrelandGlobal Ecology and Biogeography 11 453
Bertram, B. 2004 Misconceptions about zoosBiologist 51 199
Besch, E. L.Kollias, G. V. 1994 Physical, chemical and behavioural factors in large low-density naturalistic animal facilitiesNaturalistic Environments in Captivity for Animal Behaviour ResearchGibbons, E. F.Albany, NYState University of New York Press77
Bettinger, T.Quinn, H. 2000 Conservation funds: how do zoos and aquariums decide which project to fundProceedings of the AZA Annual ConferenceSt. LouisMissouri88
BIAZA 2010
Bibby, C. J.Crosby, M. J.Heath, M. F. 1992 Putting Biodiversity on the Map: Global Priorities for ConservationCambridgeICBP
Bijlsma, R.Bundgaard, J.Van Putten, W. F. 1999 Environmental dependence of inbreeding depression and purgingDrosophila melanogaster. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 12 1125
Birney, B. A. 1991 The Impact of Bird Discovery Point on Visitors’ Attitudes towards Bird Conservation IssuesBrookfield, ILChicago Zoological Society
Bitgood, S. C. 1988 Understanding the Public's Attitudes Towards and Behavior in Museums, Parks, and ZoosCenter for Social Design, Jacksonville, Alabama
Bitgood, S.Patterson, D.Benefield, A.Landers, A. 1986
Bitgood, S.Patterson, D.Benefield, A. 1988 Exhibit design and visitor behaviorEnvironment and Behavior 20 474
Black, J. M.Marshall, A. P.Gilburn, A. 1997 Survival, movements, and breeding of released Hawaiian geese: An assessment of the reintroduction programJournal of Wildlife Management 61 1161
Blackburn, T. M.Gaston, K. J. 1994 The distribution of body sizes of the world's bird speciesOikos 70 127
Blanchet, S.Paez, D. J.Bernatchez, L.Dodson, J. J. 2008 An integrated comparison of captive-bred and wild Atlantic salmon (): Implications for supportive breeding programsBiological Conservation 141 1989
Blau, P. M.Myer, M. W. 1987 Bureaucracy in Modern SocietyRandom House, New YorkNew York
Blomqvist, D.Pauliny, A.Larsson, M.Flodin, L. A. 2010 Trapped in the extinction vortex? Strong genetic effects in a declining vertebrate populationBMC Evolutionary Biology 10 33
Boakes, E. H.Wang, J.Amos, W. 2007 An investigation of inbreeding depression and purging in captive pedigreed populationsHeredity 98 172
Bonn, A.Gaston, K. J. 2005 Capturing biodiversity: selecting priority areas for conservation using different criteriaBiodiversity and Conservation 14 1083
Bonn, A.Rodrigues, A. S. L.Gaston, K. J. 2002 Threatened and endemic species: are they good indicators of patterns of biodiversity on a national scaleEcology Letters 5 733
Borner, M. 1985 The rehabilitated chimpanzees of Rubondo IslandOryx 19 151
Borun, M.Chambers, M.Cleghorn, A. 1996 Families are learning in science museumsCurator 39 123
Bostock, S. C. 1993 Zoos and Animal Rights: The Ethics of Keeping AnimalsNew YorkRoutledge
Bottrill, M. C.Joseph, L. N.Carwardine, J. 2008 Is conservation triage just smart decision-making?Trends in Ecology and Evolution 23 649
Bovet, J. 1978 Homing in wild myomorph rodents: current problemsAnimal Migration, Navigation and HomingSchmidt-Koenig, K.Keeton, K. T.New YorkSpringer-Verlag405
Bowen-Jones, E.Entwistle, A. 2002 Identifying appropriate flagship species: the importance of culture and local contextsOryx 36 189
Boyer, D. A.Brown, R. D. 1988 A survey of translocations of mammals in the United States, 1985Translocation of Wild AnimalsNielsen, L.Brown, R. D.MilwaukeeWisconsin Humane Society1
Boyd Group 2002 Smith, J. A.Boyd, K. M.
Bradley, A.Evans, M.Kaufman, M. H.Robertson, E. 1984 Formation of germ-line chimaeras from embryo-derived teratocarcinoma cell linesNature 309 255
Brambell, F. W. R. 1965
Brandon, K.Redford, K.Sanderson, S. 1998 Parks in Peril: People, Politics, and Protected AreasCovelo, CA, Washington, DCIsland Press
Braude, S.Templeton, A. R. 2009 Understanding the multiple meanings of ‘inbreeding’ and ‘effective size’ for genetic management of African rhinoceros populationsAfrican Journal of Ecology 47 546
Breitenmoser, U.Breitenmoser-Wursten, C.Carbyn, L. N.Funk, S. M. 2001 Assessment of carnivore reintroductionsCarnivore ConservationGittleman, J. L.Funk, S. M.Macdonald, D. W.Wayne, R. K.CambridgeCambridge University Press241
Bretagnolle, V.Inchausti, P. 2005 Modelling population reinforcement at a large spatial scale as a conservation strategy for the declining little bustard () in agricultural habitatsAnimal Conservation 8 59
Brewer, S. 1978 The Chimpanzees of Mt AssirikNew YorkAlfred A. Knopf
Bright, P. W.Morris, P. A. 1994 Animal translocation for conservation: performance of dormice in relation to release methods, origin and seasonJournal of Applied Ecology 31 699
Bright, P.Morris, P. A. 2000 Rare mammals, research and realpolitikPriorities for the Conservation of Mammalian Diversity: Has the Panda had its Day?Entwistle, A.Dunstone, N.CambridgeCambridge University Press141
Broad, S.Smith, L. 2004 Who educates the public about conservation issues? Examining the role of zoos and the mediaInternational Tourism and Media Conference Proceedings, 24th–26th November, 2004Frost, W.Croy, G.Beeton, S.MelbourneTourism Research Unit, Monash University15
Bronikowski, J.Beck, B.Power, M. 1989 Innovation, exhibition and conservation: free-ranging tamarins at the National Zoological ParkAAZPA Annual Conference ProceedingsWheeling, WVAAZPA540
Brook, B. W.O’Grady, J. J.Chapman, A. P. 2000 Predictive accuracy of population viability analysis in conservation biologyNature 404 385
Brook, B. W.Tonkyn, D. W.Q’Grady, J. J.Frankham, R. 2002 Contribution of inbreeding to extinction risk in threatened speciesConservation Ecology 6
Brook, B. W.Traill, L. W.Bradshaw, C. J. A. 2006 Minimum viable population size and global extinction risk are unrelatedEcology Letters 9 375
Brooks, T. M.Mittermeier, R. A.da Fonseca, G. A. B. 2006 Global biodiversity conservation priorities scienceScience 313 58
Broom, D. M. 1983 Stereotypies as animal welfare indicatorsIndicators Relevant to Farm Animal WelfareSmidt, D. 23 The HagueMartinus Nijhoff
Broom, D. M. 1986 Indicators of poor welfareBritish Veterinary Journal 142 524
Broom, D. M. 2006 Behaviour and welfare in relation to pathologyApplied Animal Behaviour Science 97 71
Bruner, A. G.Gullison, R. E.Rice, R. E.da Fonseca, G. A. B. 2001 Effectiveness of parks in protecting tropical biodiversityScience 291 125
Brussard, P. F. 1985 The current status of conservation biologyBulletin of the Ecological Society of America 66 9
Bryant, D.Nielsen, D.Tangley, L. 1997 Last Frontier ForestsWashngton, DCWorld Resources Institute
BTA/ETB 1997 UK StatisticsLondonInsights
Buchanan-Smith, H. M. 2006 Primates in laboratories: standardisation, harmonisation, variation and scienceALTEX – Alternatives to Animal Experimentation 23 115
Bullis, C. A.Kennedy, J. J. 1991 Value conflicts and policy interpretation: Changes in the case of fisheries and wildlife managers in multiple use agenciesPolicy Studies Journal 19 542
Bunbury, N.Stidworthy, M. F.Greenwood, A. G. 2008 Causes of mortality in free-living Mauritian pink pigeons 2002Endangered Species Research 9
Burke, R. L.Humphrey, S. R. 1987 Rarity as a criterion for endangerment in Florida's faunaOryx 21 97
Burton, F. J. 2004 Revision to species of , the Grand Cayman Blue IguanaCaribbean Journal of Science 40 198
Burton, F. J. 2006 Blue Iguana Recovery ProgramIguana Journal of the International Iguana Society 13 117
Burton, F. J. 2010 The Little Blue BookSan Jose, CAIRCF
Burton, R. S.Rawson, P. D.Edmands, S. 1999 Genetic architecture of physiological phenotypes: Empirical evidence for coadapted gene complexesAmerican Zoologist 39 451
Butchart, S. H. M.Stattersfield, A. J.Bennun, L. A. 2004 Measuring global trends in the status of biodiversity: Red List indices for birdsPLoS Biology 2 e383
Butchart, S. H. M.Stattersfield, A. J.Collar, N. J. 2006 How many bird extinctions have we preventedOryx 40 266
Caballero, A.Rodriguez-Ramilo, S. T.Avila, V.Fernandez, J. 2010 Management of genetic diversity of subdivided populations in conservation programmesConservation Genetics 11 409
Cabeza, M.Moilanen, A. 2001 Design of reserve networks and the persistence of biodiversityTrends in Ecology & Evolution 16 242
Caldecott, J. O.Kavanagh, M. 1988 Strategic guidelines for nonhuman primate translocationTranslocations of Wild AnimalsNielsen, L.Brown, R. D.Madison, Wisconsin, USAWisconsin Humane Society64
Caldecott, J. O.Jenkins, M.Johnson, T.Groombridge, B. 1994 Priorities for Conserving Global Species Richness and EndemismCambridgeWorld Conservation Press
Campbell, S. 1978 Lifeboats to AraratNew YorkTimes Books
Carlstead, K.Seidensticker, J.Baldwin, R. 1991 Environmental enrichment for zoo bearsZoo Biology 10 3
Caro, T. M. 2003 Umbrella species: critique and lessons from East AfricaAnimal Conservation 6 171
Caro, T. M.O'Doherty, G. 1999 On the use of surrogate species in conservation biologyConservation Biology 13 805
Caro, T. M.Laurenson, M. K. 1994 Ecological and genetic factors in conservation: A cautionary taleScience 263 485
Carroll, C.Noss, R. F.Paquet, P. C. 2001 Carnivores as focal species for conservation planning in the rocky mountain regionEcological Applications 11 961
Carter, N. 2007 The Politics of the Environment: Ideas, Activism, PolicyCambridge, UKCambridge University Press
Case, T. J.Bolger, D. T. 1991 The role of introduced species in shaping the distribution of island reptilesEvolutionary Ecology 5 272
Caughley, G. 1994 Directions in conservation biologyJournal of Animal Ecology 63 215
CBSG 1992 Ark into the 21st CenturyApple ValleyCaptive Breeding Specialist Group
CBSG 2008
CBSG 2010
Ceacero, F.Landete-Castillejos, T.García, A. J. 2009 Free-choice mineral consumption in Iberian red deer () response to diet deficienciesLivestock Science 122 345
Ceballos, G.Ehrlich, P. R. 2009 Discoveries of new mammal species and their implications for conservation and ecosystem servicesProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106 3841
Ceballos, G.Ehrlich, P. R.Soberón, J. 2005 Global mammal conservation: what must we manageScience 309 603
Central Zoo Authority 2010 Central Zoo AuthorityStatutory Body under the Ministry of Environment and ForestsGovernment of India
Chamove, A. S.Anderson, J. R. 1989 Examining environmental enrichmentEcology and Behavior of Food-Enhanced Primate GroupsFa, J. E.Southwick, C. H.New YorkAlan R. Liss Inc231
Chamove, A. S.Rohruber, B. 1989 Moving callitrichid monkeys from cages to outside areasZoo Biology 8 359
Chape, S.Harrison, J.Spalding, M.Lysenko, I. 2005 Measuring the extent and effectiveness of protected areas as an indicator for meeting global biodiversity targetsPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society Series B 360 443
Cherfas, J. 1984 Zoo 2000 – A Look Behind the BarsLondonBBC
Chester Zoo 2010
Chicago Zoological Society 2010
Chiszar, D.Murphy, J. B.Iliff, W. 1990 For zoosThe Psychological Record 40 3
Chittenden, C. M.Biagi, C. A.Davidsen, J. G. 2010 Genetic versus rearing-environment effects on phenotype: hatchery and natural rearing effects on hatchery- and wild-born Coho salmonPLoS ONE 5
Clark, J. A.May, R. M. 2002 Taxonomic bias in conservation researchScience 5579 191
Clubb, R.Mason, G. 2003 Animal welfare: Captivity effects on wide-ranging carnivoresNature 425 473
Clutton-Brock, J. 1999 A Natural History of Domesticated MammalsCambridge, UKCambridge University Press
Coad, L.Burgess, N. D.Bomhard, B.Besançon, C. 2009 Progress towards the Convention on Biological Diversity's 2010 and 2012 Targets for Protected Area CoverageUNEP World Conservation Monitoring CentreCambridge
Coady, J. W.Hinman, R. A. 1984 Management of muskoxen in AlaskaProceedings of the First International Muskox SymposiumKlein, D. R.White, R. G.Keller, S.Biological Paper of the University of Alaska Special Report, no. 447
Cole, N.Jones, C.Buckland, S. 2009 The Reintroduction of Endangered Mauritian ReptilesVacoas, MauritiusThe Mauritian Wildlife Foundation
Collar, N. J. 1993 Red data books, action plans, and the need for site-specific synthesisSpecies 21/22 132
Collar, N. J. 1996 The reasons for Red Data BooksOryx 30 121
Colleau, J. J.Tribout, T. 2008 Optimized management of genetic variability in selected pig populationsJournal of Animal Breeding and Genetics 125 291
Collen, B.Loh, J.McRae, L. 2009 Monitoring change in vertebrate abundance: the Living Planet IndexConservation Biology 23 317
Coltman, D. W.Pilkington, J. G.Smith, J. A.Pemberton, J. M. 1999 Parasite-mediated selection against inbred Soay sheep in a free-living, island populationEvolution 53 1259
Considine, M. 1988 The corporate management framework as administrative science: a critiqueAustralian Journal of Public Administration 47 4
Contreras-Balderas, S.Lozano, M. L. 1994 Water, endangered fishes and development perspectives in arid lands of MexicoConservation Biology 8 379
Contreras-Balderas, S.Almada-Villela, P.Lozano-Vilano, M. L.García-Ramírez, M. E. 2003 Freshwater fish at risk or extinct in Mexico: A checklist and reviewReviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 12 241
Convention on Biological Diversity 2010
Conway, W. G. 1986 The practical difficulties and financial implications of endangered species breeding programmesInternational Zoo Yearbook 24/25 210
Conway, W. G. 1987 Species carrying capacity in the zoo aloneAmerican Association of Zoological Parks and Aquariums 1987 Annual Conference ProceedingsWheeling, WVAAZPA20
Conway, W. G. 1995 Wild and zoo animal interactive management and habitat conservationBiodiversity and Conservation 4 573
Conway, W. 2003 The role of zoos in the 21st centuryInternational Zoo Yearbook 38 7
Conway, W. G. 2007 Entering the 21st centuryZoos in the 21st Century: Catalysts for Conservation?Zimmerman, A.Hatchwell, M.Dickie, L.West, C.CambridgeCambridge University Press12
Conway, W. G.Hutchins, M. 2001 American Zoological Association [AZA] field conservation committee and conservation action partnershipsAZA Field Conservation Research GuideConway, W. G.Hutchins, M.Souza, M.Kapetanakos, Y.Paul, E.Wildlife Conservation Society, New York, and Zoo AtlantaAtlanta
Cooper, C. B.Dickinson, J.Phillips, T.Bonney, R. 2007 Citizen Science as a tool for conservation in residential ecosystemsEcology and Society 12 11
Courchamp, F.Clutton-Brock, T.Grenfell, B. 1999 Inverse density dependence and the Allee effectTrends in Ecology and Evolution 14 405
Courchamp, F.Chapuis, J.-L.Pascal, M. 2003 Mammal invaders on islands: impact, control and control impactBiological Reviews 78 347
Courchamp, F.Berec, L.Gascoigne, J. 2008 Allee Effects in Ecology and ConservationOxfordOxford University Press
Cowburn, D. 2010 Cost cuts force out Durrell scientistJersey Evening PostSt. Helier, Jersey
Cox, P. A.Elmqvist, T.Pierson, E. D.Rainey, W. E. 1991 Flying foxes as strong interactors in South Pacific Island ecosystems: A conservation hypothesisConservation Biology 5 448
Coyne, J. A.Orr, H. A. 2004 SpeciationSunderland, MASinauer Associates
Cracraft, J. 1997 Species concepts in systematics and conservation biology – an ornithological viewpointSpecies the Units of BiodiversityClaridge, M. F.Dawah, H. A.Wilson, M. R.LondonChapman & Hall
Cracraft, J.Feinstein, J.Vaughn, J.Helm-Bychowski, K. 1998 Sorting our tigers (): mitochrondial sequences, nuclear inserts, systematics, and conservation geneticsAnimal Conservation 1 139
Craig, J.Anderson, S.Clout, M. 2000 Conservation issues in New ZealandAnnual Review of Ecology and Systematics 31 61
Crandall, K. A.Bininda-Emonds, O. R. P.Mace, G. M.Wayne, R. K. 2000 Considering evolutionary processes in conservation biologyTrends in Ecology & Evolution 15 290
Crawley, M. J. 1986 The population biology of invadersPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 314 711
Crissey, S. 2005 The complexity of formulating diets for zoo animals: a matrixInternational Zoo Yearbook 39 36
Cristinacce, A.Ladkoo, A.Switzer, R. 2008 Captive breeding and rearing of critically endangered Mauritius fodies for reintroductionZoo Biology 27 255
Crnokrak, P.Roff, D. A. 1999 Inbreeding depression in the wildHeredity 83 260
Cronin, K. A.Mitchell, M. A.Lonsdorf, E. V.Thompson, S. D. 2006 One year later: Evaluation of PMC-recommended births and transfersZoo Biology 25 267
Crosby, M. J. 1994 Mapping the distribution of restricted-range birds to identify global conservation prioritiesMapping the Diversity of NatureMiller, R. I.London, UKChapman & Hall
Cross, P. C.Beissinger, S. R. 2001 Using logistic regression to analyze the sensitivity of PVA models: a comparison of methods based on African wild dog modelsConservation Biology 15 1335
Cuarón, A. D. 2005 Further role of zoos in conservation: Monitoring wildlife use and the dilemma of receiving donated and confiscated animalsZoo Biology 24 115
Cunningham, A. A. 1996 Disease risks of wildlife translocationsConservation Biology 10 349
Custance, D. M.Whiten, A.Fredman, T. 2002 Social learning and primate reintroductionInternational Journal of Primatology 23 479
da Fonseca, G. A. B.Balmford, A.Bibby, C. 2000 Following Africa's lead in setting prioritiesNature 405 393
Daleszczyk, K.Bunevich, A. N. 2009 Population viability analysis of European bison populations in Polish and Belarusian parts of Bialowieza Forest with and without gene exchangeBiological Conservation 142 3068
Daltry, J. C.Bloxam, Q.Cooper, G. 2001 Five years of conserving the ‘world's rarest snake’, the Antiguan racer Oryx 35 119
Danzer, R.Mormede, P. 1983 De-arousal properties of stereotyped behaviour: Evidence from pituitary-adrenal correlates in pigsApplied Animal Ethology 10 233
Davey, G. 2007 An analysis of country, socio-economic and time factors on worldwide zoo attendance during a 40 year periodInternational Zoo Yearbook 41 217
Davis, J. I. 1996 Phylogenetics, molecular variation, and species conceptsBioScience 46 502
Dawkins, M. 1976 Towards an objective methods of assessing welfare in domestic fowlApplied Animal Ethology 2 245
Dawkins, M. 1980 The Science of Animal WelfareLondonChapman and Hall
Dawkins, M. S. 2006 A user's guide to animal welfare scienceTrends in Ecology and Evolution 25 77
de Queiroz, K. 1998 The general lineage concept of species, species criteria, and the process of speciation: A conceptual unification and terminological recommendationsEndless Forms: Species and SpeciationHoward, D. J.Berlocher, S. H.New YorkOxford University Press57
DEFRA 2008
Derwin, C. W.Piper, J. B. 1988 The African Rock Kopje ExhibitEnvironment and Behaviour 20 435
DETR 2000 Secretary of State's Standards of Modern Zoo PracticeLondonDepartment of the Environment, Transport and the Regions
de Turkheim, G.Merz, E. 1984 Breeding Barbary macaques in a captive enclosureThe Barbary Macaque: A Case Study in ConservationFa, J. E.New YorkPlenum Press
Diamond, J. M. 1984 ‘Normal’ extinction of isolated populationsExtinctionsNitecki, M. H.ChicagoChicago University Press191
Diamond, J. M. 1989 Overview of recent extinctionsConservation for the Twenty-first CenturyWestern, D.Pearl, M.New YorkOxford University Press34
Dierking, L. D.Burtnyk, M. S.Büchner, K. S.Falk, J. H. 2002 Visitor Learning in Zoos and Aquariums: A Literature ReviewAnnapolis, MDInstitute for Learning Innovation
Dierking, L. D.Adelman, L. M.Ogden, J 2004 Using a behaviour change model to document the impact of visits to Disney's Animal Kindgom: a study investigating intended conservation actionCurator: The Museum Journal 47 322
Dickinson, H. C.Fa, J. E. 2000 Abundance, demographics and body condition of a translocated population of St Lucia whiptail lizards ()Journal of Zoology 251 187
Dixon, T. 2005 Zoos. In Pros and Cons: A Debater's HandbookSather, T.LondonRoutledge208
Drake, A. G.Klingenberg, C. P. 2010 Large-scale diversification of skull shape in domestic dogs: disparity and modularityThe American Naturalist 175 289
Dresser, B. L.Reece, R. W.Maruska, E. J. 1988 Proceedings, 5th World Conference on Breeding Endangered Species in CaptivityCincinnati, OhioCincinnati Zoo and Botanical Garden
Duncan, J. H. 2006 The changing concept of animal sentienceApplied Animal Behaviour Science 100 11
Durrell, 2010
Durrell, L.Rakotonindrina, R.Reid, D.Durbin, J. 1994 The recovery of the angonoka () – an integrated approach to species conservationCreative Conservation: Interactive Management of Wild and Captive AnimalsOlney, P. J. S.Mace, G. M.Feistner, A. T. C.LondonChapman & Hall384
Earnhardt, J. M.Thompson, S. D.Marhevsky, E. A. 2001 Interactions of target population size, population parameters, and program management of viability of captive populationsZoo Biology 20 169
Earnhardt, J. M.Thompson, S. D.Faust, L. J. 2009 Extinction risk assessment for the Species Survival Plan (SSP (R)) population of the Bali Mynah ()Zoo Biology 28 230
EAZA 2010
Ebenhard, T. 1995 Conservation breeding as a tool for saving animal species from extinctionTrends in Ecology and Evolution 10 438
Eden Project 2010
Eden Project 2010
Edmands, S. 2007 Between a rock and a hard place: evaluating the relative risks of inbreeding and outbreeding for conservation and managementMolecular Ecology 16 463
Ehrenfeld, D. 1970 Biological ConservationNew YorkColumbia University Press
Ehrenfeld, D. W. 1991 The management of diversity: A conservation paradoxEcology, Economics, Ethics: The Broken CircleBorman, F. H.Kellert, S. R.New Haven: Yale University Press26
Ehrlich, P. R.Ehrlich, A. H. 1990 Extinction: The Causes and Consequences of the Disappearance of SpeciesNew YorkRandom House
Eisner, T.Lubchenco, J.Wilson, E. O.Wilcove, D. S.Bean, M. J. 1995 Building a scientifically sound policy for protecting endangered speciesScience 5228 1231
Eken, G.Bennun, L.Brooks, T. M. 2004 Key biodiversity areas as site conservation targetsBioScience 54 1110
Ellis, S. 1995 Commentary on “Strategic collection planning: theory and practiceZoo Biology 14 49
Ellis, S.Seal, U. S. 1996 Conservation Assessment and Management Plan (CAMP) Process Reference ManualApple Valley, MNIUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group
England, P. R.Osler, G. H. R.Woodworth, L. M. 2003 Effects of intense versus diffuse population bottlenecks on microsatellite genetic diversity and evolutionary potentialConservation Genetics 4 595
Entwistle, A. 2000 Flagships for the futureOryx 34 239
Erasmus, B. F. N.Van Jaarsweld, A. S.Chown, S. L. 2002 Vulnerability of South African animal taxa to climate changeGlobal Change Biology 8 679
Erwin, J.Deni, B. 1979 Reduced aggression and stereotypies in socially housed pig-tailed macaquesLaboratory Primate Newsletter 28 3
Erwin, T. L. 1982 Tropical forests: their richness in Coleoptera and other arthropod speciesColeopterist's Bulletin 36 74
Estes, J. A.Duggins, D. O.Rathbun, G. B. 1989 The ecology of extinctions in kelp forest communitiesConservation Biology 3 252
European Union 1999
Eurogroup 2006
Evans, S. R.Sheldon, B. C. 2008 Interspecific patterns of genetic diversity in birds: correlations with extinction riskConservation Biology 22 1016
Ewbank, R. 1985 The meaning of welfareThe Teaching of Animal Welfare, Part I: Proceedings of a WorkshopRay, P. M.Potter's BarUFAW3
Ewing, S. R.Nager, R. G.Nicoll, M. A. C. 2008 Inbreeding and loss of genetic variation in a reintroduced population of Mauritius KestrelConservation Biology 22 395
Fa, J. E. 1986 Use of Time and Resources by Provisioned Troops of Monkeys: Social Behaviour, Time and Energy in Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) at GibraltarBaselS. Karger
Fa, J. E. 1994 Herbivore intake/habitat productivity correlations can help ascertain re-introduction potential for the Barbary macaqueBiodiversity and Conservation 3 309
Fa, J. E.Brown, D. 2009 Impacts of hunting on mammals in African tropical moist forests: a review and synthesisMammal Review 34 231
Fa, J. E.Clark, C. C. M. 1998 Language and zoo biology training outcomes: A cautionary noteZoo Biology 18 71
Fa, J. E.Cavalheiro, M. L. 1998 Individual variation in food consumption and food preferences in St Lucia parrots at Jersey Wildlife Preservation TrustInternational Zoo Yearbook 36 199
Fa, J. E.Funk, S. M. 2007 Global endemicity centres for terrestrial vertebrates: an ecoregions approachEndangered Species Research 3 31
Fa, J. E.Southwick, C. H. 1988 Ecology and Behavior of Food-enhanced Primate GroupsNew YorkAlan R. Liss, Inc
Fa, J. E.Juste, J.Perez del Val, J.Castroviejo, J. 1995 Impact of market hunting on mammal species in Equatorial GuineaConservation Biology 9 1107
Fa, J. E.Clark, C. C.Hicks, S. 1996 Training in zoo biology at the Jersey Wildlife Preservation. Trust: A retrospective look and a glance at the futureDodo (Journal of the Wildlife Preservation Trusts) 31 22
Fagan, W. F.Holmes, E. E. 2006 Quantifying the extinction vortexEcology Letters 9 51
Falk, J. H. 2006 The impact of visit motivation on learning: using identity as a construct to understand the visitor experienceCurator 49 151
Falk, J. H.Dierking, L. D. 2010 School field trips: assessing their long-term impactCurator: The Museum Journal 40 211
Falk, J. H.Reinhard, E. M.Vernon, C. L. 2007 Why Zoos & Aquariums Matter: Assessing the Impact of a Visit to a Zoo or AquariumSilver Spring, MDAssociation of Zoos & Aquariums
Falk, J. H.Heimlich, J. E.Bronnenkant, K. 2008 Using identity-related visit motivations as a tool for understanding adult zoo and aquarium visitors’ meaning makingCurator: The Museum Journal 51 55
Farmer, K. H. 2002 Pan-African Sanctuary Alliance: Status and range of activities for great ape conservationAmerican Journal of Primatology 58 117
Farmer, K. H.Courage, A. 2008 Sanctuaries and reintroduction: a role in gorilla conservationConservation in the 21st Century: Gorillas as a Case StudyStoinski, T. S.Steklis, H. D.Mehlman, P. T.BerlinSpringer79
Faust, L.Earnhardt, J.Schloss, C.Bergstrom, Y. M. 2008 ZooRisk: A Risk Assessment ToolChicago, ILLincoln Park Zoo
FAWC 2010
Fernandez, E. J.Timberlake, W. 2008 Mutual benefits of research collaborations between zoos and academic institutionsZoo Biology 27 470
Fernández, J.Toro, M. A.Caballero, A. 2003 Fixed contributions designs vs. minimization of global coancestry to control inbreeding in small populationsGenetics 165 885
Fessl, B.Young, G. H.Young, R. P. 2010 How to save the rarest Darwin's finch from extinction: the mangrove finch on Isabela IslandPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, B 365 1019
Finlay, T. W.Maple, T. L. 1986 A survey of research in American zoos and aquariumsZoo Biology 5 261
Fischer, J.Lindenmayer, D. B. 2000 An assessment of the published results of animal translocationsBiological Conservation 96 1
Fishpool, L. D. C.Evans, M. I. 2001 Important Bird Areas in Africa and Associated Islands: Priority Sites for ConservationNewbury and Cambridge, UKPisces Publications and BirdLife International
Fisken, F. A.Field, D.Leus, K. 2010 International Zoo Yearbook 44: Bears and CanidsLondonZoological Society of London
Fitter, R. 1974 Most endangered mammals: An action programmeOryx 12 436
Fitter, R.Fitter, M. 1987 The Road to ExtinctionGland, SwitzerlandIUCN
Fitter, R. S. R.Scott, P. 1978 The Penitent Butchers: The Fauna Preservation Society 1903–1978LondonCollins
Fjeldså, J. 2000 The relevance of systematics in choosing priority areas for global conservationEnvironmental Conservation 27 65
Fleishman, E.Murphy, D. D.Brussard, P. F. 2000 A new method for selection of umbrella species for conservation planningEcological Applications 10 569
Flight, P. A. 2010 Phylogenetic comparative methods strengthen evidence for reduced genetic diversity among endangered tetrapodsConservation Biology 24 1307
Foden, W.Mace, G.Vié, J.-C. 2008 Species susceptibility to climate change impactsThe 2008 Review of The IUCN Red List of Threatened SpeciesVié, J.-C.Hilton-Taylor, C.Stuart, S. N.Gland, SwitzerlandIUCN
Foose, T. J. 1991 Viable population strategies for reintroduction programmesBeyond Captive Breeding: Reintroducing Endangered Mammals to the WildGipps, J. H. W.OxfordClarendon Press165
Foose, T. J. 1991 CBSG captive action plansCBSG News 2 5
Foose, T. Boer, L.Seal, U. S.Lande, R. 1995 Conservation management strategies based on viable populationsPopulation Management for Survival and RecoveryBallou, J. D.Gilpin, M. E.Foose, T. J.New YorkColumbia University Press273
Forbes, S.Boyd, D. 1997 Genetic variation of naturally colonizing wolves in the Central Rocky MountainsConservation Biology 10 1082
Forthman-Quick, D. 1984 An integrative approach to environmental engineering in zoosZoo Biology 3 65
Foster-Turley, P.Markowitz, H. 1982 A captive behavioural enrichment study with Asian small-clawed river otters ()Zoo Biology 1 19
Fowler, K.Whitlock, M. C. 1999 The distribution of phenotypic variance with inbreedingEvolution 53 1143
Fox, C. W.Scheibly, K. L.Reed, D. H. 2008 Experimental evolution of the genetic load and its implications for the genetic basis of inbreeding depressionEvolution 62 2236
Fragaszy, D. M.Adams-Curtis, L. E. 1991 Generative aspects of manipulation in tufted capuchin monkey ()Journal of Comparative Psychology 105 387
Frankham, R. 1995 Effective population size/adult population size ratios in wildlife: A reviewGenetical Research 66 95
Frankham, R. 2005 Stress and adaptation in conservation geneticsJournal of Evolutionary Biology 18 750
Frankham, R. 2005 Genetics and extinctionBiological Conservation 126 131
Frankham, R. 2008 Genetic adaptation to captivity in species conservation programsMolecular Ecology 17 325
Frankham, R. 2010 Inbreeding in the wild really does matterHeredity 104 124
Frankham, R.Loebel, D. A. 1992 Modeling problems in conservation genetics using captive populations – rapid genetic adaptation to captivityZoo Biology 11 333
Frankham, R.Ralls, K. 1998 Conservation biology: inbreeding leads to extinctionNature 392
Frankham, R.Manning, H.Margan, S. H.Briscoe, D. A. 2000 Does equalization of family sizes reduce genetic adaptation to captivityAnimal Conservation 3 357
Frankham, R.Ballou, J. D.Briscoe, D. A. 2002 Introduction to Conservation GeneticsCambridgeCambridge University Press
Frankham, R.Ballou, J. D.Briscoe, D. A. 2010 Introduction to Conservation GeneticsCambridgeCambridge University Press
Franklin, I. R. 1980 Evolutionary change in small populationsConservation Biology: An Evolutionary-Ecological PerspectiveSoulé, M. E.Wilcox, B. A.Sunderland, MASinauer Associates135
Franklin, I. R.Frankham, R. 1998 How large must populations be to retain evolutionary potentialAnimal Conservation 1 69
Fraser, D. J. 2008 How well can captive breeding programs conserve biodiversity? A review of salmonidsEvolutionary Applications 1 535
Fraser, D. J.Bernatchez, L. 2001 Adaptive evolutionary conservation: towards a unified concept for defining conservation unitsMolecular Ecology 10 2741
Fraser, J.Wharton, D. 2007 The future of zoos: a new model for cultural institutionsCurator: The Museum Journal 50 41
Frazee, S. R.Cowling, R. M.Pressey, R. L.Turpie, J. K.Lindberg, N. 2003 Estimating the costs of conserving a biodiversity hotspot: a case-study of the Cape Floristic Region, South AfricaBiological Conservation 112 275
Frazer, M.Dunstan, J.Creed, P. 1985 Perspectives on Organisational ChangeSydney, AustraliaLongmann-Cheshire
Frynta, D.Liŝková, S.Bültmann, S.Burda, H. 2010 Being attractive brings advantages: the case of parrot species in captivityPLoS ONE 5 e12568
Fullager, P. J. 1985 The woodhens of Lord Howe IslandAviculture Magazine 91 15
Funk, S. M.Fa, J. E. 2006 Phylogeography of the endemic St. Lucia whiptail lizard : conservation genetics at the species boundaryConservation Genetics 7 651
Funk, S. M.Fa, J. E. 2010 Ecoregion prioritization suggests an armoury not a silver bullet for conservation planningPLoS ONE 5 e8923
Funk, S. M.Verma, S. K.Larson, G. 2007 Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 45 427
Gaines, S. D.Lubchenco, J. 1982 A unified approach to marine plant-herbivore interactions. II BiogeographyAnnual Review of Ecology and Systematics 13 111
Garnett, S.Crowley, G.Balmford, A. 2003 The costs and effectiveness of funding the conservation of Australian threatened birdsBioScience 7 658
Gaston, K. J. 1991 The magnitude of global insect species richnessConservation Biology 5 283
Gaston, K. J.Blackburn, T. M. 1995 Mapping biodiversity using surrogates for species richness: macro-scales and New World birdsProceedings of the Royal Society, Biological Sciences 262 335
Gaston, K. J.May, R. M. 1992 Taxonomy of taxonomistsNature 356 281
Gaston, K. J.Pressey, R. L.Margules, C. R. 2002 Persistence and vulnerability: retaining biodiversity in the landscape and in protected areasJournal of Biosciences 27 361
Geiser, F.Ferguson, C. 2001 Intraspecific differences in behaviour and physiology: effects of captive breeding on patterns of torpor in feathertail glidersJournal of Comparative Physiology B 171 569
Giangrande, A. 2003 Biodiversity, conservation, and the taxonomic impedimentAquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 13 451
Gibbons, P.Zammit, C.Youngentob, K. 2008 Some practical suggestions for improving engagement between researchers and policy-makers in natural resource managementEcological Management & Restoration 9 182
Gilligan, D. M.Woodworth, L. M.Montgomery, M. E.Briscoe, D. A.Frankham, R. 1997 Is mutation accumulation a threat to the survival of endangered populationsConservation Biology 11 1235
Gilpin, M. E.Soulé, M. E. 1986 Minimum viable populations: processes of extinctionConservation Biology: The Science of Scarcity and DiversitySoulé, M. E.Sunderland, MassachusettsSinauer Associates19
Ginsberg, J. R. 1994 Captive breeding, reintroduction and the conservation of canidsCreative Conservation: Interactive Management of Wild and Captive AnimalsOlney, P. J. S.Mace, G. M.Feistner, A. T. C.London, UKChapman and Hall365
Goodall, J. 1986 The Chimpanzees of Gombe: Patterns of BehaviourHarvard University PressCambridge
Goodwin, M.Greasley, S.John, P.Richardson, L. 2010 Can we make environmental citizens? A randomised control trial of the effects of a school-based intervention on the attitudes and knowledge of young peopleEnvironmental Politics 19 392
Goossens, B.Funk, S. M.Vidal, C. 2002 Measuring genetic diversity in translocation programmes: principles and application to a chimpanzee release projectAnimal Conservation 5 225
Goossens, B.Setchell, J. M.Tchidongo, E. 2005 Survival, interactions with conspecifics and reproduction in 37 chimpanzees released into the wildBiological Conservation 123 461
Graham-Jones, O. 1974 Some aspects of air transport in animalsInternational Zoo Yearbook 14 34
Grassle, J. F. 1989 Species diversity in deep-sea communitiesTrends in Ecology and Evolution 4 12
Gray, T. I. 1994
Gregory, R. D.Willis, S. G.Jiguet, F. 2009 An indicator of the impact of climatic change on European bird populationsPLoS ONE 4 e4678
Grenyer, R.Orme, C. D. L.Jackson, S. F. 2006 Global distribution and conservation of rare and threatened vertebratesNature 444 93
Griffin, D. R. 1955 Bird navigationRecent Studies in Avian BiologyWolfson, A.UrbanaUniversity of Illinois Press154
Griffith, B.Scott, J. M.Carpenter, J. W.Reed, C. 1989 Translocation as a species conservation tool: status and strategyScience 245 477
Griffith, B.Scott, J. M.Carpenter, J.Reed, C 1990 Endangered Species UPDATE 8 10
Griffiths, R. A.Pavajeau, L. 2008 Captive breeding, reintroduction, and the conservation of amphibiansConservation Biology 22 852
Groves, C. R. 2003 Drafting a Conservation Blueprint: A Practitioner's Guide to Planning for BiodiversityWashington, DCIsland Press
Groves, C. P.Fernando, P.Robovsky, J. 2010 The sixth rhino: a taxonomic re-assessment of the critically endangered northern white rhinocerosPLoS ONE 5 e9703
Grueber, C. E.Jamieson, I. G. 2008 Quantifying and managing the loss of genetic variation in a free-ranging population of takahe through the use of pedigreesConservation Genetics 9 645
Guillera-Arroita, G.Lahoz-Monfort, J. J.Milner-Gulland, E. J.Young, R. P.Nicholson, E. 2010 Using occupancy as a state variable for monitoring the Critically Endangered Alaotran gentle lemur Endangered Species Research 11 157
Gunnthorsdottir, A. 2001 Physical attractiveness of an animal species as a decision factor for its preservationAnthrozoos 14 204
Gusset, M.Dick, G. 2010 ‘Building a Future for Wildlife'? Evaluating the contribution of the world zoo and aquarium community to in situ conservationInternational Zoo Yearbook 44 183
Gwynne, J. A. 2007 Inspiration for conservation: moving audiences to careZoos in the 21st Century: Catalysts for ConservationZimmerman, A.Hatchwell, M.Dickie, L.West, C.CambridgeCambridge University Press51
Haavie, J.Saertre, G. P.Moum, T. 2000 9 1137
Haight, R. G.Ralls, K.Starfield, A. M. 2000 Designing species translocation strategies when populaton growth and future funding are uncertainConservation Biology 14 1298
Hancocks, D. 1980 Bringing nature into the zoo: inexpensive solutions for zoo environmentsInternational Journal of Studies of Animal Problems 1 170
Hancocks, D. 1995 Lions and tigers and bears, oh noEthics on the Ark: Zoos, Animal Welfare, and Wildlife ConservationNorton, B. G.Hutchins, M.Stevens, E. F.Maple, T. L.Washington, DCSmithsonian Institution Press31
Hancocks, D. 2001 A Different Nature: The Paradoxical World of Zoos and Their Uncertain FutureBerkeleyUniversity of California Press
Hannah, A.McGrew, W. 1991 Rehabilitation of captive chimpanzeesPrimate Responses to Environmental ChangeBox, H.Chapman & HallLondon167
Hanski, I. A.Gilpin, M. E. 1991 Metapopulation dynamics: Brief history and conceptual domainBiological Journal of the Linnaean Society 42 3
Harcourt, A. H. 1986 Gorilla conservation: Anatomy of a campaignPrimates: The Road to Self-Sustaining PopulationsBenirschke, K.New YorkSpringer-Verlag31
Harcourt, A. H.Stewart, K. J. 1984 Gorilla's time feeding: aspects of methodology, body size, competition and dietAfrican Journal of Ecology 22 207
Hard, J. J.Berejikian, B. A.Tezak, E. P.Schroder, S. L.Knudsen, C. M.Parker, L. T. 2000 Evidence for morphometric differentiation of wild and captively reared adult coho salmon: a geometric analysisEnvironmental Biology of Fishes 58 61
Harley, E. H.Baumgarten, I.Cunningham, J.O’Ryan, C. 2005 Genetic variation and population structure in remnant populations of black rhinoceros, , in AfricaMolecular Ecology 14 2981
Hawksworth, D. L.Kalin-Arroyo, M. T. 1995 Magnitude and distribution of biodiversityGlobal Biodiversity AssessmentHeywood, V. H.CambridgeCambridge University Press107
Hawley, D. M.Sydenstricker, K. V.Kollias, G. V.Dhondt, A. A. 2005 Genetic diversity predicts pathogen resistance and cell-mediated immunocompetence in house finchesBiology Letters 1 326
Hediger, H. 1950 Wild Animals in CaptivityLondonButterworth
Hediger, H. 1969 Man and Animal in the Zoo: Zoo BiologyLondonRoutledge and Kegan Paul
Hedrick, P. W. 1994 Purging inbreeding depression and the probability of extinction – full-sib matingHeredity 73 363
Hedrick, P. W.Fredrickson, R. T. 2010 Genetic rescue guidelines with examples from Mexican wolves and Florida panthersConservation Genetics 11 615
Hedrick, P. W.Kalinowski, S. T. 2000 Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 31 139
Hedrick, P. W.Lacy, R. C.Allendorf, F. W.Soulé, M. E. 1996 Directions in conservation biology: comments on CaughleyConservation Biology 10 1312
Heikkinen, R. K.Luoto, M.Araújo, M. B. 2006 Methods and uncertainties in bioclimatic envelope modelling under climate changeProgress in Physical Geography 30 1
Hendry, A. P.Vamosi, S. M.Latham, S. J.Heilbuth, J. C.Day, T. 2000 Questioning species realitiesConservation Genetics 1 67
Hendry, A. P.Wenburg, J. K.Bentzen, P.Volk, E. C.Quinn, T. P. 2000 Rapid evolution of reproductive isolation in the wild: evidence from introduced salmonScience 290 516
Hennemann, W. W. 1983 Relationship among body mass, metabolic rate and the intrinsic rate of natural increase in mammalsOecologia (Berlin) 56 104
Hess, G. R.Bartel, R. A.Leidner, A. K. 2006 Effectiveness of biodiversity indicators varies with extent, grain, and regionBiological Conservation 132 448
Hey, J. 2001 Genes, Categories and SpeciesNew York, NYOxford University Press
Heywood, V. H.Stuart, S. N. 1992 Species extinctions in tropical forestsTropical Deforestation and Species ExtinctionWhitmore, T. C.Sayer, J. A.LondonChapman & Hall91
Heywood, V. H.Mace, G. M.Stuart, S. N. 1994 Uncertainties in extinction ratesNature 368 105
Hiddinga, B.Leus, K. 2006 On Regional Collection Plans and population sizesEAZA News 54 26
Hill, J.Collingham, Y. C.Thomas, C. D. 2001 Impacts of landscape structure on butterfly range expansionEcology Letters 4 313
Hill, J. K.Thomas, C. D.Huntley, B. 2003 Modelling present and potential future ranges of European butterflies using climate response surfacesButterflies: Ecology and Evolution Taking FlightBoggs, C.Watt, W.Ehrlich, P.ChicagoChicago University Press149
Hill, W. G.Rabash, J. 1986 Models of long term artificial selection in finite populationsGenetic Research 48 41
Hilton-Taylor, C.Mace, G. M.Capper, D. R. 2000 Assessment mismatches must be sorted out: they leave species at riskNature 404 541
Hilton-Taylor, C.Pollock, C. M.Chanson, J. S. 2009 State of the world's speciesWildlife in a Changing World – An Analysis of the 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened SpeciesVié, J.-C.Hilton-Taylor, C.Stuart, S. N.Gland, SwitzerlandIUCN15
Hladik, C. M. 1973 Alimentation et activité d'un groupe de chimpanzés réintroduits en forêt gabonaiseLa Terre et la Vie 27 343
Hobbs, R. J.Kristjanson, L. J. 2003 How do we prioritize health care for landscapesEcological Management and Restoration 4 S39
Hoegh-Guldberg, O.Hughes, L.McIntyre, S. 2008 Assisted colonization and rapid climate changeScience 321 345
Hoekstra, J. M.Boucher, T. M.Ricketts, T. H.Roberts, C. 2005 Confronting a biome crisis: global disparities of habitat loss and protectionEcology Letters 8 23
Hoffmann, M.Brooks, T. M.da Fonseca, G. A. B. 2008 Conservation planning and the IUCN Red ListEndangered Species Research
Holt, W. V.Lloyd, R. E. 2009 Artificial insemination for the propagation of CANDES: the realityTheriogenology 71 228
Hosey, G. 1997 Behavioral research in zoos: Academic perspectivesApplied Animal Behaviour Science 51 199
Hosey, G. R. 2000 Zoo animals and their human audiences: what is the visitor effectAnimal Welfare 9 343
Hosey, G. 2005 How does the environment affect the behaviour of captive primatesApplied Animal Behaviour Science 90 107
Howard, J. G.Marinari, P. E.Wildt, D. E. 2003 Holt, W. V.Pickard, A. R.Rodger, J. C.Wildt, D. E.249
Howe, H. F. 1984 Implications of seed dispersal by animals for tropical reserve managementBiological Conservation 30 261
Humphries, C. J.Williams, P. H.Vane-Wright, R. I. 1995 Measuring biodiversity value for conservationAnnual Reviews of Ecology and Systematics 26 93
Huntingford, F. A. 2004 Implications of domestication and rearing conditions for the behaviour of cultivated fishesJournal of Fish Biology 65 122
Hurlbert, A. H.Jetz, W. 2007 Species richness, hotspots, and the scale dependence of range maps in ecology and conservationProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104 13384
Hutchins, M. 1996 Education in conservationCommuniqué26
Hutchins, M. 2003 Zoo and aquarium animal management and conservation: current trends and future challengesInternational Zoo Yearbook 38 14
Hutchins, M.Conway, W. G. 1995 Beyond Noah's Ark: The evolving role of modern zoos and aquariums in field conservationInternational Zoo Yearbook 34 117
Hutchins, M.Smith, B 2003 Characteristics of a world-class zoo or aquarium in the 21st centuryInternational Zoo Yearbook 38 130
Hutchins, M.Thompson, S. D. 2008 Zoo and aquarium research: priority setting for the coming decadesZoo Biology 27 488
Hutchins, M.Wemmer, C. 1991 In defense of captive breedingEndangered Species Update 8 5
Hutchins, M.Hancocks, D.Calip, T. 1978 Behavioural engineering in the zoo: A critiqueInternational Zoo News 25 18
Hutchins, M.Hancocks, D.Crockett, C. 1984 Naturalistic solutions to the behavior problems of captive animalsZoological Garten 54 28
Hutchins, M.Willis, K.Weise, R. J. 1995 Strategic collection planning: theory and practiceZoo Biology 14 5
Hutchins, M.Paul, E.Bowdoin, J. 1996 Contributions of zoo and aquarium research to wildlife conservation and scienceWell-Being of Animals in Zoo and Aquarium ResearchBielitzki, J.Boyce, J.Burghardt, G.Schaeffer, D.Greenbelt, MDScientist's Center for Animal Welfare and Zoo Atlanta23
Hutchins, M.Wiese, R. J.Willis, K. 1997 Captive breeding and conservationConservation Biology 11 3
ICBP 1992 Putting Biodiversity on the MapCambridge, UKInternational Council for Bird Protection
Isaac, N. J. B.Mallet, J.Mace, G. M. 2004 Taxonomic inflation: its influence on macroecology and conservationTrends in Ecology and Evolution 19 464
Isaac, N. J. B.Turvey, S. T.Collen, B.Waterman, C.Baillie, J. E. M. 2007 Mammals on the EDGE: conservation priorities based on threat and phylogenyPLoS ONE 2 e296
ISIS 2010
IUCN 1987 Captive Breeding Policy. IUCN Policy DocumentGland, SwitzerlandIUCN
IUCN 1987
IUCN 1992 Global Biodiversity Strategy: Guidelines for Action to Save, Study and Use Earth's Biotic Wealth Sustainably and EquitablyGland, SwitzerlandIUCN
IUCN 1994 IUCN Red List CategoriesGland, SwitzerlandIUCN Species Survival Commission
IUCN 1998 IUCN Guidelines for Re-introductionsGland, SwitzerlandIUCN
IUCN 2001 IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria: version 3.1Gland and CambridgeIUCN
IUCN 2002
IUCN 2010
IUDZG/CBSG (IUCN/SSC) 1993 The World Zoo Conservation Strategy: the Roles of Zoos and Aquaria of the World in Global ConservationBrookfield, IllinoisChicago Zoological Society
IUDZG/CBSG (IUCN/SSC) 2005 The World Zoo Conservation Strategy: the Role of the Zoos and Aquaria of the World in Global ConservationChicago, ILChicago Zoological Society
Ivy, J. A.Miller, A.Lacy, R. C.DeWoody, J. A. 2009 Methods and prospects for using molecular data in captive breeding programs: an empirical example using Parma Wallabies ()Journal of Heredity 100 441
IWRC 2010
IZE 2010
Jablonski, D. 1991 Extinctions: a paleontological perspectiveScience 253 754
Jachowski, D.Kesler, D. 2009 Allowing extinction: are we ready to let species goTrends in Ecology and Evolution 24 180
James, J. W. 1970 The founder effect and response to artificial selectionGenetical Research 16 241
Jamieson, D. 1985 Against Zoos. In Defence of AnimalsSinger, P.OxfordBasil Blackwell108
Jamieson, D. 1995 Zoos revisitedEthics on the Ark: Zoos, Animal Welfare, and Wildlife ConservationNorton, B. G.Hutchins, M.Stevens, E. F.Maple, T. L.Washington, DCSmithsonian Institute Press52
Jamieson, I. G. 2007 Role of genetic factors in extinction of island endemics: complementary or competing explanationsAnimal Conservation 10 151
Jeggo, D. F.French, H.Bellingham, L 2000 International Zoo Yearbook 37 214
Jenkins, M. 1992 Ex situ conservation of animalsGlobal Biodiversity: Status of the Earth's Living ResourcesGroombridge, B.LondonChapman & Hall563
Jennings, M.Faber-Langendoen, D.Peet, R. 2004 Description, Documentation, and Evaluation of Associations and Alliances within the U. S. National Vegetation ClassificationThe Ecological Society of America, Vegetation Classification Panel
Jenkins, C. N.Joppa, L. 2009 Expansion of the global terrestrial protected area systemBiological Conservation 142 2166
Jones, C. G.Heck, W.Lewis, R. E. 1995 The restoration of the Mauritius Kestrel populationIbis 137 S173
Jones, K. L.Nicolich, J. M. 2001 Artificial insemination in captive whooping cranes: results from genetic analysesZoo Biology 20 331
Jones, M. E.Jarman, P. J.Lees, C. M. 2007 Conservation management of Tasmanian devils in the context of an emerging, extinction-threatening disease: Devil facial tumor diseaseEcohealth 4 326
Joslin, J. K. 1977 Rodent long distance orientation (“homing”)Advances in Ecological Research 10 63
Jule, K. R.Leaver, L. A.Lea, S. E. G. 2008 The effects of captive experience on reintroduction survival in carnivores: a review and analysisBiological Conservation 141 355
Kahn, A. E. 1966 The tyranny of small decisions: market failures, imperfections and the limits of economicsKyklos 19 23
Kalinowski, S. T.Hedrick, P. W.Miller, P. S. 2000 Inbreeding depression in the Speke's gazelle captive breeding programConservation Biology 14 1375
Kareiva, P.Marvier, M. 2003 American Scientist 91 344
Karr, J. R. 1982 Population variability and extinction in the avifauna of a tropical land bridge islandEcology 63 1975
Karr, J. R. 1991 Biological integrity: A long-neglected aspect of water resource managementEcological Applications 1 66
Kawata, K.Hendy, M. 1978 A perspective: Zoo going and animal popularityInternational Zoo News 25 14
Keenan, C. P. 2000 31 121
Kellert, S. 1979 Zoological parks in Wheelings, WVAAZPA82
Kellert, S. 1996 The Value of LifeWashington DCIsland Press
Kellert, S. R. 2002 Experiencing nature: affective, cognitive and evaluative development in childrenChildren and Nature: Psychological, Sociocultural, and Evolutionary Investigations, P. H.Kahn, Kellert, S. R.BostonThe MIT Press117
Kellert, S. R.Dunlap, J. 1989 Informal Learning at the Zoo: A Study of Attitude and Knowledge ImpactsA Report to the Zoological Society of Philadelphia
Kelley, J. L.Magurran, A. E.Macías García, C. 2006 Captive breeding promotes aggression in an endangered Mexican fishBiological Conservation 133 169
Kelly, J. D. 1997 Effective conservation in the twenty-first century: the need to be more than a zoo. One organization's approachInternational Zoo Yearbook 35 1
Kettmann, M. 2010
Kinnersley, P.Anderson, E.Parry, K. 2000 Randomised controlled trial of nurse practitioner versus general practitioner care for patients requesting “same day” consultations in primary careBritish Medical Journal 320 1043
Kirkden, R. D.Pajor, E. A. 2006 Motivation for group housing in gestating sowsAnimal Welfare 15 119
Kirkwood, J. K. 2003 Welfare, husbandry and veterinary care of wild animals in captivity: changes in attitudes, progress in knowledge and techniquesInternational Zoo Yearbook 38 124
Kitchener, A. C. 1998 The Scottish wildcat – a cat with an identity crisisBritish Wildlife 9 232
Kitchener, A. C. 1999 Tiger distribution, phenotypic variation and conservation issuesRiding the TigerSeidensticker, J.Christie, S.Jackson, P.CambridgeCambridge University Press19
Kitchener, A. C. 2004 The problem of old bears in zoosInternational Zoo News 51 283
Kleiman, D. G. 1989 Reintroduction of captive mammals for conservationBioScience 39 152
Kleiman, D. G. 1992 Behavioral research in zoos: past, present and futureZoo Biology 11 301
Kleiman, D. G.Mallinson, J. J. C. 1998 Conservation Biology 12 27
Kleiman, D. G.Beck, B. B.Dietz, J. M.Ballou, J. D.Coimbra-Filho, A. F. 1986 Conservation program for the golden lion tamarin: captive research and management, ecological studies, educational strategies and reintroductionPrimates: The Road to Self-Sustaining PopulationsBenirschke, K.New YorkSpringer-Verlag960
Kleiman, D. G.Beck, B. B.Dietz, J. M.Dietz, L. A. 1991 Costs of a re-introduction and criteria for success: accountability in the golden lion tamarin conservation programBeyond Captive Breeding: Reintroducing Endangered Mammals to the WildGipps, J. H. W.OxfordClarendon Press125
Kleiman, D. G.Stanley Price, M. R.Beck, B. B. 1994 , P. J.Solney, Mace, G. M.Feistner, A. F.287
Kohn, M. H.York, E. C.Kamradt, D. A. 1999 Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, Biological Sciences 266 657
Konstant, W. R.Mittermeier, R. A. 1982 Introduction, reintroduction and translocation of Neotropical primates: past experiences and future possibilitiesInternational Zoo Yearbook 22 69
Kruska, D. 1996 The effect of domestication on brain size and composition in the mink ()Journal of Zoology, London 239 645
Kruska, D. C. T.Sidorovich, V. E. 2003 Comparative allometric skull morphometrics in mink ( Schreber, 1777) of Canadian and Belarus origin; taxonomic statusMammalian Biology – Zeitschrift fur Saugetierkunde 68 257
Künzel, C.Kaiser, S.Meier, E.Sachser, N. 2003 Is a wild mammal kept and reared in captivity still a wild animalHormones and Behavior 43 187
Lacy, R. C. 1987 Conservation Biology 1 143
Lacy, R. C. 1989 Analysis of founder representation in pedigrees: Founder equivalents and founder genome equivalentsZoo Biology 8 111
Lacy, R. C. 1993 Vortex – a computer-simulation model for population viability analysisWildlife Research 20 45
Lacy, R. C. 1995 Clarification of genetic terms and their use in the management of captive populationsZoo Biology 14 565
Lacy, R. C. 1997 Importance of genetic variation to the viability of mammalian populationsJournal of Mammalogy 78 320
Lacy, R. C.Ballou, J. D. 1998 52 900
Lahoz-Monfort, J. J.Guillera-Arroita, G.Milner-Gulland, E. J.Young, R. P.Nicholson, E. 2010 Satellite imagery as a single source of predictor variables for habitat suitability modelling: how Landsat can inform the conservation of a critically endangered lemurJournal of Applied Ecology DOI 10
Laikre, L. 1999 Hereditary defects and conservation genetic management of captive populationsZoo Biology 18 81
Lambeck, R. J. 1997 Focal species: a multi-species umbrella for nature conservationConservation Biology 11 849
Lamoreux, J. F.Morrison, J. C.Ricketts, T. H. 2006 Global tests of biodiversity concordance and the importance of endemismNature 440 212
Lande, R. 1988 Genetics and demography in biological conservationScience 241 1455
Lande, R. 1993 Risk of population extinction from demographic and environmental stochasticity and random catastrophesAmerican Naturalist 142 911
Lande, R. 1994 Risk of population extinction from fixation of new deleterious mutationsEvolution 48 1460
Lande, R. 1995 Mutation and conservationConservation Biology 9 782
Landres, P. B.Verner, J.Thomas, J. W. 1988 Ecological uses of vertebrate indicator species: a critiqueConservation Biology 2 316
Larsen, F. W.Turner, W. R.Brooks, T. M. 2011
La Rue, F. 1992 Working together to resolve the historic conflict between curators and veterinariansProceedings of the American Association of Zoological Parks and Aquariums Annual ConferenceWheeling, West VirginiaAmerican Association of Zoological Parks and Aquariums162
Lascuráin, M.List, R.Barraza, L. 2009 Conservación de especies ex situ. In Estado de Conservación y Tendencias de CambioMexico CityCONABIO517
Laurance, W. F. 1991 Ecological correlates of extinction proneness in Australian tropical rain forest mammalsConservation Biology 5 79
Lawson, D. P.Ogden, J.Snyder, R. J. 2008 Maximizing the contribution of science in zoos and aquariums: organizational models and perceptionsZoo Biology 27 458
Leader-Williams, N. 1990 Black rhinos and African elephants: lessons for conservation fundingOryx 24 23
Leader-Williams, N.Dublin, H. T. 2000 Charismatic megafauna as ‘flagship species’Priorities for the Conservation of Mammalian Diversity: Has the Panda had its Day?Entwistle, A.Dunstone, N.CambridgeCambridge University Press53
Leader-Williams, N.Balmford, A.Linkie, M. 2007 Beyond the ark: conservation biologists’ views of the achievements of zoos in conservationZoos in the 21st Century: Catalysts for Conservation?Zimmerman, A.Hatchwell, M.Dickie, L.West, C.CambridgeCambridge University Press236
Leberg, P. L.Firmin, B. D. 2008 Role of inbreeding depression and purging in captive breeding and restoration programmesMolecular Ecology 17 334
Lee, T. M.Jetz, W. 2008 Future battlegrounds for conservation under global changeProceedings of the Royal Society B, Biological Sciences 275 1261
Lees, C. M.Wilcken, J. 2009 Sustaining the ark: the challenges faced by zoos in maintaining viable populationsInternational Zoo Yearbook 43 6
Lehmann, L.Perrin, N. 2006 On metapopulation resistance to drift and extinctionEcology 87 1844
Leinonen, T.O’Hara, R. B.Cano, J. M.Merila, J. 2008 Comparative studies of quantitative trait and neutral marker divergence: a meta-analysisJournal of Evolutionary Biology 21 1
Leroy, E. M.Rouquet, P.Formenty, P. 2004 Multiple Ebola virus transmission events and rapid decline of central African wildlifeScience 303 387
Levinsky, I.Skov, F.Svenning, J. C.Rahbek, C. 2007 Potential impacts of climate change on the distributions and diversity patterns of European mammalsBiodiversity and Conservation 16 3803
Lewis, O. T.Thomas, C. D. 2001 Adaptations to captivity in the butterfly (L.) and the implications for ex situ conservationJournal of Insect Conservation 5 55
Lewis, W. J. 1980 Interpreting for Park VisitorsPhiladelphia, PennsylvaniaEastern Acorn Press
Lewontin, R. C.Birch, L. C. 1996 Evolution 20 315
Lindburg, D. G. 1992 Are wildlife reintroductions worth the costZoo Biology 11 1
Lindemann-Matthies, P.Kamer, T. 2005 The influence of an interactive educational approach on visitors’ learning in a Swiss ZooScience Learning in Everday LifeDierking, L. D.Falk, J. H.LondonWiley Periodicals, Inc
Lindenmayer, D. B. 1994 Forest Ecology and Management 115 277
Lindenmayer, D. B.Manning, A. D.Smith, P. L. 2002 The focal-species approach and landscape restoration: a critiqueConservation Biology 16 338
Linnell, J. D. C.Aanes, R.Swenson, J. E.Odden, J.Smith, M. E. 1997 Translocation of carnivores as a method for managing problem animals: a reviewBiodiversity and Conservation 6 1245
Liukkonen-Anttila, T.Saartoala, R.Hissa, R. 2000 Impact of hand-rearing on morphology and physiology of the capercaillie ()Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A 125 211
Lloyd, B. D.Powlesland, R. G. 1994 The decline of kakapo and attempts at conservation by translocationBiological Conservation 69 75
Long, A. J.Crosby, M. J.Stattersfield, A. J.Wege, D. C. 1996 Towards a global map of biodiversity: patterns in the distribution of restricted-range birdsGlobal Ecology and Biogeography Letters 5 281
Lovejoy, T. E.Hannah, L. 2005 Climate Change and BiodiversityNew Haven, ConnYale University Press
Lucas, L. K.Fries, J. N.Gabor, C. R.Nice, C. C. 2009 Genetic variation and structure in , a federally threatened salamander endemic to the San Marcos SpringsJournal of Herpetology 43 220
Lukas, K. E.Ross, S. R. 2005 Zoo visitor knowledge and attitudes towards gorillas and chimpanzeesJournal of Environmental Education 36 33
Luo, S.-J.Kim, J.-H.Johnson, W. E.Walt, Jvd.Martenson, J. 2004 Phylogeography and genetic ancestry of tigers ()PLoS Biology 2 e442
Luong, L. T.Heath, B. D.Polak, M. 2007 Host inbreeding increases susceptibility to ectoparasitismJournal of Evolutionary Biology 20 79
Lynch, J. M.Hayden, T. J. 1993 Costello, M. J.Kelly, K. S.25
Lynch, M.Lande, R. 1998 The critical effective size for a genetically secure populationAnimal Conservation 1 70
Lynch, M.Burger, R.Butcher, D.Gabriel, W. 1993 The mutational meltdown in asexual populationsJournal of Heredity 84 339
MacArthur, R. H. 1965 Patterns of species diversityBiological Reviews 40 510
Mace, G. M. 1994 An investigation into methods for categorizing the conservation status of speciesLarge Scale Ecology and Conservation BiologyEdwards, P. J.May, R. M.Webb, N. R.OxfordBlackwell295
Mace, G. M. 1994 Classifying threatened species: means and endsPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 344 91
Mace, G. M.Lande, R. 1991 Assessing extinction threats: towards a reassessment of IUCN endangered species categoriesConservation Biology 5 148
Mace, G. M.Balmford, A.Boitani, L. 2000 It's time to work together and stop duplicating conservation effortsNature 405 393
MacKenzie, J. 1988 The Empire of Nature: Hunting, Conservation, and British ImperialismManchester, UKManchester University Press
MacKinnon, K.MacKinnon, J. 1991 Habitat protection and reintroduction programmesBeyond Captive Breeding: Reintroducing Endangered Mammals to the WildGipps, J. H. W.OxfordClarendon Press173
Madsen, T.Shine, R.Olsson, M.Wittzell, H. 1999 Restoration of an inbred adder populationNature 402 34
Magin, C. D.Johnson, T. H.Groombridge, B.Jenkins, M.Smith, H. 1994 Species extinctions, endangerment and captive breedingCreative Conservation: Interactive Management of Captive and Wild AnimalsOlney, P. J. S.Mace, G. M.Feistner, A. T. C.LondonChapman and Hall3
Male, T. D.Bean, M. J. 2005 Measuring progress in US endangered species conservationEcology Letters 9 986
Mallet, J. 1995 A species definition for the modern synthesisTrends in Ecology and Evolution 10 294
Mallet, J. 2001 The speciation revolution (Commentary)Journal of Evolutionary Biology 14 887
Mallet, J. 2007 Species, concepts ofEncyclopedia of BiodiversityLevin, S. A.Elsevier, OxfordOnline update1
Mallinson, J. J. C. 1978 Cocktail orangutans and the need to preserve pure bred stockDodo, Journal of the Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust 15 69
Mallinson, J. J. C. 2003 A sustainable future for zoos and their role in wildlife conservationHuman Dimensions of Wildlife 8 59
Mann, K. H.Breen, P. A. 1972 The relationship between lobster abundance, sea urchins, lobsters and kelp bedsJournal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 29 603
Maple, T. L. 1979 Great apes in captivity: the good, the bad and the uglyCaptivity and BehaviourErwin, J.Maple, T. L.Mitchell, G.New YorkVan Nostrand Reinhold239
Maple, T. 1995 Towards a responsible zoo agendaEthics on the Ark: Zoos, Animal Welfare, and Wildlife ConservationNorton, B. G.Hutchins, M.Stevens, E. F.Maple, T. L.Washington, DCSmithsonian Institute Press20
Maple, T.McManamon, R.Stevens, E. 1995 Defining the good zoo: Animal care, maintenance, and welfareEthics on the Ark: Zoos, Animal Welfare, and Wildlife ConservationNorton, B. G.Hutchins, M.Stevens, E. F.Maple, T. L.Washington, DCSmithsonian Institute Press219
Marcellini, D. L.Jenssen, T. A. 1988 Visitor behavior in the National Zoo's reptile houseZoo Biology 7 329
Marchetti, M. P.Nevitt, G. A. 2003 Effects of habitat enrichment on brain structures in rainbow trout ()Environmental Biology of Fishes 66 9
Marcot, B. G.Flather, C. H. 2007 Species-level strategies for conserving rare or little known speciesConservation of Rare or Little-Known SpeciesRaphael, M. G.Molina, R.Washington, DCIsland Press125
Marešováa, J.Frynta, D. 2008 Noah's Ark is full of common species attractive to humans: The case of boid snakes in zoosEcological Economics 64 554
Margan, S. H.Nurthen, R. K.Montgomery, M. E. 1998 Single large or several small? Population fragmentation in the captive management of endangered speciesZoo Biology 17 467
Margules, C. R.Pressey, R. L. 2000 Systematic conservation planningNature 405 243
Margules, C. R.Sarkar, S. 2007 Systematic Conservation PlanningCambridgeCambridge University Press
Margules, C. R.Pressey, R. L.Williams, P. H. 2002 Representing biodiversity: data and procedures for identifying priority areas for conservationJournal of Biosciences (suppl. 2) 27 309
Marino, L.Lilienfeld, S. O.Malamud, R.Nobis, N.Broglio, R. 2010 Do zoos and aquariums promote attitude change in visitors? A critical evaluation of the American zoo and aquarium studySociety and Animals 18 126
Markowitz, H. 1982 Behavioural Enrichment in ZoosVan Nostrand ReinholdNew York
Markwell, K.Cushing, N. 2009 The serpent's stare meets the tourist's gaze: strategies of display at the Australian Reptile ParkCurrent Issues in Tourism 12 475
Marriner, L. M.Drickamer, L. C. 1994 Factors influencing stereotyped behaviour of primates in a zooZoo Biology 13 267
Marshall, T. C.Spalton, J. A. 2000 Animal Conservation 3 241
Martín-López, B.Montes, C.Ramírez, L.Benayas, J. 2009 What drives policy decision-making related to species conservationBiological Conservation 142 1370
Mason, G. J. 1993 Forms of stereotypic behaviourStereotypic Animal Behviour: Fundamentals and Applications to WelfareLawrence, A. B.Rushen, J.Wallingford, UKCAB International7
Mason, G. J.Cooper, J.Clareborough, C. 2001 Frustrations of furfarmed minkNature 410 35
Mason, P. 2000 Zoo tourism: the need for more researchJournal of Sustainable Tourism 8 333
Mathews, F.Orros, M.McLaren, G.Gelling, M.Foster, R. 2005 Keeping fit on the ark: assessing the suitability of captive-bred animals for releaseBiological Conservation 121 569
Maunder, M.Byers, O. 2005 The IUCN Technical Guidelines on the Management of Ex Situ Populations for Conservation: reflecting major changes in the application of ex situ conservationOryx 39 95
May, R. M. 1988 How many species are there on earthScience 241 1441
May, R. M. 1991 The role of ecological theory in planning re-introduction of endangered speciesBeyond Captive Breeding: Re-introducing Endangered Mammals to the WildGipps, J. H. W.LondonZoological Society of London145
May, R. M. 1992 How many species inhabit the EarthScientific American 267 42
Mazák, J. H.Groves, C. P. 2006 A taxonomic revision of the tigers () of Southeast AsiaMammalian Biology 71 268
Mazur, N. 1995 Perceptions of the role of zoos in conservation: an Australasian case studyProceedings of the ARAZPA/ASZK ConferencePerth, W.AARAZPA/ASZK102
Mazur, N. 1996 Zoos, conservation groups, and government wildlife agencies: Partners, colleagues, or adversariesNature Conservation: The Role of NetworksSaunders, D. A.Craig, J. L.Mattiske, E. M.Chipping Norton NSW, AustraliaSurrey Beatty and Sons460
Mazur, N. A. 1997 Contextualising the Role of the Zoo in Conservation: An Australian ExperienceUnpublished PhD dissertation, University of AdelaideSouth Australia
Mazur, N. 2001 After the Ark: Environmental Policy-Making and the ZooVictoria, AustraliaMelbourne University Press
Mazur, N. A.Clark, T. W. 2001 Zoos and Conservation: Policy Making and Organizational ChallengesSpecies and Ecosystem Conservation: An Interdisciplinary ApproachClark, T. W.Stevenson, M. J.Ziegelmayer, K.Rutherford, M. B.New HavenYale University
McBride, M. F.Wilson, K. A.Bode, M.Possingham, H. P. 2007 Incorporating the effects of socioeconomic uncertainty into priority setting for conservation investmentConservation Biology 21 1463
Mc Parland, S.Kearney, F.Berry, D. P. 2009 Purging of inbreeding depression within the Irish Holstein-Friesian populationGenetics Selection Evolution 41
McEwan, P. 1986 Environmental Enrichment: An Artificial Termite Mound for OrangutansPotters Bar, UKUFAW
McGrew, W. C.Brennan, J. A.Russell, J. 1986 An artificial “gum-tree” for marmosets ()Zoo Biology 5 45
McIntosh, R. P. 1967 An index of diversity and the relation of certain concepts of diversityEcology 48 392
McKenzie, S. M.Chamove, A. S.Feistner, A. T. C. 1986 Floor coverings and handing screens alter arboreal monkey behaviourZoo Biology 5 339
McLachlan, J. S.Hellmann, J. J.Schwartz, M. W. 2007 A framework for debate of assisted migration in an era of climate changeConservation Biology 21 297
McNeely, J. A.Miller, K. R.Reid, W. V.Mittermeier, R. A.Werner, T. B. 1990 Conserving the World's Biological DiversityGland, Switzerland and Washington DCIUCN
McNeely, J. A. 2002 The role of taxonomy in conserving biodiversityJournal for Nature Conservation 10 145
McNeely, J. A.Miller, K. R. 1985 National Parks, Conservation, and Development: the Role of Protected Areas in Sustaining SocietyWashington, DCSmithsonian Institution Press
Meffe, G. K. 2001 The context of conservation biologyConservation Biology 15 815
Meffe, G. K.Carroll, C. R. 1994 Principles of Conservation BiologySunderland, MASinauer Associates Inc
Meffe, G. K.Carroll, C. R. 1997 Principles of Conservation BiologySunderland, MASinauer Associates
Meffert, L. M.Mukana, N.Hicks, S. K.Day, S. B. 2005 Testing alternative captive breeding strategies with the subsequent release into the wildZoo Biology 24 375
Meir, E.Andelman, S.Possingham, H. P. 2004 Does conservation planning matter in a dynamic and uncertain worldEcology Letters 7 615
Melbourne, B. A.Hastings, A. 2008 Extinction risk depends strongly on factors contributing to stochasticityNature 454 100
Melfi, V. A.Feistner, A. T. C. 2002 A comparison of the activity budgets of wild and captive Sulawesi crested black macaques ()Animal Welfare 11 213
Melfi, V. A.Hosey, G. R. 2005 Applied Animal Behaviour Science (Special Issue) 90 93
Metrick, A.Weitzman, M. L. 1996 Patterns of behavior in endangered species preservationLand Economics 72 1
Metrick, A.Weitzman, M. L. 1998 Conflicts and choices in biodiversity preservationsJournal of Economic Perspectives 12 21
Meyer-Holzapfel, M. 1968 Abnormal behaviour in zoo animalsAbnormal Behaviour in AnimalsFox, M. W.PhiladelphiaW.B. Saunders Company476
Meylan, A. B.Ehrenfeld, D. 2000 Conservation of marine turtlesTurtle ConservationKlemens, M. W.Washington, DCSmithsonian Institution Press96
Millenium Ecosystem Assessment 2005 Ecosystems and Human Well-being: SynthesisWashington, DCIsland Press
Miller, B.Biggins, D.Hanebury, L.Vargas, A. 1994 Reintroduction of the black-footed ferret ()Creative Conservation: Interactive Management of Wild and Captive AnimalsOlney, P. J. S.Mace, G. M.Feistner, A. T. C.LondonChapman & Hall455
Miller, B.Conway, W.Reading, R. P. 2004 Evaluating the conservation mission of zoos, aquariums, botanical gardens and natural history museumsConservation Biology 18 86
Miller, R. M.Rodríguez, J. P.Aniskowicz-Fowler, T. 2006 Extinction risk and conservation prioritiesScience 313 441
Miller, R. R.Fitzsimmons, J. M. 1971 , a new genus and species of Goodeid fish from Western Mexico, with remarks on the classification of the GoodeidaeCopeia 1971 1
Mills, M. G. L.Ellis, S.Woodruffe, R. 1998
Mishler, B. D. 1999 Getting rid of speciesSpecies: New Interdisciplinary EssaysWilson, R.Cambridge, MAMIT Press307
Mitchell, G. F. 1994 81
Mitrus, S. 2005 Headstarting in European pond turtles (): Does it workAmphibia-Reptilia 26 333
Mittermeier, R. A. 1988 Primate diversity and the tropical forest: case studies from Brazil and Madagascar and the importance of the megadiversity countriesBiodiversityWilson, E. O.Washington, DCNational Academy Press145
Mittermeier, R. A.Robles Gil, P.Mittermeier, C. G. 1997 MegadiversityMexicoCEMEX
Mittermeier, R. A.Myers, N.Thomsen, J. B.da Fonseca, G. A. B.Olivieri, S. 1998 Biodiversity hotspots and major tropical wilderness areas: approaches to setting conservation prioritiesConservation Biology 12 516
Mittermeier, R. A.Myers, N.Gil, P. R.Mittermeier, C. G. 1999 Hotspots: Earth's Biologically Richest and Most Endangered Terrestrial EcoregionsMexicoCEMEX
Mittermeier, R. A.Mittermeier, C. G.Robles-Gil, P. R. 2002 Wilderness: Earth's Last Wild PlacesMexicoCEMEX
Mittermeier, R. A.Mittermeier, C. G.Brooks, T. M. 2003 Wilderness and biodiversity conservationProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 100 10309
Mittermeier, R. A.Robles-Gil, P.Hoffmann, M. 2004 Hotspots Revisited: Earth's Biologically Richest and Most Endangered Terrestrial EcoregionsMexicoCEMEX
Mohamed Bin Zayed Species Conservation Fund 2010
Montgomery, M. E.Ballou, J. D.Nurthen, R. K. 1997 Minimizing kinship in captive breeding programsZoo Biology 16 377
Montgomery, M. E.Woodworth, L. M.England, P. R.Briscoe, D. A.Frankham, R. 2010 Widespread selective sweeps affecting microsatellites in populations adapting to captivity: implications for captive breeding programsBiological Conservation 143 1842
Moore, J. L.Folkmann, M.Balmford, A. 2003 Heuristic and optimal solutions for set-covering problems in conservation biologyEcography 26 595
Morey & Associates 2000 Cultural Attraction Attendance ReportNew YorkMorey Group, Strategic Direction for Cultural Attractions
MORI 2005 Science in SocietyFindings from Qualitative and Quantitative Research Conducted for the Office of Science and Technology, Department of Trade and Industry
Morgan, G. 1986 Images of OrganizationBeverly Hills, CaliforniaSage Publications
Morgan, K. N.Tromborg, C. T. 2007 Sources of stress in captivityApplied Animal Behaviour Science 102 262
Morin, P. A.Messier, J.Woodruff, D. S. 1994 Journal of the Scientific Society of Thailand 20 31
Morin, P. A.Chambers, K. E.Boesch, C.Vigilant, L. 2001 Molecular Ecology 10 1835
Moritz, C. 1994 Defining ‘evolutionary significant units’ for conservationTrends in Ecology & Evolution 9 373
Moritz, C. 1999 Hereditas 130 217
Morris, D. 1964 The response of animals to a restrained environmentSymposium of the Zoological Society of London 13 99
Morris, D. J. 1960 An analysis of animal popularityInternational Zoo Yearbook 2 60
Morton, D. B.Griffiths, P. H. M. 1985 Guidelines on the recognition of pain, distress and discomfort in experimental animals and an hypothesis for assessmentVeterinary Record 116 431
Morton, M. N. 2009
Moss, A.Esson, M. 2010 Visitor interest in zoo animals and the implications for collection planning and zoo education programmesZoo Biology 28 1
Mrosovsky, N. 1997 IUCN's credibility critically endangeredNature 389 436
Mullan, B.Marvin, G. 1987 Zoo CultureLondonWeidenfeld and Nicholson
Munton, P. 1987 Concepts of threat to the survival of species used in Red Data books and similar compilationsThe Road to ExtinctionFitter, R.Fitter, M.Gland, SwitzerlandIUCN72
Myers Jr., O. E.Saunders, C. D.Birjulin, A. A. 2004 Emotional dimensions of watching zoo animals: an experience sampling study building on insights from psychologyCurator 47 299
Myers, N. 1979 The Sinking Ark: A New Look at the Problem of Disappearing SpeciesOxfordPergamon Press
Myers, N. 1988 Threatened biotas: ‘hot spots’ in tropical forestsThe Environmentalist 8 187
Myers, N. 1990 The biodiversity challenge: expanded hot-spots analysisThe Environmentalist 10 243
Myers, N. 1991 Extinction “Hot SpotsScience 254 919
Myers, N.Mittermeier, R. A.Mittermeier, C. G.da Fonseca, G. A. B.Kent, J. 2000 Biodiversity hotspots for conservation prioritiesNature 403 853
Nagelkerken, I.Pors, L.Hoetjes, P. 2003 Swimming behaviour and dispersal patterns of headstarted loggerhead turtles Aquatic Ecology 37 183
Nagy, K. A.Girard, I. A.Brown, T. K. 1999 Energetics of free-ranging mammals, reptiles, and birdsAnnual Review of Nutrition 19 247
Narayan, G.Oliver, W.Fa, J. E.Funk, S. M. 2008 Das Zwergwildsch-einWilde Schweine und FlusspferdeMacdonald, A.Ganslosser, U.Fürth, GermanyFilander Verlag
National Curriculum Primary Handbook 2010 The National Curriculum Handbook for Primary Teachers in EnglandLondonQualifications and Curriculum Authority
NIH (National Institutes of Health) 1991 Nonhuman Primate Management PlanBethesdaOffice of Animal Care and Use
Natural History Museum 2008–08–20962.pdf
Naughton-Treves, L. 2005 Annual Review of Environment and Resources 30 219
Naujokaitis-Lewis, I. R.Curtis, J. M. R.Arcese, P.Rosenfeld, J. 2009 Sensitivity analyses of spatial population viability analysis models for species at risk and habitat conservation planningConservation Biology 23 225
Newmark, W. D. 1991 Tropical forest fragmentation and the local extinction of understorey birds in the eastern Usumbara Mountains, TanzaniaConservation Biology 5 67
Nolan, M. A. 1975 Importing primates for researchPrimate Utilization and ConservationBermant, G.Lindburg, D. G.New YorkWiley and Sons15
Norton, B. G.Hutchins, M.Stevens, E. F.Maple, T. L. 1995 Ethics on the Ark: Zoos, Animal WelfareWashington DCSmithsonian Institute Press
Nsubuga, A. M.Holzman, J.Chemnick, L. G.Ryder, O. A. 2010 The cryptic genetic structure of the North American captive gorilla populationConservation Genetics 11 161
NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service 2002 Approved Recovery Plan for the Lord Howe WoodhenHurtsville, NSWNSW National Parks and Wildlife Service
Nunney, L.Campbell, K. A. 1993 Assessing minimum viable population size: demography meets population geneticsTrends in Ecology and Evolution 8 234
Oakleaf, J. K.Stark, D.Overy, P.Smith, N. 2004 Mexican Wolf Recovery: Technical Component of the Five-year Program Review and AssessmentUS Fish and Wildlife Service
O’Brien, S. J.Evermann, J. F. 1988 Interactive influence of infectious disease and genetic diversity in natural populationsTrends in Ecology and Evolution 3 254
O’Brien, J.McCracken, G. F.Say, L.Hayden, T. J. 2007 Rodrigues fruit bats (, Megachiroptera: Pteropodidae) retain genetic diversity despite population declines and founder eventsConservation Genetics 8 1073
O'Connor, R. J. 1986 Biological characteristics of invaders among bird species in BritainPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 314 583
O’Connor, T. 2009
Odum, W. E. 1982 Environmental degradation and the tyranny of small decisionsBioScience 32 728
Office of National Statistics 2003
Office for National Statistics 2009
Ogden, J.Gentile, C.Revard, B. 2004
Ogden, J.Routman, E.Vernon, C. 2004 10
O’Grady, J. J.Brook, B. W.Reed, D. H. 2006 Realistic levels of inbreeding depression strongly affect extinction risk in wild populationsBiological Conservation 133 42
O’Grady, J. J.Reed, D. H.Brook, B. W.Frankham, R. 2008 Extinction risk scales better to generations than yearsAnimal Conservation 11 442
Oldfield, M. L. 1984 The Value of Conserving Genetic ResourcesWashington, D.CNational Park Service
Oldfield, M. L.Alcorn, J. B. 1987 Conservation of traditional agroecosystemsBioScience 37 199
Oliehoek, P. A. 2009 Genetic Conservation of Endangered Animal PopulationsWageningenWageningen Universiteit
Ollason, R. J. 1993 Getting the message acrossJournal of the International Association of Zoo Educators 29 186
Olson, D. M.Dinerstein, E. 1998 The Global 200: A representation approach to conserving the Earth's most biologically valuable ecoregionsConservation Biology 12 502
Olson, D. M.Dinerstein, E. 2002 The Global 200: priority ecoregions for global conservationAnnals of the Missouri Botanical Gardens 89 199
Olson, D. M.Dinerstein, E.Wikramanayake, E. D. 2001 Terrestrial ecoregions of the world: a new map of life on earthBioScience 51 933
O’Regan, H. J.Kitchener, A. C. 2005 The effects of captivity on the morphology of captive, domesticated and feral mammalsMammal Review 35 215
O’Riordan, T. 1981 EnvironmentalismLondonPion
Ortego, J.Aparicio, J. M.Calabuig, G.Cordero, P. J. 2007 Risk of ectoparasitism and kestrel population genetic diversity in a wild lesser kestrel populationMolecular Ecology 16 3712
Ounsted, M. L. 1991 Re-introducing birds: lessons to be learned for mammalsBeyond Captive Breeding: Reintroducing Endangered Mammals to the WildGipps, J. H. W.OxfordClarendon Press
Paehlke, R.Torgerson, D. 1990 Managing Leviathan: Environmental Politics and the Administrative StatePeterborough, Ontario, CanadaBroadview Press
Pagel, M.May, R. M.Collie, A. 1991 Ecological aspects of the geographic distribution and diversity of mammal speciesAmerican Naturalist 137 791
Paine, R. T. 1966 Food web complexity and species diversityAmerican Naturalist 100 65
Paine, R. T. 1974 Intertidal community structure: experimental studies on the relationship between a dominant competitor and its principal predatorOecologia (Berlin) 15 93
Painter, M. 1988 Public management: fad or fallacyAustralian Journal of Public Administration 47 1
Parmesan, C.Yohe, G. 2003 A globally coherent fingerprint of climate change impacts across natural systemsNature 421 37
Parrish, J. D.Braun, D. P.Unnasch, R. S 2003 Are we conserving what we say we are? Measuring ecological integrity within protected areasBioScience 53 851
Paterson, S.Wilson, K.Pemberton, J. M. 1998 Major histocompatibility complex variation associated with juvenile survival and parasite resistance in a large unmanaged ungulate population ( L.)Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 95 3714
Patrick, P. G.Mathews, C. E.Ayers, D. F.Tunnicliffe, S. D. 2007 Conservation and education: prominent themes in zoo mission statementsJournal of Environmental Education 38 53
Patterson, B. R.Murray, D. L. 2008 Flawed population viability analysis can result in misleading population assessment: A case study for wolves in Algonquin Park, CanadaBiological Conservation 141 669
Pedrono, M.Smith, L. L. 2003 Testudinae, land tortoisesThe Natural History of MadagascarGoodman, S. M.Benstead, J. P.ChicagoThe University of Chicago Press
Pedrono, M.Smith, L. L.Clobert, J.Massot, M.Sarrazin, F. 2004 Wild-captive metapopulation viability analysisBiological Conservation 119 463
Pérez-Buitrago, N.García, M. A.Sabat, A. 2008 Do headstart programs work? Survival and body condition in headstarted Mona Island iguanas Endangered Species Research 6 55
Perkins, L. 1998 Conservation and management of orang-utans sspInternational Zoo Yearbook 36 109
Perrow, M. R.Davy, A. J. 2002 Handbook of Ecological Restoration: Volume 1 Principles of RestorationCambridgeCambridge University Press
Peterman, R. M.Walters, C. J.Hillborn, R. 1978 Systems analysis of Pacific salmon management problemsAdaptive Environmental Assessment and ManagementHolling, C. S.LondonWiley158
Peters, R. H. 1983 The Ecological Implications of Body SizeCambridgeCambridge University Press
Pickard, A. R.Holt, W. V. 2004 Fuller, B. J.Lane, N.Benson, E. E.393
Pimm, S. L. 1987 The snake that ate GuamTrends in Ecology and Evolution 2 293
Pimm, S. 2000 Against triage, the California condor – A saga of natural history and conservationScience 289 2289
Pimm, S. L.Jones,